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Questions tagged [storage]

Use this tag to refer to any kind of data retention device (RAM, flash, hard disks, magnetic tape, punch cards, etc.), its means of separating pieces of information (files, blocks, sectors, etc.) or how to record and retrieve them. This is a very broad topic so selecting other tags relating to the medium (hard-drive, cdrom, etc.) or the format used on it (fat, ntfs, ext, f2fs, etc.) may help to identify it further.

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Can I inspect the VMware VMDK properties of disks used by a Linux guest from within that guest?

We operate Linux VMs hosted on a VMWare ESX cluster. We may provide several disks (VMDKs) to a VM, of different storage types: fast and expensive (SSD) vs. slower and cheaper (HDD). Is there any way ...
reinierpost's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
66 views

io_uring with `fio` fails on Rocky 9.3 w/kernel 5.14.0-362.18.1.el9_3.x86_64

I've tried various variations of the command: fio --name=test --ioengine=io_uring --iodepth=64 --rw=rw --bs=4k --direct=1 --size=2G --numjobs=24 --filename=/dev/sdc lower queue depth direct set to 1/...
Grant Curell's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
335 views

How much space do I need to create a symlink?

I have a server which contains 1 TB of space. I filled it to capacity; then I wanted to make a symlink. I removed a different symlink, but the server still wasn't happy - it said I didn't have any ...
Yehuda's user avatar
  • 301
1 vote
3 answers
59 views

How can I view only non-storage devices using lsusb, lsblk, or similar?

I'd like to see a list of connected USB Devices (eg. Usb Mouse, USB Keyboard) without having to go through a list of devices that includes internal and external storage devices (eg. internal HDD, USB ...
Lee's user avatar
  • 105
-3 votes
1 answer
49 views

what is storage virtualization in contrast to? [closed]

i'm reading up on storage virtualization https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storage_virtualization and i'm trying to understand what this is in contrast to, or a solution to, or why it exists at all? some ...
How To Linux's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
26 views

How does Lustre decide how much of a file to restore to front-end storage when a program reads a file?

I read about the Lustre file system: With huge files, it’s unusual for the entire file to be restored to frontend storage How does Lustre decide how much of a file to restore to front-end storage ...
Franck Dernoncourt's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
208 views

If I have a json string how do I calculate the number of bytes needed when stored?

I have a json string formatted displayed in a web page. What I am trying to understand is what is the size in terms of bytes that this json string requires. If I copy and pipe to wc -c I get 1000 ...
Jim's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
53 views

How are block devices physically addressed in a file system

In this book, the following is mentioned about filesystem addressing: A file system does not need to concern itself with where on the physical media a block should be put, that is the job of the ...
user1234234's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
44 views

How are data organized when written in the Micro SD cards? [closed]

How are data organized when written in the Micro SD cards as there are no mechanical spinning platters like hard disks?
ordinary_guy's user avatar
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0 answers
40 views

How to write a pre-mount startup script for dracut?

I want to create a script that suspends the system for 2 seconds before filesystem mount because of a firmware bug on my acer laptop specified on the ArchLinux-Wiki. That article tells me how to do it ...
TskTskTsk's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
367 views

Disk space is not freed up when deleting files on a hard drive

After deleting files on a veracrypt-encrypted drive with no disk space left, no disk space is freed up. I'm trying to sync a hard drive to another one as described here. That target drive is full and ...
mYnDstrEAm's user avatar
  • 4,340
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0 answers
30 views

Undertanding the performance of replication in distributed storage

I have a bit of a struggle understanding the performance when using replication in distributed storage solutions (Linstor/DRBD in my case). I have 3 storage nodes, 10 NVMe each. Each NVMe has a write ...
huynp's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
51 views

Where did my disk space go and why can't I analyze it?

I am using ZorinOS lite mainly for rclone. The PC mainly hast the job to copy/ sync Files from one Cloud to another. Also a few very important business applications as the tabletop simulator for ...
owmal's user avatar
  • 101
0 votes
1 answer
129 views

Best pratice to remove a fail disk/PV from VG

I'm new to LVM and still don't know what is best practice to remove a failed disk/PV? For example: I have a thin pool my_volume_group/my_lv. I remove a disk (/dev/sde) from the raid controller, and ...
huynp's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
64 views

How to locate the data of thin volume of LVM

I have a vg with pool and thin volumes. When I read the configuration, I found the extent description of 2 thin volumes are the same. thinvolume { id = "FjDv9Z-vUt0-S1h5-uVil-spU2-...
areslee's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
23 views

Help with Analyzing NFS Architecture in a Cluster Sharing a Home Directory Across Two Servers"

I Am very confused because I am trying to understand the architecture without documentation,we have a NFS architecture of a cluster of PCs that share the same home directory ( Server1 is a Pc of a ...
Matteo S.'s user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
734 views

It possible use SSD as cache?

I have a linux media server that I use mainly with plex and Serviio(dlna server). I have a t400 4gb gpu (transcoding), 16GB ddr4 ram and an i7-6700 cpu. Now, I have 3 SSDs: 1TB for movies, 250GB for ...
vincenzogianfelice's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
49 views

Data Replication Approaches for Hot Standby Architecture

I'm relatively new to the world of storage & filesystems (please forgive me if I'm not using the correct language), and I'm currently researching ways to achieve a hot standby configuration -- i.e....
Pacopenguin's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
174 views

How to use vdbench to do multiple operations concurrently on the 3 file system

I want to use following vdbench parameter files to do muliple operations concurrently on the 3 file system, however, the execute failed as in below. Can some one help to check what is wrong in the ...
lei wang's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
72 views

USB Gadget Size Limitation - Mass Storage Emulation

I'm facing a challenge with my Raspberry Pi 4 and software setup. The Pi connects to my server to download a weekly-updated database. The problem arises from the Mass Storage Gadget's CD emulator, ...
Christos Galanopoulos's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
111 views

Seeking advise on how to divide storage between Volume Groups and Logical Volumes on SSD and HDD disks for home server

I am building a home server to host a few self hosted apps in docker (Ubuntu LTS). I would like to put all the files for the apps in the user home folder to keep them in one place and easy back up. I ...
Alabaster3552's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
62 views

Most space-efficient way of using rsync to do incremental back up?

If we do rsync -a --link-dest=dest1 src dest2 Then rsync will only copy files in src which have been modified compared to dest1. However, even if only one byte in a 1GB file is modified, the entire ...
Ma Joad's user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
0 answers
1k views

How to extend partitions in CentOS Linux

I want to extend the /opt partition with 50 GB. I have CentOS 7 on VMWare esxi with 50 GB of storage. The server is partitioned during the installation process as follows: And here is the output of ...
Abdallah Bakr's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
27 views

Dimensioning inodes count when creating a filesystem

I am trying to understand when and how to go from the default inode count when creating an ext4 filesystem. I will reformat a 1 TB SSD, with an ext4 filesystem. The 1 TB SSD will be mounted to a ...
stackQA's user avatar
  • 103
0 votes
1 answer
210 views

Script to send an alert mail once the disk space is above 90% sends disk full even when the disk isn't full, how to resolve this issue?

#!/bin/bash df -m > myfile server_ip_address=$(ip addr show $(ip route | awk '/default/ { print $5 }') | grep "inet" | head -n 1 | awk '/inet/ {print $2}' | cut -d'/' -f1) if awk '$2 &...
achhainsan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

Why hf -h returns correct total disk space but hf default returns incorrect number of 1024 blocks?

I was testing hf command on VirtualBox VM, Lubuntu with exactly 30 Gb allocated virtual drive (note: real Gb not gibi/mebi stuff). But some very strange stuff happens when I use hf command: root@vbox:~...
ScienceDiscoverer's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
23 views

Unbalance page cache in favour of write activities

I'm using a SMR (Shingled magnetic recording) disk. This technology is known to perform poorly on non-sequential write operations. It is quite fast at sequential write operations: fio --name TEST --...
Mario's user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
0 answers
184 views

LVM2 partially destroyed using the "fio" command in a wrong way - how to recover what can be recovered

i already posted my question on the Proxmox forum because that is the hypervisor i am using, however i take the opportunity of doing it here as well, the more people sees it the better chance i have ...
mauro23's user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
1 answer
104 views

What checksums are involved/recalculated in a ZFS send/recv?

I read a while back that a zfs send/recv is more immune to memory errors than a standard rsync, because it retains all of the zfs on disk checksums. I can no longer find this post, but the more I ...
zfspan's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
1 answer
39 views

UNIX - Determine Physical Device of specific File System

While trying to troubleshoot a possible I/O disk performance issue on AIX 7.2: $ oslevel -r 7200-05 $ oslevel 7.2.0.0 I'm trying to understand how to identify the target device (iostat), without ...
edwio's user avatar
  • 113
1 vote
0 answers
28 views

Knowing which storage device is bottleneck between two devices when transfering data?

I'm backing up my entire internal storage of my Android device with ADB to the PC storage with OS Windows with Git Bash: adb exec-out "tar -c storage/emulated/0 | gzip" > ...
Muhammad Ikhwan Perwira's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
953 views

"Read Capacity(10) failed" and "Sense Key : Illegal Request" with a SATA-to-USB adapter

What is the meaning of these error messages in the system log, when I plug in a 2.5" spinning-disk SATA drive that I know works, using a USB-to-SATA adapter? Jun 25 16:08:07 hostname kernel: [...
Kevin E's user avatar
  • 468
2 votes
1 answer
909 views

How to measure the role of btrfs in SSD wear on my PC?

I've used btrfs for my encrypted partitions (luks) on Samsung EVO SSDs. The disks failed faster than expected. How can I assess whether e.g. ext4 would be more reliable on these disks for my usage, or ...
Nemo's user avatar
  • 584
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

How can I extend a partition on a Linux disk without risking data loss or damage to other partitions?

I have a Linux (Virtual) Machine that is running into a storage problem. There is a disk called vda that is split into three partitions, vda1, vda2, and vda3. Originally, vda only had a storage ...
32tv45twgfr's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
213 views

Check if Docker volume-mounted path is on HDD or SSD?

In Linux, it is relatively easy to determine whether a drive is an HDD or SSD. However, is there a method to achieve the same result when you only have a path? I need to check, from within a Docker ...
Maestro's user avatar
  • 191
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

Which 'Linux-Only' filesystem is suitable for backup and resilience in 2023 [closed]

I want to understand which filesystem (FS) will be most suitable for the purpose of data archival. Following are the usage parameters and requirements the FS should be able to meet: Backup medium is ...
BhaveshDiwan's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
801 views

How to shrink /home

I need to shrink my /home partition in order to create a new partition. I came across this guide How to Reduce LVM Partition Size in RHEL and CentOS, but I have a few additional questions. What is ...
Lenny's user avatar
  • 1
-1 votes
1 answer
3k views

storage issues with live boot with kali issues with or w/o persistence. installer issues too

okay so when i boot up my live boot with my drive (64GB) everything works fine but i only have 5.5gb left there storage or so. When i go to /run folder there is 1.1gb left there when i go to /run/live ...
jlee's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
103 views

Is my disk failing?

I'm troubleshooting a Debian Buster system that occasionally becomes unresponsive. Looking at dmesg, I see some alarming messages pop up: [Wed Apr 19 19:39:47 2023] ata1.00: exception Emask 0x10 SAct ...
rgov's user avatar
  • 213
0 votes
0 answers
701 views

How can I add more storage to a persistent usb with Linux mint on it?

I have created a persistent usb with Linux Mint on a 128 Gb thumb drive. When I first created it I guess I only allocated 80 Gb for persistence. Now that I have been using it for a couple months the ...
Owings671's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

How make security storage that works with file protocol?

There is some system that stores report files in a local folder. Information security department wants these reports to be stored not on the local server, but in a remote secured storage and that the ...
VladF's user avatar
  • 53
1 vote
0 answers
326 views

Linux server dev/sda1 full according to df-command, but no files that explain this. What can be done?

My Linux Ubuntu server stopped working properly after I left a Docker container process working. The server storage is now, according to the result from running "df", completely full. There ...
Ruja's user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
0 answers
303 views

Linux root partition filling up

I have desktop machine acting as a server for my home network (Ubuntu 20.04). In recent weeks, df reports the percentage of disk usage rapidly increasing, up to 100% in a few days (the rate of disk ...
Jesse Hughes's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
19 views

How do I change the drive that I boot from but still boot to the same distro?

I am using pop os and I just got an nvme drive. I am not sure what I need to move there and how. I am also not quite sure where to start as I have never done anything storage related more complicated ...
FFFluoride's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
231 views

LVM extend single disk clarification

I need an explanation or a confirmation of how LVM volume can be expanded. Below here's the storage management that come from a single VM that has 1 physical disk, this one is split into sda1 as a ...
motorbass's user avatar
  • 167
-1 votes
1 answer
680 views

what is "dd if=/dev/zero of=/storage2/test4.img bs=1M count=256" usage?

I would be thankful if someone can explain me what does following command exactly doing: dd if=/dev/zero of=/storage2/test4.img bs=1M count=256
user565896's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

Conflict with multiple SDcard readers of the same brand connected at the same time

I have some Lexar UHS-II card readers (I believe the model is LRWM05U-7000), and when I connect more than one I realize some operations read/write from/to the wrong reader. Some apps do not even ...
TonyStacker's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

replacing hot swap disk on same controller DL380

I have a DL380 G9 server with RAID card and a few RAID LD setups. IT has some unassigned drives too. These are on the same SAS controller. I know that when disk fails I can remove it and plug in a &...
rajeev's user avatar
  • 245
1 vote
0 answers
554 views

How to resize /home partition to solve "No space left on device"?

When I tried to install some python packages with pip, I got [Errno 28] No space left on device. Can I add some free space from sdb to /home(or /)? >> df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% ...
ChufanSuki's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
158 views

Is there a simple way to delete MRS partition in new external drive?

I just bought a 5TB external USB drive. This is what lsblk shows for it: % lsblk --output=NAME,FSTYPE,LABEL,SIZE /dev/sdd NAME FSTYPE LABEL SIZE sdd ...
kjo's user avatar
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