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Internal disk failed with bad superblock, how to fix?

NOTE: The operating system I'm using is on a seperate disk (/dev/sdb).


I tried to mount my old root partition (/dev/sda12) as usual with the following command:

sudo mount /dev/sda12 /mnt

However, it gave me this error:

mount: /dev/sda12: can't read superblock

So, I tried to fix it with e2fsck -f /dev/sda12:

e2fsck 1.43.3 (04-Sep-2016)
e2fsck: Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read while trying to open /dev/sda12
Could this be a zero-length partition?

That didn't work, so I tried all of the alternative superblocks I could find.

They either gave me this error:

e2fsck 1.43.3 (04-Sep-2016)
e2fsck: Invalid argument while trying to open /dev/sda12

The superblock could not be read or does not describe a valid ext2/ext3/ext4
filesystem.  If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2/ext3/ext4
filesystem (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock
is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock:
    e2fsck -b 8193 <device>
 or
    e2fsck -b 32768 <device>

or this one:

e2fsck 1.43.3 (04-Sep-2016)
e2fsck: Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read        while trying to open /dev/sda12
Could this be a zero-length partition?

Trying to view the partitions with parted -l or GParted both spit out numerous errors involving every single partition in /dev/sda.

GParted showed me like 35 errors, before it showed that the disk was completely unallocated, except the unallocated text had a caution symbol next to it.

The Disks utility showd me all the partitions, and said that it was OK, but had 16 bad sectors; /dev/sda12 was recognized as "Unknown" however.

Parted did the same thing as GParted, it couldn't show any partitions.

At this point, I am lost.

Is there any way to recover my data, and if so how?


NOTE: The partition was formatted as ext4, and contained the root partition of an Ubuntu GNOME 16.04 install. SMART tests say the disk is OK, but it has 16 bad sectors.