A runlevel is a state of the system, indicating whether it is in the process of booting or rebooting or shutting down, or in single-user mode, or running normally. The traditional init program handles these actions by switching to the corresponding runlevel. Under Linux, the runlevels are by convention:
S while booting,
0 while shutting down,
6 while ...
Why not to use utilities from xdg itself?
To make Thunar the default file-browser, i.e. the default application for opening folders.
$ xdg-mime default Thunar.desktop inode/directory
to use xpdf as the default PDF viewer:
$ xdg-mime default xpdf.desktop application/pdf
This should create an entry in your local MIME database:
If you press Shift while doing things with the mouse, that overrides the mouse protocol and lets you select/paste. It's documented in the xterm manual for instance, and most terminal emulators copy that behavior.
Notes for OS X: In iTerm, use Option instead of Shift.
In Terminal.app, use Fn.
A complement to jasonwryan's great answer, addressing some of your issues:
Your $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is not set to ~/. It simply isn't set. So applications that follow the XDG Specification use the default ~/.config
The dirs inside /.config are not hidden because they don't have to. The whole point of using a ~/.config dir is to un-clutter the user's $HOME. ...
The file to edit:
Command to edit file:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
For a global servername you can put it at the top of the file (outside of virtual host tags).
The first line looks like:
Then save and test the configuration with the following command:
Had to install libgnome-keyring:
sudo apt install libgnome-keyring0
The UI now comes up and works for me.
Still get the following warnings, but it's working:
Gtk-Message: 11:19:31.343: Failed to load module "overlay-scrollbar"
Gtk-Message: 11:19:31.349: Failed to load module "canberra-gtk-module"
Node started time: 1528391971495
Yes! This is a big deal, and incredibly common. And there are two basic approaches. One way is simply with scripted installs, as for example used in Fedora, RHEL, or CentOS's kickstart. Check this out in the Fedora install guide: Kickstart Installations. For your simple case, this may be sufficient. (Take this as an example; there are similar systems for ...
Checking the value of a sysctl variable is as easy as
sysctl <variable name>
and, by the way, setting a sysctl variable is as straightforward as
sudo sysctl -w <variable name>=<value>
but changes made this way will probably hold only till the next reboot.
As to which of the config locations, /etc/sysctl.conf or /etc/sysctl.d/, takes ...
/etc/init.d is maintained on ubuntu for backward compatibility with sysvinit stuff. If you actually look at /etc/init.d/rc.local you'll see (also from a 12.04 LTS Server):
### BEGIN INIT INFORMATION
# Provides: rc.local
# Required-Start: $remote_fs $syslog $all
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
Welcome to unix.stackexchange.com!
There's no easy answer to your question, and far better people than me have written entire books on the subject of the Linux kernel and operating systems in general.
About the scope of the project: writing an operating system is not a simple task! Even a purposefully minimal OS like Minix is a pretty complex thing! To ...
tmux and screen have different models so there is no exact equivalent.
In screen terms, a split lets you display multiple windows at the same time. next (C-a n) rotates windows through the active part of the split; this lets you rotate “hidden” windows through the active region of the split.
In tmux terms, a split divides a window into one or more panes. ...
The wizard is provided by the function zsh-newuser-install.
To run it again, make a backup of your .zshrc (because there's a small risk that zsh-newuser-install will mess up your manual configuration), then run
autoload -U zsh-newuser-install
BindAddress is not the option you're after. From man ssh_config:
Use the specified address on the local machine as the source
address of the connection. Only useful on systems with more than
The configuration file equivalent of -R is RemoteForward:
Specifies that a TCP port on the ...
You can rename the device using the ip command:
/sbin/ip link set eth1 down
/sbin/ip link set eth1 name eth123
/sbin/ip link set eth123 up
I am leaving the below for the sake of completeness and posterity (and for informational purposes,) but I have confirmed swill's comment and Marco Macuzzo's answer that simply changing the name and device of ...
You may put default configurations in /etc/skel so that useradd(8) can copy files in /etc/skel whenever it creates new user's directory by '-m' option.
Note that this is used only for the new-user. Existing user accounts are not affected.
Because those applications that place configuration files in $HOME are ignoring the XDG Base Directory Specification, notably:
There is a single base directory relative to which user-specific configuration files should be written. This directory is defined by the environment variable $XDG_CONFIG_HOME...
If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set or empty, a ...
~ is your home directory, usually /home/username. A file or folder name starting with a . is the Linux version of a hidden file/folder. So ~/.config is a hidden folder within your home directory. Open up your file browser to your home folder, then find the option to show hidden files and folders. If you don't see .config, you'll have to create it. Then ...
You can use perl-file-mimeinfo in the extra repository to manage mimetypes.
Example to open all .pdf files in apvlv:
/usr/bin/vendor_perl/mimeopen -d $file.pdf
and then, at the prompt, enter the application: apvlv.
It's a convention used both to keep filenames unique, and to control the order in which scripts get executed. In general, the xx.d directories are scanned by something doing the moral equivalent of for file in /etc/grub.d/*; do ... and the numeric prefixes give this an ordering other than alphabetical. There may be application-specific standards for what's ...
The number of spaces is a way to cosmetically separate the columns/fields. It has no meaning other than that. I.e. no the amount of white space between columns does not matter.
The space between columns is comprised of white space (including tabs), and the columns themselves, e.g. comma-separated options, mustn't contain unquoted white space.
From the ...
Keep the dotfiles as portable as possible and avoid OS dependent settings or switches that require a particular version of a tool, e.g. avoid GNU syntax if you don't use GNU software on all systems.
You'll probably run into situations where it's desirable to use system specific settings. In that case use a switch statement with the individual settings:
The .config directory is a newish development courtesy of XDG that seems, deservedly, to have won favour.
Personally, I don't mind a dot directory of your own. A bunch of separate dot files (ala bash and various old school tools) in the toplevel of $HOME is a bit silly. Choosing a single dot file is a bad idea, because if in the future you realize maybe ...
I had the same problem (for at least a year now), and the following seemed to work:
Taken from: https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=164868
Use pavucontrol to change the port to your desired one. Then find the internal name of the port with this command:
$ pacmd list | grep "active port"
active port: <hdmi-output-0>
active port: <...
Debian has the package sysfsutils which has an init.d script that can apply settings to /sys based on the configuration in /etc/sysfs.conf.
The init script has an @debian.org author, so I suspect that this is debian-specific and may not have made it to other non-Debian distributions. However, all the logic is contained in the init script, so you could quite ...
Mount the NFS-share on the clients using the mount-options "bg,intr,hard".
Most important in your case is "bg" for background - which tells the system not to block when the server is not available.
"intr" for interrruptable - so you can kill hanging mounts on the client with the kill command.
"hard" is the opposite of "soft". The difference is that "hard" ...
.zshrc and .bashrc are script files, not config files, so you "source" the alias file. In Zsh (.zshrc) and Bash (.bashrc) alike:
will run my_alias and leave its effects in the same environment with the RC files, effectively giving you the aliases in the shell. Of course, your are not limited to aliases either. I use a .shrc that is sourced by ...
Bash will interpret a line that has text followed by a = as an assignment to a variable, but it will interpret a line that has text followed by a space as a command with an argument.
var=assignment vs command =argument
Bash scripts work on the principle that everything in the script is as if you have typed it into the command line.
In configuration files ...