Questions tagged [x86]

The processor architecture of most PCs and servers, including the 386/486/Pentium/… (IA-32) 32-bit family and the amd64 64-bit family. Most x86 processors are made by Intel or AMD.

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Which 32-bit features are still vulnerable to "Retbleed" in the Linux kernel?

I'm updating my kernel to protect my system against the "Retbleed" exploit, and I know that affected 32-bit things haven't received the necessary mitigations. I'm wondering which 32-bit ...
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What causes Launchpad to sometimes build binaries for only amd64 and sometimes build them for both amd64 and i386?

I uploaded the same package (ocaml-sexp, manually backported from jammy) for xenial, trusty, bionic, and focal here. For the first three, Launchpad built both amd64 and i386 packages, but for focal, ...
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Assembly code that print to screen without syscall

Is it possible, in Linux, to write an x86 assembly program that print a character to the screen (standard output) without the use of any system call? I think that it is not possible because, in x86 ...
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Register I2C RTC on x86 platform

I'm trying to register an I2C RTC device on an x86 platform. I've disabled the PC-Style CMOS driver because I'm on an embedded platform and only my I2C RTC is properly backed up. Now when I load the ...
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Memory Management with Segmentation

I've read the part of "Modern Operating Systems" by Tanenbaum about segmentation and got left with some questions: How does the operating system manage the free memory space? For example my ...
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enabling i386 arch on amd64 Debian Buster and installing libc6:i386 tries to replace the entire os

Distributor ID: Debian Description: Debian GNU/Linux 11 (bullseye) Release: 11 Codename: bullseye I'd like to install libc6:i386 to support an old proprietary printer driver. I've performed ...
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Cannot remove architecture i386

I'm using 64 bit Kali Linux, previously installed i386 architecture and now I want to remove it, because it downloads about 30Mb data for 32bit package every time apt update. I tried dpkg --remove-...
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Get the right OPENSSL_ia32cap value for openssl 3.0.0 on old non-Intel/AMD x86 devices?

We are using Alpine Linux x86 for a project where some of the computers the customer needs this to run have old x86 processors. Initial testing with v3.14 showed that we could use Alpine Linux with ...
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dtoverlay in x86 fedora

I'm messing around with a small x86 module (think raspberry pi, except not an ARM), running Fedora, and has the same concept of pluggable hardware "hats." I am trying to figure out if it's ...
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dpkg-deb treats my architeceture as amd64 instead of x86)64

I just created a simple .deb package (using this tutorial). This is my control file: Package: bla Version: 1.0 Architecture: x86_64 Maintainer: bla Description: bla The Architecture I got from uname -...
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How to install Das U-Boot legacy boot in x86 IBM-PC?

Das U-Boot is both first and second stage bootloader, as FSBL in a IBM-PC it must fit into the first 446 bytes (or less) before MBR in the first sector. There is also a 1.5 stage boot loader that uses ...
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Is there any Rossetta 2 (SBT Static Binary Translation) alternative on Linux?

On an Apple Silicon chip such as M1 (ARMv8), x86 instructions can be translated statistically by Rossetta 2 when the program runs for the first time. It's fast. Because Rossetta 2 does the SBT (Static ...
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Why x86 ISA devices cannot perform DMA in to the full 32 bit address space?

As per Robert Love 's Linux Kernel Development , an x86 ISA device cannot perform DMA in to the full 32 bit address space because ISA devices can access only the first 16MB of physical memory(range ...
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(Why) does the Linux kernel use an identity mapping for its virtual address space?

I am currently researching the Linux kernels usage of virtual address spaces. I understand the benefits of having those, how page table walks work in x86, and the layout of the virtual address space. ...
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What changes had to be made to linux kernel in order to support ryzen 5000 series processor?

AMD contributed patches to linux kernel during 2020 in order to make it run on ryzen 5000 series processor. Don't ryzen 5000 series processors implement x64 ISA? How are ryzen 5000 processors ...
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Why qemu doesn't install aarch64 alpine Image on x86_64 ubuntu host?

I download qemu-4.0.0.tar.xz from here and after installing all necessary dependencies I run $ ./configure --target-list=aarch64-softmmu to have QEMU installed. I double-check the installation with $ ...
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uname -m -p -i. What does every parameter stand for? [duplicate]

I have CentOS7 installed on my computer. uname -a prints the following: Linux c7 3.10.0-1127.el7.centos.plus.i686 #1 SMP Sun Apr 5 18:08:31 UTC 2020 i686 i686 i386 GNU/Linux As stated in man uname ...
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i want a x86 file to run in aarch64

I wanted to play osu lazor, so I downloaded the appimage file from their GitHub releases and tried to run. However, when I tried to run the game with ./osu.AppImage, It said -bash: ./osu.AppImage: ...
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How to upgrade Lubuntu to Debian?

Lubuntu 32 bit linux is End of Life: https://l.me/sunsetting-i386/ Debian continues to be a basic reliable distro for 32 bit CPU's Since Lubuntu is based on Ubuntu/Debian it is possible to 'upgrade' ...
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Where to find the syscall_64.tbl in Linux?

I was following this guide to add my own custom system call inside the Linux kernel "Adding a Hello World System Call to Linux Kernel". In Step 5, it asks to modify the system call table by ...
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Freebsd 12 i386 MongoDB package doesn't exist

Installed Freebsd 12.1 i386, when I am using pkg search mongodb I get "mongodb tools" and "mongodb C driver" and some other "mongodb" related packages but there is no ...
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Can't install Steam on fresh Debian Buster install

I just installed a fresh Debian install and I can't install Steam and PCSX2, both depending on i386 packages. I followed the classic procedure: # dpkg --add-architecture i386 # apt update # apt ...
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yum + how to identify dependencies between rpm from i686 to X86

The approach to remove all rpm type of i686 and exclude the removal of X86_64 is like the following yum remove '*.i686' -x '*.x86_64' what we want to do instead it like the following verify no ...
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yum + what is the safety approach to remove all rpm's from i686 type from rhel 7.x version machines

We want to remove the following rpm from all production machines servers , we have more the 152 servers machines ( rhel 7.6 ) , all Linux are x86_64 architecture, yum remove *.i686 -y this yum ...
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What is the point of the kernel reserving CONFIG_X86_RESERVE_LOW memory for the BIOS?

Since at least 2.6 kernels, Kconfig offers the option CONFIG_X86_RESERVE_LOW, described as the "Amount of low memory, in kilobytes, to reserve for the BIOS". (Starting from physical address ...
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dmesg says: "Warning: Outdated ThinkPad BIOS/EC firmware ... may be missing critical bug fixes". Why is it being so alarmist?

Background I'm running Xubuntu 18.04.4 LTS on an ancient 32-bit ThinkPad T60. dmesg reports: [ 27.726785] thinkpad_acpi: ThinkPad ACPI Extras v0.26 [ 27.726789] thinkpad_acpi: http://ibm-acpi.sf....
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Hardware timer , Real time clock, Jiffies in Linux context

I am trying to understand the Timer interrupts and the associated terms used in an x86_64 Linux machine. Hardware timer (External clock) is same as a Real Time Clock. The Real time clock runs even ...
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Emulation performace : x86 vs ARM [closed]

Some time ago I ran an ARM android image inside the android AVD in my x86 system and it was too slow to even move the cursor smoothly. Since it needs to actually translate ARM instructions to x86 on ...
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Can't find the source of some "asm", "generated" header files in linux kernel?

So, I am writing a module, that is working in kernel space. My code compiles correctly and works correctly. The thing is that there are some header files, which I couldn't find anywhere. That doesn't ...
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Getting configuration from dts file on x86 system

There is a requirement in a project where we have to take certain configuration values of a device from device tree. I was able to generate device tree blob (.dtb) from .dts file. There is apparently ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Setting the most basic text console video mode on Linux

I have a HP ThinClient computer (t5740) for a special use. Since it has VGA output, I can only connect it via VGA-to-HDMI converter to a monitor (it does not have VGA input). When it boots the BIOS ...
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'Libwine:i386' error when I apt-get upgrade

apt-get upgrade shows the following error; dpkg: unrecoverable fatal error, aborting: files list file for package 'libwine:i386' is missing final newline E: Sub-processs /usr/bin/dpkg returned an ...
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11 votes
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Is it possible to run x86 executable on ARM?

I'm trying to install Navicat which is an x86-64 binary onto my aarch64 machine, which results in "cannot execute binary file: Exec format error" Here's the result of running file on the executable: ...
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Debian packages without GUI install

I am installing Debian on an (old) Atom chip, i386 Kernel, and choose not to proceed with any GUI. Meanwhile, I see Gnome packages being installed. Is this normal? Why?
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How do machine-check exception (MCE) work?

I want to understand how CPU performs this Machine checks and how does it detect if any device has failed? Does the device send any machine-check exception (MCE) event which the MCE daemon catches ...
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Which Debian architecture should I use for my Intel NUC7I3BNH?

I tried to search for the correct architecture to use for my Intel NUC7I3BNH, but I am none the wiser. Which architecture would be most appropriate - amd64 or i386?
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CPU frequency changes when AC power is lost

I have a device with "supercapacitor" support. When the AC power is lost, supercapacitor provides power backup of ~2 mins. I observe CPU frequency by cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep MHz command are being ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Is it safe to use the .bss section as a static stack?

(This is in the context of x86-64 Linux.) I am trying to write a high-reliability userland executable, and I have total control over the generated assembly. I don't want to rely on automatic stack ...
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Guest has not initialized the display (yet)

I'm trying to emulate a raspberry pi using an x86 system and qemu. I'm trying to launch it like: $ qemu-system-arm -kernel ~/Downloads/kernel-qemu-4.19.50-buster -cpu arm1176 -m 256 -M versatilepb -...
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How can I install i386/x86 shared libraries on freebsd?

GDB is telling me, that the program compiled with gcc -m32 (i386 program) is incompatible with my shared libraries (i386:x86-64). Output of gdb: (gdb) r Starting program: /root/format warning: `/...
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Smallest modern Linux distro for x86 architecture

I'm looking for small Linux distro like Damn Small Linux or TinyCore. It has to be complete kernel, bash, package manager and networking and nothing else ideally. The two mentioned are not suitable ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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grub-install: error: failed to register the EFI boot entry: Function not implemented

after upgrading to Ubuntu 19.04 I frequently got a 'failed to register the EFI boot entry: Function not implemented.' error when installing new packages. Now I updated to Ubuntu 19.10 and the ...
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Install latest x86 Ubuntu on a x64 UEFI system

I currently have to configure my PC so that I can boot Windows 10 and Linux (Ubuntu) in parallel. Up to now, I've managed to arrange the dual boot of Windows 10 and the x64 Ubuntu 1804 LTS. However, ...
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2 votes
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How does linux on x86_64 recover the 'lost' physical memory masked by memory-mapped IO?

/proc/iomem indicates that significant address space is mapped to PCI devices, such as a video card on my box: e0000000-efffffff : 0000:01:00.0 which is 250MB if my math is correct. On a 64 bit ...
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How does x86 northbridge/memory controller routes addresses for memory mapped io?

My current understanding is that northbridge/memory controller routes address accesses, based on some programmable rule, such that accesses to memory mapped region will be re-directed to southbridge ...
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Looking for latest i386 DVD ISO download

I'm having trouble finding this CentOS download: 7.6.1810 *.ISO DVD i386 Does anyone know whether this particular build was made available?
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Any automatic way of obtaining the ELF section an address resides in?

Suppose I've the address of some string or symbol in an ELF binary output by e.g. strings -a and want to know what section that address resides in. Normally, I would do objdump -h and manually find ...
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How does the ELF loader determine the initial stack size?

I'm studying the ELF specification (http://www.skyfree.org/linux/references/ELF_Format.pdf), and one point that is not clear to me about the program loading process is how the stack is initialized, ...
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6 votes
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82MB of "reserved memory" on 512MB (x86) system

I reinstalled a fresh debian 10 on an old x86 system with 512MB RAM (everything works ok). Available memory is 431MB. (No graphic card plugged right now) I don't think that that much memory was "...
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What is the correct Grub configuration to boot a kernel with an initramfs embedded in the kernel image?

I've used buildroot to compile a Linux kernel image with the root file system embedded as an initramfs. But when I go to boot it I see grub select the enctry and then I get a solid cursor in the up ...
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