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Questions tagged [shell]

The shell is Unix's command-line interface. You can type commands in a shell interactively, or write scripts to automate tasks. Use this tag for questions applying to /bin/sh and most compatible shells (ash, bash, ksh, zsh, …). For shell scripts with errors, please check them in before posting here.

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375 votes
6 answers

Why does my shell script choke on whitespace or other special characters?

… or an introductory guide to robust filename handling and other string passing in shell scripts. I wrote a shell script which works well most of the time. But it chokes on some inputs (e.g. on some ...
Gilles 'SO- stop being evil''s user avatar
281 votes
5 answers

Why is using a shell loop to process text considered bad practice?

Is using a while loop to process text generally considered bad practice in POSIX shells? As Stéphane Chazelas pointed out, some of the reasons for not using shell loop are conceptual, reliability, ...
cuonglm's user avatar
  • 155k
279 votes
10 answers

Why *not* parse `ls` (and what to do instead)?

I consistently see answers quoting this link stating definitively "Don't parse ls!" This bothers me for a couple of reasons: It seems the information in that link has been accepted wholesale with ...
mikeserv's user avatar
  • 58.7k
181 votes
1 answer

When is double-quoting necessary?

The old advice used to be to double-quote any expression involving a $VARIABLE, at least if one wanted it to be interpreted by the shell as one single item, otherwise, any spaces in the content of $...
kjo's user avatar
  • 15.6k
276 votes
4 answers

Security implications of forgetting to quote a variable in bash/POSIX shells

If you've been following for a while, you should hopefully know by now that leaving a variable unquoted in list context (as in echo $var) in Bourne/POSIX shells (zsh being the ...
Stéphane Chazelas's user avatar
434 votes
3 answers

What are the shell's control and redirection operators?

I often see tutorials online that connect various commands with different symbols. For example: command1 | command2 command1 & command2 command1 || command2 command1 && command2 ...
terdon's user avatar
  • 244k
197 votes
6 answers

How can we run a command stored in a variable?

$ ls -l /tmp/test/my\ dir/ total 0 I was wondering why the following ways to run the above command fail or succeed? $ abc='ls -l "/tmp/test/my dir"' $ $abc ls: cannot access '"/tmp/test/my': No ...
Tim's user avatar
  • 103k
490 votes
6 answers

Why not use "which"? What to use then?

When looking for the path to an executable or checking what would happen if you enter a command name in a Unix shell, there's a plethora of different utilities (which, type, command, whence, where, ...
Stéphane Chazelas's user avatar
156 votes
1 answer

Understanding the -exec option of `find`

I find myself constantly looking up the syntax of find . -name "FILENAME" -exec rm {} \; mainly because I don't see how exactly the -exec part works. What is the meaning of the braces, the ...
Zsolt Szilagy's user avatar
1609 votes
10 answers

What is the exact difference between a 'terminal', a 'shell', a 'tty' and a 'console'?

I think these terms almost refer to the same thing, when used loosely: terminal shell tty console What exactly does each of these terms refer to?
Lazer's user avatar
  • 35.5k
543 votes
15 answers

How to turn off stdout buffering in a pipe?

I have a script which calls two commands: long_running_command | print_progress The long_running_command prints progress but I'm unhappy with it. I'm using print_progress to make it nicer (namely, I ...
Aaron Digulla's user avatar
421 votes
17 answers

How to do integer & float calculations, in bash or other languages/frameworks?

Using echo "20+5" literally produces the text "20+5". What command can I use to get the numeric sum, 25 in this case? Also, what's the easiest way to do it just using bash for floating point? For ...
Michael Durrant's user avatar
565 votes
8 answers

Difference between Login Shell and Non-Login Shell?

I understand the basic difference between an interactive shell and a non-interactive shell. But what exactly differentiates a login shell from a non-login shell? Can you give examples for uses of a ...
Igorio's user avatar
  • 7,597
20 votes
2 answers

Brackets in if condition: why am I getting syntax errors without whitespace?

I am using the below script to move two days back when script runs at starting two days of the year and also check first and second days of every month and move two days back. if [$month="01"...
Kumar1's user avatar
  • 341
139 votes
7 answers

Redirecting stdout to a file you don't have write permission on

When you attempt to modify a file without having write permissions on it, you get an error: > touch /tmp/foo && sudo chown root /tmp/foo > echo test > /tmp/foo zsh: permission denied:...
Michael Mrozek's user avatar
217 votes
3 answers

$VAR vs ${VAR} and to quote or not to quote

I can write VAR=$VAR1 VAR=${VAR1} VAR="$VAR1" VAR="${VAR1}" the end result to me all seems about the same. Why should I write one or the other? are any of these not portable/POSIX?
xenoterracide's user avatar
267 votes
11 answers

Allow setuid on shell scripts

The setuid permission bit tells Linux to run a program with the effective user id of the owner instead of the executor: > cat setuid-test.c #include <stdio.h> #include <unistd.h> int ...
Michael Mrozek's user avatar
52 votes
1 answer

Is it possible to use `find -exec sh -c` safely?

I'm trying to use find to echo 0 into some files, but apparently this only works with sh -c: find /proc/sys/net/ipv6 -name accept_ra -exec sh -c 'echo 0 > {}' \; But using sh -c with find -exec ...
Martin von Wittich's user avatar
823 votes
5 answers

What does "--" (double dash / double hyphen) mean?

I have seen -- used in the compgen command. For example: compgen -W "foo bar baz" -- b What is the meaning of the -- in there?
dogbane's user avatar
  • 30k
73 votes
1 answer

What is the difference between the "...", '...', $'...', and $"..." quotes in the shell?

Sometimes I see shell scripts use all of these different ways of quoting some text: "...", '...', $'...', and $"...". Why are there so many different kinds of quote being used? Do ...
Michael Homer's user avatar
153 votes
3 answers

Have backticks (i.e. `cmd`) in *sh shells been deprecated?

I've seen this comment many times on Unix & Linux as well as on other sites that use the phrasing "backticks have been deprecated", with respect to shells such as Bash & Zsh. Is this ...
slm's user avatar
  • 372k
497 votes
10 answers

How do I delete a file whose name begins with "-" (hyphen a.k.a. dash or minus)?

How do you remove a file whose filename begins with a dash (hyphen or minus) -? I'm ssh'd into a remote OSX server and I have this file in my directory: tohru:~ $ ls -l total 8 -rw-r--r-- 1 me ...
Astra's user avatar
  • 5,073
112 votes
4 answers

What is the difference between sourcing ('.' or 'source') and executing a file in bash?

What's the difference between executing a script like this: ./ and executing a script like this: . I tried a simple, two-line script to see if I could find if there was a ...
Nathan's user avatar
  • 1,253
148 votes
11 answers

What is the difference between $* and $@?

Consider the following code: foo () { echo $* } bar () { echo $@ } foo 1 2 3 4 bar 1 2 3 4 It outputs: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 I am using Ksh88, but I am interested in other common ...
rahmu's user avatar
  • 20.1k
206 votes
14 answers

Batch renaming files

I have a directory full of images: image0001.png image0002.png image0003.png ... And I would like a one-liner to rename them to (say). 0001.png 0002.png 0003.png ... How do I do this?
Internet man's user avatar
  • 3,691
78 votes
5 answers

Pass shell variable as a /pattern/ to awk

Having the following in one of my shell functions: function _process () { awk -v l="$line" ' BEGIN {p=0} /'"$1"'/ {p=1} END{ if(p) print l >> "outfile.txt" } ' } , so when called as ...
branquito's user avatar
  • 1,027
53 votes
5 answers

How can I use $variable in a shell brace expansion of a sequence?

I want to use $var in a shell brace expansion with a range, in bash. Simply putting {$var1..$var2} doesn't work, so I went "lateral"... The following works, but it's a bit kludgey. # remove the ...
Peter.O's user avatar
  • 33.1k
142 votes
6 answers

How to pass parameters to an alias?

For bash script, I can use "$@" to access arguments. What's the equivalent when I use an alias?
prosseek's user avatar
  • 8,598
290 votes
6 answers

What's the difference between $(stuff) and `stuff`?

There are two syntaxes for command substitution: with dollar-parentheses and with backticks. Running top -p $(pidof init) and top -p `pidof init` gives the same output. Are these two ways of doing the ...
tshepang's user avatar
  • 66.2k
787 votes
6 answers

Difference between nohup, disown and &

What are the differences between $ nohup foo and $ foo & and $ foo & $ disown
Lesmana's user avatar
  • 27.6k
93 votes
4 answers

How can I make environment variables "exported" in a shell script stick around?

I have multiple Amazon EC2 accounts and want to quickly be able to switch variables, such as $EC2_HOME, using a script. I have have a shell script set up like this: #!/bin/sh export EC2_HOME=/home/...
cwd's user avatar
  • 45.7k
30 votes
3 answers

Which shell interpreter runs a script with no shebang?

Suppose the default shell for my account is zsh but I opened the terminal and fired up bash and executed a script named, which shell interpreter would be used to execute the script, zsh or ...
7_R3X's user avatar
  • 1,184
568 votes
7 answers

What is the difference between the Bash operators [[ vs [ vs ( vs ((?

I am a little bit confused on what do these operators do differently when used in bash (brackets, double brackets, parenthesis and double parenthesis). [[ , [ , ( , (( I have seen people use them on ...
RetroCode's user avatar
  • 5,829
78 votes
4 answers

Why doesn't the tilde (~) expand inside double quotes?

According to this answer and my own understanding, the tilde expands to the home directory: $ echo ~ /home/braiam Now, whenever I want the shell expansion to work, i. e. using variable names such $...
Braiam's user avatar
  • 36.3k
18 votes
2 answers

How to use a special character as a normal one in Unix shells?

Many questions like 'How to type the double-quote char (")?' are being asked, and we don't want to clutter our community with the same answer (Type it as \" if not enclosed in 's, " if enclosed in 's.)...
EKons's user avatar
  • 954
516 votes
21 answers

Get exit status of process that's piped to another

I have two processes foo and bar, connected with a pipe: $ foo | bar bar always exits 0; I'm interested in the exit code of foo. Is there any way to get at it?
Michael Mrozek's user avatar
42 votes
3 answers

Spaces in variable assignments in shell scripts

What is the difference between below variables assignments? var=23 var =23 var= 23 var = 23 Is there any difference in space around the assignment operator?
ajay's user avatar
  • 461
155 votes
5 answers

How to escape quotes in the bash shell?

I'm having trouble with escaping characters in bash. I'd like to escape single and double quotes while running a command under a different user. For the purposes of this question let's say I want to ...
m33lky's user avatar
  • 2,635
74 votes
4 answers

Order of redirections

I don't quite understand how the computer reads this command. cat file1 file2 1> file.txt 2>&1 If I understand, 2>&1 simply redirect Standard Error to Standard Output. By that ...
iDontKnowBetter's user avatar
61 votes
7 answers

How can I achieve portability with sed -i (in-place editing)?

I'm writing shell scripts for my server, which is a shared hosting running FreeBSD. I also want to be able to test them locally, on my PC running Linux. Hence, I'm trying to write them in a portable ...
Red's user avatar
  • 1,462
34 votes
2 answers

In bash, read after a pipe is not setting values

With ksh I'm using read as a convenient way to separate values: $ echo 1 2 3 4 5 | read a b dump $ echo $b $a 2 1 $ But it fails in Bash: $ echo 1 2 3 4 5 | read a b dump $ echo $b $a $ I didn'...
Emmanuel's user avatar
  • 4,197
95 votes
2 answers

Is there ever a good reason to run sudo su?

To launch a root shell on machines where the root account is disabled, you can run one of: sudo -i : run an interactive login shell (reads /root/.bashrc and /root/.profile) sudo -s : run a non-login ...
terdon's user avatar
  • 244k
47 votes
1 answer

How do ${0##*/} and ${0%/*} work?

I'm quite confused about the following regular expressions I found in a shell script: ${0##*/} ${0%/*} How do they work?
user785099's user avatar
143 votes
7 answers

Why is cd not a program?

I've always wondered why cd isn't a program, but never managed to find the answer. Anyone know why this is the case?
AkshaiShah's user avatar
  • 3,639
134 votes
36 answers

Quick directory navigation in the bash shell

I would like to frequently switch between directories that are in totally unrelated paths, for example /Project/Warnest/docs/ and ~/Dropbox/Projects/ds/test/. But I don't want to type cd /[full-path]/...
saiy2k's user avatar
  • 1,603
82 votes
7 answers

How to trick a command into thinking its output is going to a terminal

Given a command that changes its behaviour when its output is going to a terminal (e.g. produce coloured output), how can that output be redirected in a pipeline while preserving the changed behaviour?...
Amir's user avatar
  • 1,721
105 votes
4 answers

Why is `while IFS= read` used so often, instead of `IFS=; while read..`?

It seems that normal practice would put the setting of IFS outside the while loop in order to not repeat setting it for each iteration... Is this just a habitual "monkey see, monkey do" style, as it ...
Peter.O's user avatar
  • 33.1k
234 votes
3 answers

Are there naming conventions for variables in shell scripts?

Most languages have naming conventions for variables, the most common style I see in shell scripts is MY_VARIABLE=foo. Is this the convention or is it only for global variables? What about variables ...
Garrett Hall's user avatar
  • 5,381
89 votes
6 answers

How to loop over the lines of a file?

Say I have this file: hello world hello world This program #!/bin/bash for i in $(cat $1); do echo "tester: $i" done outputs tester: hello tester: world tester: hello tester: world I'd like ...
Tobias Kienzler's user avatar
205 votes
3 answers

Quoting within $(command substitution) in Bash

In my Bash environment I use variables containing spaces, and I use these variables within command substitution. What is the correct way to quote my variables? And how should I do it if these are ...
CousinCocaine's user avatar

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