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I found the answer I got help from this question and answer https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=215993 I deleted the following file to fix it rm /usr/share/polkit-1/rules.d/org.freedesktop.packagekit.rules


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While within the traditional Unix permission model (Discretionary access control, DAC) the root user is all-powerful and can't be restricted from accessing certain files you still can restrict even the root by using SELinux to implement Mandatory Access controls MAC. For actual implementation see a blog post by Sven Vermeulen Restricting even root access to ...


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You cannot protect yourself from a rogue root user. By definition it has full access to the system, including the ability to load/unload kernel modules, modify the kernel memory, etc. etc. etc. If you're looking for a way to protect the system against yourself, I've no idea, I'm not sure it's possible. If you want to secure the system, make sure no one but ...


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If you are using GNU bash (as your login shell on Linux) and if you want some environment variable FOO to be set for every user to string value bar you could add in file /etc/bash.bashrc (near the end) a few lines like: # to be added in /etc/bash.bashrc export FOO=bar See §6.2 Bash startup files for more. Of course, you need root permission to edit (once, ...


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Here's a convoluted way: root_test=$( sudo su -l -c 'printf "%s\n" "$test"' ) or, assuming root's shell is bash: eval "$(sudo su -l -c 'declare -p test')" Either way, you need to become root, in root's login environment, to access the variable's value.


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Your first line is wrong. Supposed to be #!, not $!. The former is a comment to your shell but tells your operating system which program you want to execute the script with, the latter contains the number of the last executed background job, if I remember correctly. Assuming there's no such thing, it would expand to nothing, so the start of your script just ...


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In raspbian, you can reset the root password: sudo passwd root Then, the console write: New password: Write a password for root and then, the console write: Retype the new password: You must write the password you decided. If there is no errors you have this console message: passwd: password updated successfully Now the password is reset. If you login ...


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Boot from external harddisk or USB stick, change back /etc/fstab. Alternatively take out harddisk, attach to other computer, mount, edit /etc/fstab. Also note you wrote defauts instead of defaults (not sure if that's a type in this question only. And I second the comment to add nofail for non-essential mounts.


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I resolved this issue by updating the /etc/hosts file with the host information. Example 127.0.0.1 host1 host1.mydomain.com kali localhost


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