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How do I determine the block size for ext4 and btrfs filesystems?

If you so desire to dig through a ton of unrelated information, there's btrfs-show-super -f /dev/md1. Otherwise, the answer about stat -f … is the easiest and universal one.
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What things are not saved in a btrfs snapshot?

Thanks to Kamil Maciorowski's comment, I realized that I had to clean /tmp before mounting the tmpfs. Now snapshots have an empty /tmp. My mistake was to think that /tmp was cleaned when powering off.
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Difference between block size and cluster size

to think decivering the word "block" may grants access to an (but maybe only one of probably >1) answer to that question: in former times whilst 'floppy discs' existed, some times the ...
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Manipulate filesystem image files without loopback devices?

I use and recommend guestfish, which is a part of libguestfs, library for accessing and modifying VM disk images. I've found OpenStack's documentation includes a useful description of tools that do ...
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Boot loop device as root file system

load into GRUB2 and enter its command line mode (hit 'c') and investigate how it enumerated your disks in (hdN,N) fashion with ls command load into GRUB2 and edit any entry (hit 'e') , edit it into ...
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Boot loop device as root file system

qemu should do the job. I use such command to emulate booting from another hard drive: sync ; echo 3 | sudo tee /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches ; sudo qemu-system-x86_64 -m 1024 -enable-kvm -hda /dev/sdc ...
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preserving extended attributes with cp/rsync

Q: Why am I unable to preserve xattr with cp or rsync ? I'll restrict my answer to rsync: rsync will now preserve your extended attributes (xattr). Under the heading --xattrs, -X in man rsync (ver 3.2....
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How to share a folder between two users on the same linux laptop

Should the commonDir folder be readable by both or writable by both? If you want it to be readable by the other user: Try $ cd ../Marco/commonDir from Polo's home directory. With the GUI: Go to Files, ...
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Cannot remove file: "Structure needs cleaning"

Contrary to others, I faced this issue, not because any of my disks were failing, but my lower RAM frequencies would cause weird issues including this one while under heavy load. Basically, for me, it ...
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Restoring filesystem of an extended root partition

If you remember the exact sector where the partition used to start, you may create it with exact same starting sector. If you did nothing with the space, the file system will show up as by magic. It ...
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Restoring filesystem of an extended root partition

You can't just "mark" this partition add ext4-formatted, as that is simply not the case: the filesystem starts at a different place than the partition start, so nothing can "understand&...
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Disk usage on a specific filesystem

On some Linux distro you could take advantage of ncdu. To check your HOME folder: $ ncdu ~
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1 vote
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Mount filesystem with DAX enabled on RAM

It seems that DAX support was removed from brd module. There is a patch from 2017.
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wipefs + disk not cleaned

From the man page of wipefs (emphasis mine): DESCRIPTION wipefs can erase filesystem, raid or partition-table signatures (magic strings) from the specified device to make the signatures invisible ...
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Trying to use NFS

Does 10.0.10.4:/Library/Extras /media/shares nfs auto,defaults 0 0 work in /etc/fstab? Note the change to nfs from nfs4.
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I observe using `dd if=filein of=fileout` lead to filesystem fragmentation, what do I have to change?

TL;DR! What's the tool I should use instead of dd?: It's cp, if your GNU coreutils is recent enough. Actual file systems to the rescue This is not FS-independent and OS-independent, at all! Allocation ...
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Indexing files' metadata

I don't know of a similar facility on Linux (Debian-flavored ) or BSD hosts, but on a system where xattr is enabled, rolling your own is not overly complicated. I give a working solution at the end of ...
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Btrfs Send Snapshots Out of Order? (asynchronous replication)

# Send 3 then 1 then 2 btrfs send 3 btrfs send -c 3 1 # Send 1 and Subtract data matching 3 btrfs send -c 3 -p 1 2 # Send 2 with Parent of 1, and Subtract data matching 3 # Send 3 then 2 then 1 ...
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Is there any benefit to partition the disk if only one partition is required?

There are some downsides to a disk-wide file-system, but personally, I do not regard them as issues. It is unusual. Not all operating systems support them. Side-note: Allegedly, Windows and MacOS ...
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how do I shrink a partition, right after shrinking its filesystem with resize2fs?

You known after shrink fs,  have to calculate new partition size & resize partition table.  And mbr / gpt partition table.. If don't have command line hobby, do it in GUI is easy: gnome-disk-...
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lsblk + capture only the disks

I don't have enough reputation to comment, so here's my comment as an answer. sudo lsblk -I 8,259 -d If you want to include nvme devices in the list.
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what is directory entry?

directory entry In an ext4 filesystem, a directory is more or less a flat file that maps an arbitrary byte string (usually ASCII) to an inode number on the filesystem.
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What file systems on Linux store the creation time?

xfs v5 supports crtime # dmesg | grep -iE 'xfs.*\s+mounting' | head -1 [ 10.939721] XFS (dm-1): Mounting V5 Filesystem shows using V5. Then get file inode number ; # stat -c '%i' test.txt 68227195 ...
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LUKS-LVM partition resize problems

I just ended up having a similar problem and could resolve it. I didn't use the KDE partition manager but the command lvresize to resize my logical volume: DO NOT RUN THIS COMMAND: lvresize --verbose -...
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Is it ok to delete the /srv directory?

Kubuntu uses dpkg to manage packages. dpkg -S <path> will tell you why that path exists as long as it was created by a package installation. Here are some examples: $ dpkg -S /srv dpkg-query: ...
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22 votes
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How Linux kernel sees the filesystems

There is some confusion here because kernel source and documentation is sloppy with how it uses the term 'inode'. The filesystem can be considered as having two parts -- the filesystem code and data ...
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How can I edit symlinks?

one can edit the target value using 'rename -s'. an absolute path or an expression can be used. synopsis: rename -s old_target_or_expressions new_target_or_expression link_name example $ ln -s /home/...
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5 votes

How Linux kernel sees the filesystems

The inodes, free blocks etc. are handled by the file system driver. This file system code provides a generic interface to the kernel which means the kernel can access files on a range of file systems ...
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2 votes
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FileSystem that supports multiple datastreams per file

Files in NTFS only have a single main data stream, but they can have additional streams called Alternate data stream (ADS). ADS was introduced for classic Mac interoperability because Apple used ...
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