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70 votes
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How does a linux GUI work at the lowest level?

How it works (Gnu/Linux + X11) Overview It looks something like this (not draws to scale) ┌───────────────────────────────────────────────┐ │ User │ │ ┌────...
ctrl-alt-delor's user avatar
56 votes
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What causes this? pcieport 0000:00:03.0: PCIe Bus Error: AER / Bad TLP

I can give at least a few details, even though I cannot fully explain what happens. As described for example here, the CPU communicates with the PCIe bus controller by transaction layer packets (TLPs)...
dirkt's user avatar
  • 32.5k
34 votes

How does a linux GUI work at the lowest level?

ctrl-alt-delor's answer gives you a good overview of the general architecture. For a more hands-on approach, I give you an answer regarding "nothing but the linux kernel and programming in C". I like ...
Hermann's user avatar
  • 6,207
25 votes
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How can I find if my wifi card supports 802.11ac?

If you run iw list, look for the lines specifying VHT. VHT Capabilities (0x038071a0): Max MPDU length: 3895 Supported Channel Width: neither 160 nor 80+80 short GI (80 MHz)...
Sparhawk's user avatar
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24 votes
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Is changing the priority of a game's process to realtime bad for the CPU?

Changing the priority of a process only determines how often this process will run when other processes are competing for CPU time. It has no impact when the process is the only one using CPU time. A ...
Gilles 'SO- stop being evil''s user avatar
24 votes

Is the MMU (Memory Management Unit) chip necessary for a processor to have virtual memory support?

Any system emulator which emulates a system containing a MMU effectively emulates a MMU in software, so yes, it’s possible to emulate a MMU. However, virtual memory requires some way of enforcing ...
Stephen Kitt's user avatar
20 votes
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What does i386 mean on macOS Mojave?

According to this SO answer, arch distinguishes between PowerPC (ppc) and Intel (i386), not between 32- and 64-bit kernels on x86. So in this context, i386 means an x86 CPU. Check the output of uname ...
Stephen Kitt's user avatar
20 votes
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CPU overheats and PC shuts down when swap is full

First, absolutely make sure your PSU is powerful enough - instant shutdowns like yours could indicate an issue with it. Maybe replace it. RTX 3090 can have spikes up to 500W and that means, along with ...
Artem S. Tashkinov's user avatar
19 votes

How can I find the hardware model in Linux?

On modern Linux systems, you can easily do things like this as any user: cat /sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/sys_vendor cat /sys/devices/virtual/dmi/id/product_name This also works well for CoreOS, ...
spkane's user avatar
  • 340
19 votes
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How to detect and mitigate the Intel escalation of privilege vulnerability on a Linux system (CVE-2017-5689)?

The clearest post I’ve seen on this issue is Matthew Garrett’s (including the comments). Matthew has now released a tool to check your system locally: build it, run it with sudo ./mei-amt-check and ...
Stephen Kitt's user avatar
19 votes

Restoring a very old hard drive

I did something like that just a few weeks ago -- I got everything from a disk that had been sitting in storage for over 10 years! I had no intention of restoring the hard disk itself, I just wanted ...
Pourko's user avatar
  • 1,864
19 votes

How to print zeros and ones of a file

xxd can give binary output. Example below. $ cat foo Hello World $ xxd -b foo 00000000: 01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111 00100000 Hello 00000006: 01010111 01101111 01110010 01101100 ...
steve's user avatar
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18 votes
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List All Network Printers (including ones not installed)

If avahi-daemon is running then, avahi-browse -a | grep Printer
infoclogged's user avatar
17 votes

Getting hard disk drive serial number at the terminal - not the WWN

Assuming the disk supports SMART, you should be able to retrieve the disk serial number using smartctl -i /dev/sdX
fpmurphy's user avatar
  • 4,656
16 votes

Is there any way to know the size of L1, L2, L3 cache and RAM in Linux?

getconf getconf -a | grep CACHE gives: LEVEL1_ICACHE_SIZE 32768 LEVEL1_ICACHE_ASSOC 8 LEVEL1_ICACHE_LINESIZE 64 LEVEL1_DCACHE_SIZE 32768 ...
Ciro Santilli OurBigBook.com's user avatar
16 votes

What does i386 mean on macOS Mojave?

On a macOS system, as on other BSD systems, you should use the machine utility: $ arch i386 $ machine x86_64h The i386 is misleading if you're used to the arch utility on other systems. On macOS ...
Kusalananda's user avatar
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16 votes
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How to print hardware models for humans

inxi is another tool of this kind. The default output is only 2 lines, the full output on my machine (-F) has 29 lines, with memory info (-m) a few lines more. Options -x, -xx and -xxx add more ...
Freddy's user avatar
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15 votes
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clarifying nvme apst problems for linux

The code comment within drivers/nvme/host/core.c in Linux kernel source seems to explain it best: /* * APST (Autonomous Power State Transition) lets us program a table of power * state transitions ...
telcoM's user avatar
  • 99.2k
13 votes

How to print zeros and ones of a file

With basenc (from coreutils) $ echo 123 | basenc --base2msbf -w8 00110001 00110010 00110011 00001010
rowboat's user avatar
  • 2,916
13 votes

CPU overheats and PC shuts down when swap is full

Presuming for the sake of discussion that the CPUs are overheating, that is a cooling issue, not a memory management issue. It's hypothetically possible that the additional I/O your system storage ...
DopeGhoti's user avatar
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12 votes

Getting hard disk drive serial number at the terminal - not the WWN

You can get the serial number through : 1) hdparm: hdparm -I /dev/sda | grep Serial 2) sginfo is a part of sg3-utils package: sginfo -a /dev/sda | grep Serial 3) sdparm command : sdparm -i /dev/...
GAD3R's user avatar
  • 67.2k
12 votes

list all components of an ARM computer in Linux?

The variation of ARM implementations is too high to be covered with the standard tools. Digging down /sys/class you will find all your components, but it's a pain to do so. You can't use find /sys/...
Philippos's user avatar
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12 votes
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Is it worth reinstalling 64-bit Ubuntu instead of 32-bit on old hardware?

It won't be faster in any meaningful way, but the reality of 32 bit is that it's increasingly legacy, which means, in the real world, bugs are not getting found and fixed. I would install 64 bit if ...
Lizardx's user avatar
  • 3,068
12 votes

How to print hardware models for humans

lshw's default output format is, IMO, excessively verbose. You may find the -short output format useful, it's a simple one line per device human-readable summary. The -json option produces output ...
cas's user avatar
  • 79k
11 votes

How can I find the hardware model in Linux?

Everyone here talks about the great dmidecode command and the -t parameter, but with sudo lshw -short you also get easily the product name and model: $ sudo lshw -short H/W path Device Class ...
Pablo A's user avatar
  • 2,752
11 votes

How to check which GPU is active in Linux?

nvidia-smi -L This gave me what I wanted. This command shows the list of GPUs present on your machine. This might help you figure which are active ones. got the command from thread here: Ubuntu Box ...
Hardhik's user avatar
  • 219
11 votes
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Companies that sell computers without pre-installed proprietary OS?

HP makes a number of machines that are Canonical (Ubuntu) certified. I know that on some of their workstations, you can get Ubuntu and Redhat distros (See the HP z840). Another good place to look ...
Zerodf's user avatar
  • 281
11 votes
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How to disable Hardware Acceleration in Linux?

You can configure Xorg to disable OpenGL / GLX. For a first try, you can run a second X session: switch to tty2, log in and type: startx -- :2 vt2 -extension GLX To permanently disable hardware ...
mviereck's user avatar
  • 2,495
11 votes

command to identify a specific physical disk in a server with many disks

lsscsi On servers where I have a lot of HDDs I've traditionally used lsscsi to determine which HDD is plugged into which port. You can use this output to get the names + the device & generic ...
slm's user avatar
  • 372k
11 votes
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Got "input output error" when execute any commands

I found my server can't run any command, and it shouws "input output error" The error code EIO ("Input/output error") on command launch would happen when your filesystem is damaged; or worse, when ...
xwindows -on strike-'s user avatar

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