Questions tagged [standard]

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Netflix and Linux and VM

I heard that Netflix needs PlayReady 3.0, Widevine, HEVC 10 bits de/encoder, HDCP 2.2... to play 4K/UHD contents So I want to know if Linux support these technologies, and if Netflix support those ...
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1answer
55 views

Why does ISO C / POSIX time() have an optional pointer argument

ISO C / POSIX declare the time() function like this: time_t time(time_t *tloc); The documentation says: The time() function shall return the value of time in seconds since the Epoch. The tloc ...
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1answer
52 views

Is Perl a standard for *nix hosting companies? [closed]

I never worked with Perl but in this community I bump time and again on recommendations to work with it, often as a "completion" for shell scripts. Is Perl a standard for *nix hosting ...
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1answer
24 views

Get the output of a remote ssh to local

I'm able to get the output of a failing lp command from a remotehost to my local script like below: until ssh -q root@remotehost 'lp -d Brother_HL_L2350DW_series /root/moht/Printed/`basename "$...
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2answers
1k views

View POSIX draft standards

The GNU sed manpage says: The -E option switches to using extended regular expressions instead; it has been supported for years by GNU sed, and is now included in POSIX. However, POSIX Issue ...
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2answers
110 views

Is a NEWLINE character at line end required by LSB (Linux Standard Base)?

Both POSIX and SUS (Single UNIX Specification) define a line as A sequence of zero or more non-<newline> characters plus a terminating <newline> character. Many distributions are more ...
12
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2answers
619 views

What is POSIX awk's stance on null byte in variables/printf?

Is it legal to print null bytes using awk's printf function according to POSIX? The POSIX standard of awk does not seem to explicitly mention it either way. Real world implementations differ in how ...
1
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1answer
44 views

Why is it legal to have white space before builtin function in awk?

I am trying to understand how busybox's awk works so I'm looking into the standard and hit weird thing which I do not fully understand why is legal. Standard ( https://pubs.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/...
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0answers
16 views

RHEL based distros and FHS (and postgres)

Under CentOS, i see postgres config files are located in '/var/lib/...' (instead of '/etc'). In FHS specifications, under '/var/lib' (chapter 5, section 8.1) it is specified: This hierarchy holds ...
2
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2answers
74 views

Why does lvm2 use mixed case UUIDs?

I noticed that lvm2 objects use mixed case UUIDs: ~ # lvdisplay ...
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2answers
76 views

Utility dependence in shell

I know that the "layer" architecture of any *nix OS is kernel-shell-utility ("inner to outer"). if we installed say Debian-Server and got some CLI utilities with it, Should all these utilities work ...
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0answers
54 views

Why does mtab live in etc? [duplicate]

Something I've never understood with linux is why a status file is stored under /etc. As far as I know /etc/ is for configuration (relatively static) configuration files. But /etc/mtab shows the ...
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2answers
502 views

Why does Apple care if macOS is officially called UNIX? [closed]

Based on my understanding, if the owners of an OS want their OS to be officially called UNIX, they must get a certification from The Open Group. macOS version 10.14 Mojave, as well as some (or maybe ...
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1answer
3k views

WM_CLASS vs WM_INSTANCE?

When I run xprop I get a class string that has two values, one of them i3 calls an instance, the other a class, for example on chromium-browser the xprop utility will return something like this, ...
2
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2answers
796 views

Different standards of ELF (SysV vs TIS) and Linux?

There are at least two standards of Executable and Linkable Format (ELF), one of them System V Application Binary Interface AMD64 Architecture Processor Supplement (With LP64 and ILP32 Programming ...
4
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1answer
949 views

Is Linux considered XSI compliant or largely so?

From APUE The Single UNIX Specification, a superset of the POSIX.1 standard, specifies additional interfaces that extend the functionality provided by the POSIX.1 specification. POSIX.1 is ...
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0answers
184 views

Move from single configuration files to .d directories in Linux

Note: I am not asking specifically about rc as in The rc0.d,rc1.d,... directories in /etc Many guides on the internet and this website remember the days when Linux distributions by default used files ...
0
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1answer
95 views

linux + write both standard output and stand error to log and to console

log=/tmp/log.txt the follwing syntax write all standard output and stand art error to log.txt file exec > $log 2>&1 what we want is to write both standard output and stand art error to log.txt ...
8
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2answers
2k views

Does POSIX standardize the file descriptor numbers?

Does POSIX mandate that stdin is 0, stdout is 1 and stderr is 2 or is this only a convention? Do other systems diverge from that convention or is it a safe assumption?
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3answers
655 views

Do variables and aliases fall under the same category?

This is a terminology/architecture question. Some of the most basic implementations for easier control of a system are variables and aliases (and some might add symlinks). Both variables and ...
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3answers
1k views

how to send standard output and standard error to two files

I use the following syntax in order to send standard output and standard error to $log file log=/var/tmp/install.log info=/tmp/info.log exec > $log 2>&1 how to redirect both standard ...
0
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1answer
2k views

How to make sed regex syntax work as python or javascript? [duplicate]

I have asked a question insert a string to a list variables in text file [use sed] In which @RomanPerekhrest showed me a different regex syntax. \(=([^)]*\)) can capture [^)]* as group 1 . This is ...
3
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1answer
193 views

Can $PAGER contain spaces?

I'm writing an application from which I want to run a user-specified pager. The standard way to do this seems to be to look at the PAGER environment variable. I'm unclear as to whether this is a ...
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2answers
265 views

Sendmail compatibility interface

Postfix (and lots of other stuff) claim they offer sendmail compatible interface. Since I want to write my own sendmail implementation, I was wondering what that actually means. Is there anything RFC-...
3
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3answers
8k views

Unprintable characters as input in command line

I've got a program that requires some unprintable characters like 0x0F (ctrl+o) as input to execute the intended part of the program. 0 000 00 NUL &#000; Null ...
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1answer
568 views

Confusion about changing meaning of arguments and options, is there an official standard definition?

I came across a confusing variation in the understanding what options and arguments are with regard to the syntax of commands. For instance, I encountered definitions like: command -a -b -c d e f ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Does the UNIX standard require case-sensitive filesystems?

One answer to this question mentions the UNIX 03 certification of OSX. Now AFAIK the standard file system of OSX is/was HFS, which "saves the case of a file that is created or renamed but is case-...
1
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1answer
96 views

Any reason why find does not merge multiple slashes into one?

Is it true that find is not supposed to be doing even the most simple path unification/simplifications operations, such as coalescing multiple successive slashes together (which would be equivalent to ...
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5answers
8k views

Do progress reports/logging information belong on stderr or stdout?

Is there an official POSIX, GNU, or other guideline on where progress reports and logging information (things like "Doing foo; foo done") should be printed? Personally, I tend to write them to stderr ...
3
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1answer
15k views

Recommended GID for users group in Linux (100 or 1000)?

I have several GNU/Linux installations that share home and data directories. Over time some user files in these directories have received the group ID 100 (users group under some variants of Linux), ...
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2answers
53 views

Heuristics for making use of or dismissing old documentation [closed]

Getting them as search results or following reference links, I often come across documentation produced some time ago. A few months, a few years. Sometimes the documents are marked as deprecated or ...
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2answers
3k views

An official standard / convention for a file extension for shell scripts to source

I was wondering if there is a convention for file type extensions for shell scripts you want to source instead of run. For example: If I want to run this script in a subshell. ./script.sh If I ...
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1answer
56 views

Where can I find the most recent dictionary of standard Linux Audit event fields?

I am writing a converter which takes Linux Audit logs as input. I tried to find the most recent dictionary file where all the valid names of the fields are defined. I've found such a file[1] but the ...
11
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2answers
5k views

Is there a Linux distro that's UNIX certified?

Is there a Linux distribution certified with the Single UNIX Specification? What are the primary reasons that most distributions don't get certified?
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2answers
5k views

bash: --argument vs -arg [duplicate]

In most scripts (but mainly bash) it's commonplace to see some arguments that are configured like so: bash-4.3:$ command --longer-argument -la Where did this originate from? I'm mainly just curious ...
4
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2answers
3k views

What is the unix mailbox format?

man git-format-patch makes reference of the UNIX mailbox format which is a term I am unfamiliar with. A google search for "UNIX mailbox format" and similar expressions lists many hits with the term ...
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2answers
2k views

Connect to a wireless network as standard user without administrator authentication Linux Mint 17.3

I'm trying to get a standard user on my laptop installed with Linux Mint 17.3 on the wireless. I can get to the internet just fine logged in with an administrator but as soon as i log in with a ...
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0answers
204 views

How is an icon theme supposed to be organised?

While trying to find out the icon used for a mimetype, I noticed that gnome and oxygen icon themes on my Arch Linux and Ubuntu 14.04 had the following folder structures: gnome/48x48: apps mimetypes ...
2
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1answer
144 views

Why doesn't cc (the C compiler) and similar utilities use standard streams by default? [closed]

Background If think most of us agree that filters and pipes are the very foundation of Unix systems. Pipes and filters are very powerful tools. Almost all Unix utilities use the standard input and ...
2
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2answers
5k views

What is the difference between bash script and shell script [duplicate]

As there are different kinds of shells, What is the difference between bash and shell scripts and is there any compatible script on can write that runs on al unix shells
1
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1answer
287 views

`man` pages for languages other than C (e.g, python, R, javascript, etc)?

man pages are a phenomenal resource while programming in C on Linux. While looking at someone else's code, if you see something foreign you can immediate research it in another terminal with $ man 3 ...
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2answers
356 views

Are basic system administrator utilities such as useradd or adduser standardized?

Are basic system administrator utilities such as useradd or adduser standardized? If so, where can I find the specs? (POSIX doesn't seem to encompass those, but I might need to take a better look).
2
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1answer
1k views

Is CTRL+4 equal to ^4 or ^$ in caret notation?

This is a problem I have been thinking about. This Wikipedia page suggests that Ctrl+{Symbol} uses the shifted variant of {Symbol} when written in Caret notation. This suggests that CTRL+\ becomes ^...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Is there a common naming convention for daemon user accounts?

I'm from a windows background where I'm used to creating separate domain service accounts for running various services. I like to keep things need so I would name them DOMAIN\service.whatever I'm ...
7
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1answer
359 views

What are the 'n', 'l', '3pm' sections of the manual for?

An excerpt from the man man page: The default action is to search in all of the available sections following a pre-defined order ("1 n l 8 3 2 3posix 3pm 3perl 5 4 9 6 7" by default) What are ...
7
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1answer
1k views

What three files are always opened by a process?

Someone mentioned that there are three different files that a process always opens. What does this mean? What files are they?
2
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1answer
588 views

Propose additional file descriptor “stdmeta” [closed]

I know that one can define additional file descriptors for ad-hoc use. However, I see real use for a "stdmeta" file descriptor that would be supported by common CLI tools. This file descriptor would ...
23
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2answers
25k views

practical usage of /etc/networks file

What is the practical usage of /etc/networks file? As I understand, one can give names to networks in this file. For example: root@fw-test:~# cat /etc/networks default 0.0.0.0 loopback ...
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0answers
104 views

OS X Yosemite is SUS - Single Unix Specification 3 certified. But what posix standard is it compliant to? the latest one is 2008

I'm confused. Is SUS compliance the same as POSIX compliance? Is yosemite compliant to the latest standards, what years exactly?
3
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1answer
98 views

Are there any user guaranteed to exist on the system

Beside the root (which I guess IS guaranteed), is there any other username guaranteed to exist on Unix system? Linux system? Fixed UIDs for those users? If not guaraneed, are there at least any ...