**NOTE**: The operating system I'm using is on a separate disk (`/dev/sdb`).

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I tried to mount my old root partition (`/dev/sda12`) as usual with the following command:

    sudo mount /dev/sda12 /mnt

However, it gave me this error:

    mount: /dev/sda12: can't read superblock

So, I tried to fix it with `e2fsck -f /dev/sda12`:

    e2fsck 1.43.3 (04-Sep-2016)
    e2fsck: Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read while trying to open /dev/sda12
    Could this be a zero-length partition?

That didn't work, so I tried all of the alternative superblocks I could find.  

They either gave me this error:

    e2fsck 1.43.3 (04-Sep-2016)
    e2fsck: Invalid argument while trying to open /dev/sda12

    The superblock could not be read or does not describe a valid ext2/ext3/ext4
    filesystem.  If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2/ext3/ext4
    filesystem (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock
    is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock:
        e2fsck -b 8193 <device>
     or
        e2fsck -b 32768 <device>


or this one:

    e2fsck 1.43.3 (04-Sep-2016)
    e2fsck: Attempt to read block from filesystem resulted in short read        while trying to open /dev/sda12
    Could this be a zero-length partition?

Trying to view the partitions with `parted -l` or GParted both spit out numerous errors involving every single partition in `/dev/sda`.  

GParted showed me like 35 errors, before it showed that the disk was completely unallocated, except the unallocated text had a caution symbol next to it.  

The Disks utility showed me all the partitions, and said that it was OK, but had 16 bad sectors; /dev/sda12 was recognized as "Unknown" however.  

Parted did the same thing as GParted, it couldn't show any partitions.

At this point, I am lost.

**Is there any way to recover my data, and if so how?**  

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**NOTE**: The partition was formatted as `ext4`, and contained the root partition of an Ubuntu GNOME 16.04 install. SMART tests say the disk is OK, but it has 16 bad sectors.