Questions tagged [root-filesystem]

The root filesystem (`/`) contains the kernel and utilities needed to boot a system.

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LVM RAID 1 for root [closed]

I have LVM RAID 1 (not mdadm RAID 1, but exactly LVM2 RAID 1) for my root partition. I would like to make my system boot without either of the HDDs where the underlying PVs of the root LVM partition ...
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2answers
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How to increase the size of / with unallocated hdd space

So, I had run out of space on / (which was initially 9.3 GB). So I had some un-allocated space on my hdd (/dev/sda) that I wanted to assign to the / partition, which is also: /dev/sda1. For reference ...
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1answer
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Patching the kernel to allow booting without initrd

The first answer of 'Why does Linux use an Initial Ram Disk at boot?' states that the initrd/initial ram filesystem is used to provide drivers to mount the real root filesystem. It also says that it ...
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1answer
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Accidentally removed execute permission from root directory.

I accidentally did chmod 770 / which removed all access to the system. I booted to rescue mode, dropped to root shell and tried to chmod 755 /, but I get message changing permissions of /: read-only ...
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2answers
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mount: warning: /etc/mtab is not writable (e.g. read-only filesystem)

Working on my system I noted that the root filesystem is mounted read-only. My system worked for months, today I get this error: mount: warning: /etc/mtab is not writable (e.g. read-only filesystem). ...
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1answer
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Making space available to my main partition

I have a cloud hosting provider, I pay for 120GB but only get 50GB and I need to make this space available on my main partition (?). My hosting provider has not been very helpful, below is my fdisk -...
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1answer
1k views

Buildroot generate rootfs with gcc

I wanted to build rootfs using buildroot with preinstalled gcc, but I can't find which config is responsible for building gcc package. What I want is just a rootfs for qemu x86_64. Is there a way in ...
2
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1answer
2k views

How to increase size of root?

Here is information regarding my disk space consumption. Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/sda: 465.8 GiB, 500107862016 bytes, 976773168 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (...
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1answer
102 views

Linux Mint is installing programs to / and not /home, how do I resolve this?

I have an issue with Linux Mint saving things to root and not the home directory. I need assistance with this, a friend is being rather persistent about it. Every time a package is installed it ...
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1answer
58 views

/bypass folder on ArchBang - safe to delete?

Anyone know what is this folder for, and if it's safe to delete it? It's an ArchBang box, and this folder was there ever since install. I'm not really sure if it's just some junk left after ...
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2answers
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Replace LUKS partition with ext4 partition with same contents

I have a LUKS (Linux Unified Key Setup) partition that contains the rootfs. I wish to replace it with an unencrypted ext4 partition containing the same rootfs. Having searched far and wide I've seen ...
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1answer
1k views

Pass root file system by label to linux kernel

How can I boot the linux rootfs from u-boot passing rootfs partition by label ? I'm using u-boot as bootloader and the card is a RedPitaya. The linux is a customized Linux based on the stable ubuntu ...
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2answers
6k views

sudo rm -rf --no-preserve-root / vs sudo rm -rf /*

As everyone knows, these are two deadly unix commands that both tell a machine to commit suicide. But what is the difference between the two? The first one deletes the root directory, while the second ...
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2answers
537 views

What's the Debian equivalent of Ubuntu Core/Base images?

For Ubuntu I use the Core/Base images as available here: http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-base/releases/ These 'images' are just base rootfs tarballs which can be used with for example rkt. More ...
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1answer
860 views

Install Linux on RAID system or outside in separate partition?

I have a Linux box with 4 HDDs which I will configure as RAID5. Should I install Linux rootfs on a partition ontop of the RAID or should I first build a partition on one of the bare disks and then ...
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1answer
568 views

What can I (not) shred from root while it is mounted?

I am performing a test migration from old server to new one. Part of the procedure involves cleaning up the old server of any traces of passwords, php scripts and custom configurations while remotely ...
2
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1answer
921 views

kernel init without 'root=' parameter

From systemd/fstab-generator.c it follows that systemd treats root= as required kernel parameter, the only configuration source for /sysroot mount. However from kernel/init/main.c and kernel/init/...
2
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1answer
4k views

Move root partition to another disk

Below is my df -h output. Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/xvda1 20G 18G 1.2G 95% / tmpfs 2.0G 0 2.0G 0% /dev/shm /dev/xvda2 138G 4.4G ...
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1answer
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SquashFS+UnionFS as root filesystem?

What's an easy way to to use a union filesystem (read-only SquashFS + R/W overlay) as /? I'm thinking of using a custom boot script as the kernel init= argument. The script would mount the SquashFS + ...
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1answer
92 views

Booting Linux minimally

I am trying to boot just linux itself. It's mostly for the learning experience. I got a small HDD with only one ext4 partition looking like this: /bin/bash /dev/console /boot/vmlinuz ...
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2answers
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Adding files to Linux readonly-root

I've a netboot Linux server where the the /root is mounted as readonly. # Set to 'yes' to mount the system filesystems read-only. READONLY=yes # Set to 'yes' to mount various temporary state as ...
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1answer
50 views

How can I implement resuming from hibernation in my initramfs script? (swap file on encrypted root partition)

So I messed up and executed echo disk > /sys/power/state instead of echo mem > /sys/power/state accidentally. And then realized what I had just done. Some details about the setup: It's using ...
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0answers
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how is the boot directory of the EFI/ESP partition related to the boot directory of the root partition?

are the files inside these 2 directories mirror images of each other? how are they related? for example the below command that i execute: sudo cp -a initramfs-4.18.16-300.fc29.x86_64.img /boot/EFI/...
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2answers
727 views

Rootfs versus kernel confusion [closed]

I know that they are two different entities. Rootfs is a file system which describes how to store and access data. The kernel is actual code which executes. However, isn't the kernel code stored ...
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1answer
358 views

Diskless Ubuntu - manpages fail

I've set up diskless client, but man does not work: man: error while loading shared libraries: libmandb-2.8.3.so: cannot open shared object file: Permission denied Root is mounted like this (mount):...
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0answers
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Using an initrd/initramfs as the root filesystem

In Android, the initial RAM disk stays mounted throughout the entirety of the time the operating system is running. No switch_root/pivot_root takes place. Is this kind of setup easy to pull off with ...
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2answers
771 views

Export (via NFS) root (/) FS

I have 3 embedded CPU system running Linux 2.6.37, which are connected via Ethernet. Each CPU has its own NAND flash memory. One of them is "main" CPU number 0, while 2 others are his companions. I ...
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0answers
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btrfs error unknown - root fs will not mount

I am running Arch Linux on a system with full disk encryption and the storage is a Samsung 950 Pro NVMe drive (512 GB). The computer is a couple months old. No bad behavior until now. (I'm only using ...
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1answer
473 views

Does Linux still use rootfs?

In the kernel documentation file "ramfs, rootfs, and initramfs" it says Rootfs is a special instance of ramfs (or tmpfs, if that's enabled), which is always present in 2.6 systems. I have not ...
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1answer
426 views

How do I prevent the kernel from pivoting and overwriting the initial file system?

How do I prevent the kernel from pivoting and overwriting the initial file system? What switches do I pass to the kernel? Do I need to add any code to the initramfs? I cross-compiled busybox and ...
2
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1answer
373 views

Free-ing up unused space on a partition that is unaccessible after a mount

Originally I had a 50GB disk where the root / was mounted to a 6 GB partition on it. The partition was running out of room so I created a second partition with the rest of the free space (44 GB). Here'...
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1answer
3k views

How can I resize my encrypted root and home partitions, to give root more space?

I need to enlarge my / (root) partition, I have a lot of space on my /home partition so how can I do this? The drive is encrypted with LUKS. My system is Fedora 20. I have another thread here which ...
2
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0answers
765 views

Mounting root filesystem while booting through network

I have two systems, let say one is the server and the other is the client. I want to load kernel image from the server to the client through the network. I used dhcp (isc-dhcp-server) and tftp (...
2
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0answers
210 views

What changed between kernels 3.7 and 3.9 that affects LVM/RAID root file systems?

I'm trying to fix a (very messy) system that the user hosed by running a kernel upgrade from 3.7.10 to 3.9.6. the root file system is on an LVM volume on top of a software RAID array. The boot manager ...
2
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1answer
418 views

Flashing rootfs on Embedded Linux with Limited RAM

I'm fairly new to the embedded world, so forgive me if this seems obvious. I'm working on a board based off of the AT91SAM9260. I have 256MB of flash and 64MB of RAM. The current setup flashes two ...
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2answers
101 views

Using a different directory than /usr as standard

Is there any possibility to use a different directory than /usr as the standard directory to install things? I am asking, since I got an Endless OS system where /usr is read-only, thus not being able ...
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2answers
2k views

How does linux know where the rootfs is?

I'm trying to understand how the linux kernel knows where the desired rootfs is on boot. I read this document: https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/filesystems/ramfs-rootfs-initramfs.txt One ...
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1answer
732 views

why are /media and /home /mnt/home so large?

I am trying to get hplip-3.14.10 on a desktop. I found out that the setup returns a make command failed with status code 2 which is caused by insufficient disk space. I used disk usage analyzer to ...
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1answer
1k views

How to populate a root filesystem from scratch?

my situation is this : I have a freshly compiled kernel, all the applications and libraries compiled for the new platform, I know how to boot using my bootloader of choice, but I don't have a root ...
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1answer
1k views

qemu: boot from cdrom

I'm trying to install xubuntu on a usb flash drive following this quide. The command I'm running is qemu-system-x86_64 -drive file=/dev/sdc,media=disk,index=0,format=raw -cdrom ./xubuntu-15.10-...
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1answer
405 views

Why are the first inode of the `/` mounted partition and inode of `/` different?

[~]$ stat -c %i / 2 As you can see in above, the inode for / is 2. But the First inode of /dev/sda2 is 11. [~]$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 ...
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1answer
279 views

Google Chrome - no space on rootfs partition

I've managed to install google-chrome on Debian Wheezy. My rootfs is only 320MB because I didn't predict that some day I would install Google Chrome, which has more than 100MB and installs in /opt (...
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2answers
966 views

Error when booting live-usb device

While booting a live-usb system, the following errors are returned: Attempting to mount media /dev/sda2 [...] EXT4-fs (sda2): Unrecognized mount option "uid=1000" or missing value [...] EXT4-fs (...
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2answers
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Where should I put my source code? [duplicate]

I am using multiple tools developed by the suckless people which are not configured via a config file but via their source code (in this case C) and then simply installed through make install. So I am ...
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1answer
2k views

lsblk doesn't show anything about root file system

On openSUSE Leap 42.3, lsblk output is like below which doesn't show anything about / i.e. root. Now my question is what about root file system? > lsblk NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE ...
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2answers
1k views

Mounting same device on / as read-only, in subdirectory(/mnt/rootfs) as R/W

I have UBIFS device /dev/ubi0_1. The device is root for linux rootfs, mounted on kernel boot as Read-Only. So i have /dev/ubi0_1 mounted on / as RO. Later i want to mount /dev/ubi0_1 on /mnt/rootfs ...
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1answer
188 views

/root as bind mount?

I am migrating my system from Debian 32 bit to Debian 64 bit. It is installed on /dev/sda2, so I created /dev/sda3, installed the new system there, synched installed packages and configuration files ...
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1answer
770 views

How to transfer a rootfs folder?

I just created a rootfs with debootstrap in a Debian Jessie VirtualBox VM. Now I would like to transfer this to the host, by first compressing the directory to a tar archive, so I can upload it and ...
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2answers
662 views

Moved some files unable to use mv now

I accidently used mv mymods /* * . Now i am unable to undo it or either use any command. How do i fix that? I was in directory name /home/nginx/crap [root@somehost /home/nginx/crap]# mv mymods /* * ...
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2answers
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Best practice run a filesystem check on lvm volume?

Have many systems with ext4 directly on the block device and others on lvm. I routinely create new systems with ext4 directly on the block device and use tune2fs to have automatic filesystem checks. ...