Questions tagged [swap]

Swap space is an area of the hard disk that serves as an overflow when the computer memory is full. The memory used by inactive applications is partially written out to disk to make room for other applications and for the disk cache for active files.

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New to Linux and need help in activating my new swapspace and mounting ext4 partition to /mnt

I am new to Linux and I am working on the configuration of my Linux OS for a project. I am using the Oracle VM Virtualbox and using Ubuntu 20.04 I added a DOS/MBR table scheme during installation and ...
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Messed up my boot partition, how do i change it back?

I am currently partitioning the disk for LFS build. After i finished with the partitioning, i rearranged partitions with the command gdsik /dev/sdb followed by 's' command, to reorder the partition. ...
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How would the OS Handle Swap being turned off if it is being used?

So, I have a 10GB swap running on my server which handles numerous long running processes. I wanted to increase the swap size, as RAM is running almost 100% at times with > 3/4 of swap being used. ...
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How to use swap less often?

I use an SSD swap just to avoid full memory related crashes. There are limited erasures that can occure on SSDs. The memory related crashes have stopped, but my system uses swap constantly and vmstat ...
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Why oom may still happen even when overcommit_memory is set to 2?

2: always check, never overcommit In mode 2 (available since Linux 2.6), the total virtual address space that can be allocated (CommitLimit in /proc/meminfo) is calculated as ...
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swapoff -a + why swapoff never finished

we have rhel machines version rhel 7.2 since we want to set the kernel parameter vm.swappiness to 1 we need to perform swapoff and swapon so we set the vm.swappiness to 1 and we performed swapoff -a ...
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Ubuntu slows down, then freezes - causes, solving (with CGROUPS) and prevention

I'm using Ubuntu 20.04 and sometimes it happens from a second to the other the system gets slower and slower and eventually freezes entirely. My top candidates causing that are Kaspersky, Spotify, MS ...
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kernel add swap partition without it be list in /etc/fstab [duplicate]

I created a swap partition during installation, but I commented it out latter, and my computer has been reboot many times. # swap was on /dev/sda3 during installation #UUID=71b04cbb-8779-4b0d-8664-...
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Is there a difference in saying swap partition and swap memory

I know that when referring to a virtual memory in Linux, we refer to it by swap partition but is saying a swap memory wrong?
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making an extended logical swap partition in manjaro

my laptop is old and it uses MBR partitioning. therefore I can't have more than 4 primary partitions. I'm dual booting Manjaro and Windows 8.1. Windows is using 2 primary partitions and Manjaro also ...
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For testing purposes, is there a way to “limit” how much I/O requests can be made at the same time on Linux? Or for one specific application

This is a tough one, I don't know how to call what's happening, it seems to be something related to "intensive disk activity causes multi-threaded application to lock up". Or "I/O disk ...
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How to disable a swap file configured by systemd, via Ansible?

What's the best way to disable swap entirely on a fleet of GNU/Linux hosts, using systemd and Ansible? For whatever reason some of my virtual machines have a swap file configured in their /etc/fstab, ...
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Ubuntu 100% swap usage all the time

I have Ubuntu 16.04 on my VPS. I using server mainly to running web scrapers in python. Other things are django project hosted by Docker, postgreSQL database. I using netdata tool to monitoring usage ...
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How much swappiness I need with 4GB ram [duplicate]

I am a bit confused because everyone says to reduce the swappiness to about 10; but if I have only 4GB RAM than how much swappiness would be the best? and also If I had 8 and 16GB ram? and also I am ...
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Linux memory calculation and mearsure: what plus what equals to what?

I've read some articles about Linux memory management and understand (perhaps not proficient) the concept of free memory, available memory, swap, etc. But when I check with the following command: cat /...
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How to clear swap

how do I clear the swap? I know it isn't something that is needed, but I still want to know how to do it. this is what I'm doing so far: # to check if there is enough space in ram for the swap ...
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Is it more efficient to use file IO or swap space for large temporary storage?

(Cross-posted from SO.) I have a program that needs to produce a large quantity of temporary data (in the 10-100 gigabyte range) that I don't expect to fit in memory. The data is only used internally ...
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Cache and buffers using half of RAM while not being clearable

I have 12GB RAM on my laptop and in free I see that there's 6GB in buff/cache but only 500MB available (+ 285MB free) RAM. What can I do to improve it? I already looked and tried clearing page (wrote ...
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What is [kswapd] doing when there is no swap?

I have removed all swap from my testserver (i.e. it was booted with swap, swap was used actively, later swapoff -a was run). Yet now and again I see kswapd in top using CPU time: top - 00:53:37 up 2 ...
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Force use Swap over Memory

I have a Debian server that I'm really cheaping out on, but for some reason the Java processes use all the memory then throw a "OutOfMemoryError" rather than using the swap space. I've got ...
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What happens if you put swap space on a RAM disk?

Since it's possible to create a RAM disk via tmpfs, and make it permanently available via /etc/fstab, what would happen if you had a post-boot script that created a swapfile on your freshly-minted RAM ...
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“cryptsetup: ERROR: Couldn't resolve device” combined with “cryptsetup: WARNING: target 'sda3_crypt' not found in /etc/crypttab”

After setting up hibernation on ubuntu 20.04 and modifying it that it works for encrypted swap partitions, I'm getting several issues: First, after rebooting from hibernation, I got "Gave up ...
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“Gave up waiting for suspend/resume device” — Swap Partition Problems

I was fiddling around with the partitions and, well, here I am: the system refuses to run. Being more precise: I deleted an xfs-partition for being able to enlarge the swap-partition and formated ...
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top and free show different swap utilization

sorry I'm not very skilled linux admin and hopefully I'm not asking the stupid question... I'm trying to find out what uses the swap on the server. So first of all I used free -k free -k ...
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Is it possible to resume a LINUX hibernation putting the disk (with the swap file or partition) in another computer?

Can I put my work computer into hibernation (when the RAM is copied to disk and the computer is shutdown), wait it to switch off, take the hard drive, put it into another (similar, but not identical) ...
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Why is the output of free -h different from free --giga?

I am facing a very weird problem. On my Fedora PC I have 12 GB swap file. But when I issue free -h I get : total used free shared buff/cache available Mem: ...
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How to fix Block Volume error on linux? (missing Block volume, Swap, Linux raid)

Hi all, I have a hard drive removed from the NAS, but in here there is some data to retrieve, when it opens it has an error like this, I can't get anything inside, the status is locked , so how do I ...
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Finetuning kernel for high swap environment

I own an 8GB RAM Dell XPS13 9343; the amount of RAM is the biggest pain of this computer, it's soldered on mainboard. Despite the CPU supporting more RAM, even resoldering bigger ones with firmware ...
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“Hibernation device not found”, although I have updated /etc/fstab

I originally had a Linux swap partition on my computer, which I have removed. When I then tried to boot, I would get the error ERROR: resmue: hibernation device 'UUID=f5eea.....andsoon' not found ...
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How to enable process killing when getting fully out of memory

I have MX Linux 19.2 (Debian 10 with SysVinit) — Linux Kernel 5.4.0-17.1-liquorix-amd64 I have only 4 GB RAM, and when I'm using Firefox with other applications for a long time, I sometimes get my ...
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My ubuntu 20.04 is verly slow on stratup after messing with the swap parition, how do I make it boot faster?

here's the output when i type dmesg [ 45.039698] Bluetooth: RFCOMM TTY layer initialized [ 45.039714] Bluetooth: RFCOMM socket layer initialized [ 45.039726] Bluetooth: RFCOMM ver 1.11 [ 82....
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Ridiculously large amounts of RAM used (by lightdm)

Lately, my Arch setup is experiencing some problems. For one, a command Xorg :0 -seat seat0 -auth /run/lightdm/root/:0 -nolisten tcp vt7 -novtswitch takes up about 25% of RAM (htop tells me this). ...
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Fedora 32 Immediate Wake-up after Suspend

Description: On my machine, after I clicked "Suspend", when the system goes completely dark, it will always automatically wake up in 1-2 seconds. No data or status loss but I just can't get ...
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Hibernate to separate partition or file from system swap to prevent failure

Having done a fair bit of reading and searching for this I don't believe what I am hoping for is possible, but wondered if anyone knows differently. The issue is my laptop keeps failing to hibernate ...
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“Preempting” less-used pages in high priority swap to lower priority swap

Let's say I've got two swap partitions on my Linux machine. One is zram and a higher priority. The other is on disk and a lower priority. I prefer the zram swap because it's faster. As I understand it,...
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rhel + why swap memory isn't exploited

we have rhel servers with version 7.6 we configured the swap and we can see the swap size from the following free -g total used free shared buff/cache available ...
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Testing swap partition on OpenVZ vps

I am attempting to confirm swap usage on an OpenVZ vps. (I have had issues with badly configured swap files before) To do so I am slowly filling the memory using code from this question How to test ...
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rhel + adding swap memory without reboot

we do the following procedure in order to add swap memory on rhel 7.x machine so before the swap additional memory we have : free -g total used free shared buff/cache ...
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Where can I find options used for swap devices?

When adding swap space for paging there are options other than priority (pri=). For example discard. However I could not find where to read back those options. /proc/swaps just has a priority column, ...
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What is swap priority and why does it matter

While seeing the manual for swapon command the priorty option is described as -p, --priority priority Specify the priority of the swap device. priority is a value ...
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Linux increase swap partition failed

First I fdisk -l check disk usage Then check swap file, find /dev/dm-1 is my swap path I know I can increase swap by adding swap file, but I was wondering if I can do it by revising the default path ...
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Swap file with Btrfs and multiple device

System specs: # btrfs filesystem show Label: none uuid: 3899c47c-19e8-4db3-aac9-.... Total devices 2 FS bytes used 2.00TiB devid 1 size 931.42GiB used 690.01GiB path /dev/nvme1n1p2 ...
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High IO rate when the system out of RAM

I found that when the system goes out of memory, the disk IO usage will be very high. It seems many processes are reading from hard disk frantically (check htop output below). When I kill a process ...
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Differences between swap part in top command vs swap -l command

I have a system running with 256Gb RAM. My swap space is getting exhausted due to some process. So as a diagnostics, we put a crontab to monitor the usage and space. This is where I am confused. The ...
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Ubuntu 20.04.01, full disk encryption, btrfs, & hibernation?

I am trying to install *20.04.01 on my desktop with full (or almost full as Tj puts it) disk encryption including encrypted swap partition that allows hibernation, and btrfs. The last few years I am ...
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Swap partition vs swap file in ubuntu [closed]

I am a new linux user switched from windows 10. I have installed ubuntu 20.04.1 lts. I have swap file available in my system. Is it better to use swap partition instead of swap file? Thanks in advance!...
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High RAM and swap usage out of seemingly nowhere

(Manjaro 20, Linux 5.8.3, KDE, this laptop) When reasonably much is going on in my system, the RAM and swap usage often goes much higher than it should. For example currently I have a VM with a VM in ...
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How can I increase the size of an encrypted swap partition when the root partition already takes up all free space?

My laptop is getting kinda slow, especially when having Firefox opened with multiple tabs, which is why I'm trying different ways to make it a little snappier. It has an Intel Core 2 Duo T5600, 2 GB ...
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Will hibernation to swap partition automatically fall back to swap file when swap is smaller than RAM?

I'd like to understand how the hibernation process works in Linux, with regards to memory size and swap. Is hibernation limited to swap partition size? What does it do when RAM doesn't fit? Consider ...
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Is the “page-to-disk” feature Linus talks about in his autobiography essentially the concept of swapping we use today?

In his autobiography, Just for Fun, Linus mentions the "page-to-disk" feature that was pivotal in making Linux a worthy competitor to Minix and other UNIX clones of the day: I remember that,...

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