It is right there in the fifth field.
L1d level 1 data cache.
L1i level 1 instruction cache.
L2 level 2 cache.
L3 level 3 cache.
Looking at the table, the L1 and L2 are private, but all the processors in a same socket (there are two) share the same L3 cache.
The fact that the same information repeats twice indicates that you have a multithreading system.
No, see man 7 pid_namespaces:
The namespace init process
The first process created in a new namespace (i.e., the process created
using clone(2) with the CLONE_NEWPID flag, or the first child created
by a process after a call to unshare(2) using the CLONE_NEWPID flag)
has the PID 1, and is the "init" process for the namespace (...
Your server is not misbehaving. You are mistaken on how to interpret the output of free. See https://serverfault.com/questions/85470/meaning-of-the-buffers-cache-line-in-the-output-of-free: "buffers" and "cached" designate memory "in use", but he cache can be dropped immediately. So this amount of memory actually available to be ...
From the strace output, you can see that the program is searching for the file libc.mo, but that is not the problem here. The .mo file contains the translation, and if it not found, messages are usually displayed in English. From the pathnames, your locale seems to be en_US, so you shouldn't need a translation.
A hint to the problem is here:
6260 write(2, &...
When you have this many arguments, you want to pass them to GNU Parallel via standard input (stdin) or via files.
I would do something like (untested):
$f = popen("parallel","w");
This way you may be able to avoid the temporary file.