1. Installing GNOME-Desktop:
Install GNOME Desktop Environment on here.
# yum -y groups install "GNOME Desktop"
Input a command like below after finishing installation:
GNOME Desktop Environment will start. For first booting, initial setup runs and you have to configure it for first time.
Select System language first.
Select your keyboard ...
Rather than make use of the hacking of a startx command into a .xinitrc file, it's probably better to tell Systemd that you want to boot into a graphical GUI vs. the terminal.
To accomplish this simply do the following:
$ sudo yum groupinstall "GNOME Desktop"
$ ln -sf /lib/systemd/system/runlevel5.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target
Then simply ...
dbus does exactly what you said: it allows two-way communication between applications.
For your specific example you mentioned terminator. From terminator's man page, we see:
If this is specified and Terminator is already running, DBus
will be used to spawn a new tab in the first Terminator window.
So if you do this from another ...
(I am looking into the relation of GNOME and X. I'd like to share some of my understandings. I will present it in a logical way as much as I can. And I try to make the wording precise.)
1. What is GUI composed of?
I guess everyone knows what GUI is.
Below is an illustration of the basic components of a GUI.
Windowing system is just a type of GUI that ...
To check the name of the Desktop Environment from the command line, you can use the following command:
Or based on the question:
ps -e | grep -E -i "xfce|kde|gnome"
Sample output (kde):
Some random distro that happens to be running i3 window manager.
Per i3wm site the window manager is distributed in Debian, Arch, Gentoo, Ubuntu, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, OpenSUSE, Megeia, Fedora, Exherbo, PiBang and Slackware.
There isn't a command that I've ever seen that will act as "open with..." but you can use the command xdg-open <file> to open a given <file> in the application that's associated with that particular type of file.
Opening a text file:
$ xdg-open tstfile.txt
Resulting in the file tstfile.txt being opened in gedit:
The screenshot is definitively the i3 window manager, and most probably is Arch Linux.
If you look well, the screenshot is from 2012, and there is an IRC session there, in the IRC channel #i3, and a browser with several pages open at the site https://i3wm.org
It is easier googling after the IRC nick thevdvde later also known as thevdude, than try to guess ...
Look at the content of the xdg-open file, and you will notice that it is a simple shell script. Its main task is identifying the desktop environment in use, which will then be used to delegate the task to a specific tool:
KDE delegates to kde-open or kfmclient
Gnome delegates to gvfs-open or gnome-open
Mate delegates to gvfs-open or mate-open
XFCE delegates ...
There's already a great in-depth answer of D-Bus by @Stewart but I want to amend it with a high-level idea about the design of D-Bus.
The "traditional" way of Inter Process Communication (IPC) on UNIX and Linux systems directly uses sockets, e.g. process A opens /var/run/a.socket and process B reads/writes to it. This works rather fine for tightly-...
If no specific desktop environment is selected, but the “Debian desktop environment” is, the default which ends up installed is determined by tasksel: on i386 and amd64, it’s GNOME, on other architectures, it’s XFCE.
The other solution1 has some inconveniences:
- it requires root access
- it's a global change so it affects all users
- upgrading sound-theme-freedesktop restores the file
For the record, the proper way to do it (and avoid all of the above) is via a custom sound theme that disables2 the default sound file used by gnome-screenshot (the name of the file is ...
I found the solution here. The sound played is /usr/share/sounds/freedesktop/stereo/camera-shutter.oga. So simply renaming that file stops it from being played:
sudo mv /usr/share/sounds/freedesktop/stereo/camera-shutter.oga \
That's it, next time you take a screenshot, it will be done in ...
I had a similar situation with my laptop. The screen would often remain black when it woke from suspend. My solution was to use xrandr to reset my displays. You need to find the xrandr command that sets up your layout and run that. For example, on my system, I had two screens and this set it up as I wanted it:
xrandr --output DP-3 --auto --output VGA-0 -...
To be called UNIX you need to go through a certification process that requires (among other things) that you implement the POSIX standard.
So your question is completely invalid. There is UNIX API, it's called POSIX.
Here is the list of requirements: http://www.unix.org/version4/overview.html
It turns out that for some reason the settings for my bottom panel(taskbar) had been altered. To access the menu for the panels(top & bottom bars), I needed to hold Alt and then Right-click. This opened a little menu where I could select Add to panel... which opens another menu of things you can add to the taskbar. What I needed to add was 'Windows List',...
On some systems it is Alt+F8 or Alt+F9, on others it is Alt+F7. The Ctrl is not needed to come back from the tty, only to drop to it.
The actual F key depends on which tty your X session is running in. As far as I know, the default value is 8 (or 7) so Alt+F8 should do it. If not, just try the other values until you hit the right one.
As @mantawork points ...
The main problem with checking the DESKTOP_SESSION is that it is set by the display manager rather than the desktop session and is subject to inconsistencies. For lightdm on Debian, the values come from the names of files under /usr/share/xsessions/. DESKTOP_SESSION reflects the desktop environment if a specific selection is made at log in, however the ...
In traditional Unix, there is usually little communication between running programs. Every program runs in a fully separate address space and only interacts with the kernel. This model is simple and robust, but access permissions are mostly too coarse for desktop environments, and implementing fine grained access control is too complex in many cases.
Method #1 - $DESKTOP_SESSION
I think you can find out by interrogating the environment variable $DESKTOP_SESSION. I'm not entirely positive how widely supported this is but in my limited testing it appears to be available on Fedora & Ubuntu.
$ echo $DESKTOP_SESSION
Another choice is the $XDG_SESSION_DESKTOP variable.
Method #2 - wmctrl
XServer has its own settings for power management and screen saving functions. From the man page:
Option "BlankTime" "time"
sets the inactivity timeout for the blank phase of the screensaver. time is in minutes. This is equivalent to the Xorg server’s −s flag, and the value can be changed at run−time with xset(1). Default: 10 minutes.
I ended up using xcape, a utility designed to do exactly this:
xcape allows you to use a modifier key as another key when pressed and released on its own. Note that it is slightly slower than pressing the original key, because the pressed event does not occur until the key is released.
Quoted from the xcape readme
Using xcape, you can assign the press ...
You can use the program gnome-session-properties. Just execute it from your shell prompt (gnome-terminal):
This will open a GUI where you can configure (i.e., add, edit, remove, enable and disable) startup programs.
Nice and easy. Enjoy.
Update: As noted by don_crissti (thanks) in the comments below, the gnome-session-...
The default path for the desktop directory varies between different languages.
Hence a better guess than $HOME/Desktop could be obtained from xdg-user-dir in case that exists on your system:
$ xdg-user-dir DESKTOP
(Note that the package name is xdg-user-dirs, while the executable name is xdg-user-dir. Thank @theDrake for pointing this out.)
@bahamat answer is complete for the question. However, I am adding definitions of more terms as this question shows up first on related google searches:
X Window System (aka X11): A network protocol encoding things
such as graphic primitives, images, pointer motion, and key presses.
X Display Server (e.g. Xorg and XFree86): X server implementing
X11 and ...
GNOME's accessibility API relies on it; see e.g. AT-SPI2 on FreeDesktop.org. Before D-BUS, i.e. before GNOME 3, the accessibility API relied on CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture), which was very portable but also heavier than D-BUS. (The page AT-SPI on D-Bus (archival snapshot) contains historical information on this migration.)