1. Installing GNOME-Desktop:
Install GNOME Desktop Environment on here.
# yum -y groups install "GNOME Desktop"
Input a command like below after finishing installation:
GNOME Desktop Environment will start. For first booting, initial setup runs and you have to configure it for first time.
Select System language first.
Select your keyboard ...
From the bottom up:
Xorg, XFree86 and X11 are display servers. This creates the graphical environment.
[gkx]dm (and others) are display managers. A login manager is a synonym. This is the first X program run by the system if the system (not the user) is starting X and allows you to log on to the local system, or network systems.
A window manager controls ...
Rather than make use of the hacking of a startx command into a .xinitrc file, it's probably better to tell Systemd that you want to boot into a graphical GUI vs. the terminal.
To accomplish this simply do the following:
$ sudo yum groupinstall "GNOME Desktop"
$ ln -sf /lib/systemd/system/runlevel5.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target
Then simply ...
Some random distro that happens to be running i3 window manager.
Per i3wm site the window manager is distributed in Debian, Arch, Gentoo, Ubuntu, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, OpenSUSE, Megeia, Fedora, Exherbo, PiBang and Slackware.
There isn't a command that I've ever seen that will act as "open with..." but you can use the command xdg-open <file> to open a given <file> in the application that's associated with that particular type of file.
Opening a text file:
$ xdg-open tstfile.txt
Resulting in the file tstfile.txt being opened in gedit:
The screenshot is definitively the i3 window manager, and most probably is Arch Linux.
If you look well, the screenshot is from 2012, and there is an IRC session there, in the IRC channel #i3, and a browser with several pages open at the site https://i3wm.org
It is easier googling after the IRC nick thevdvde later also known as thevdude, than try to guess ...
To check the name of the Desktop Environment from the command line, you can use the following command:
Or based on the question:
ps -e | grep -E -i "xfce|kde|gnome"
Sample output (kde):
Look at the content of the xdg-open file, and you will notice that it is a simple shell script. Its main task is identifying the desktop environment in use, which will then be used to delegate the task to a specific tool:
KDE delegates to kde-open or kfmclient
Gnome delegates to gvfs-open or gnome-open
Mate delegates to gvfs-open or mate-open
XFCE delegates ...
X11 - a windowing protocol (network transparent by the way) and its implementation (the X server and low level libraries for accessing it). Handles "only" basic input (keyboard, mouse,...) and output (drawing rectangles), but does it in a rather abstract fashion, so that you can run a program on one machine and control it from another one, subscribe to ...
If you experiment with this, it'll be clear:
In /etc/rc2.d, you'll find files that are instructions what your computer should do when it starts.
If you use GNOME, look for a file with gdm in its name, then replace the S (first letter of the name) by a lowercase s. (GDM is as you might have guessed the GNOME display manager. If you use some other suite, of ...
This (and much much more) can be done in advanced settings of KDE's window manager KWin. You can get to it if you right click on window titlebar and select Advanced > Special Application Settings (or Special Window Settings if you would like to apply only to specific window and not all windows of this app). Then on the Size and Position tab you can force it ...
(I am looking into the relation of GNOME and X. I'd like to share some of my understandings. I will present it in a logical way as much as I can.)
1. What is GUI composed of?
Below is an illustration of the basic components of a GUI.
The key component is the display server. There are several display servers available. Such as:
X11 (mostly for *nix)
I had a similar situation with my laptop. The screen would often remain black when it woke from suspend. My solution was to use xrandr to reset my displays. You need to find the xrandr command that sets up your layout and run that. For example, on my system, I had two screens and this set it up as I wanted it:
xrandr --output DP-3 --auto --output VGA-0 -...
To change the default filemanager you can edit the file ~/.local/share/applications/mimeapps.list
Don't know how to specify thunar but to use nemo over nautilus I do this:
thomas@localhost ~> cat .local/share/applications/mimeapps.list
Also if you are curious why the wrong filemanager is started if ...
I found the solution here. The sound played is /usr/share/sounds/freedesktop/stereo/camera-shutter.oga. So simply renaming that file stops it from being played:
sudo mv /usr/share/sounds/freedesktop/stereo/camera-shutter.oga \
That's it, next time you take a screenshot, it will be done in ...
On some systems it is Alt+F8 or Alt+F9, on others it is Alt+F7. The Ctrl is not needed to come back from the tty, only to drop to it.
The actual F key depends on which tty your X session is running in. As far as I know, the default value is 8 (or 7) so Alt+F8 should do it. If not, just try the other values until you hit the right one.
As @mantawork points ...
To be called UNIX you need to go through a certification process that requires (among other things) that you implement the POSIX standard.
So your question is completely invalid. There is UNIX API, it's called POSIX.
Here is the list of requirements: http://www.unix.org/version4/overview.html
If I want to disable my GUIs completely to save battery life, how would I proceed?
You can just disable your Display Manager (be it kde, lightdm, gdm, etc.) to run at boot, just run depending of your system:
sudo update-rc.d gdm remove
sudo update-rc.d kdm remove
sudo update-rc.d lightdm remove
With this you don't have to stop the desktop manager after ...
The other solution1 has some inconveniences:
- it requires root access
- it's a global change so it affects all users
- upgrading sound-theme-freedesktop restores the file
For the record, the proper way to do it (and avoid all of the above) is via a custom sound theme that disables2 the default sound file used by gnome-screenshot (the name of the file is ...
The main problem with checking the DESKTOP_SESSION is that it is set by the display manager rather than the desktop session and is subject to inconsistencies. For lightdm on Debian, the values come from the names of files under /usr/share/xsessions/. DESKTOP_SESSION reflects the desktop environment if a specific selection is made at log in, however the ...
If no specific desktop environment is selected, but the “Debian desktop environment” is, the default which ends up installed is determined by tasksel: on i386 and amd64, it’s GNOME, on other architectures, it’s XFCE.
Method #1 - $DESKTOP_SESSION
I think you can find out by interrogating the environment variable $DESKTOP_SESSION. I'm not entirely positive how widely supported this is but in my limited testing it appears to be available on Fedora & Ubuntu.
$ echo $DESKTOP_SESSION
Another choice is the $XDG_SESSION_DESKTOP variable.
Method #2 - wmctrl
They are not "major" window managers, but there are three window managers that are python-based:
qtile, a hackable tiling window manager written in Python.
PyWM, a "pythonised" version of the fast light FLWM window manager.
whimsy, a small (~1000 SLOC), highly hackable window manager written in Python.
There is another one, samurai-x that is described as a ...
It turns out that for some reason the settings for my bottom panel(taskbar) had been altered. To access the menu for the panels(top & bottom bars), I needed to hold Alt and then Right-click. This opened a little menu where I could select Add to panel... which opens another menu of things you can add to the taskbar. What I needed to add was 'Windows List',...
It is entirely safe to install as many window managers as you want.
They simply take up disk space, which is very cheap nowadays. And this software never takes as much space as your data, so it is not an issue.
Not only you can switch an existing Ubuntu system to Kubuntu by doing
apt-get install kubuntu-desktop
but you can also simply install the few ...
From the Arch Linux Wiki:
You can trick GNOME into using another file browser by editing the Exec line in /usr/share/applications/nautilus.desktop. See the correct parameters in the .desktop file of the file manager of your choice, e.g.:
Arch Linux Wiki 1
Yes you can, for example you can run following command for installing KDE desktop:
sudo apt-get install kde-standard
Or for full set of package/applications (it may take a lot of tim) you can run:
sudo apt-get install kde-full
after next login select KDE from "session" on the Login Prompt to start enjoying the Kool Desktop Environment (KDE).
I recommend ...