Questions tagged [root-filesystem]

The root filesystem (`/`) contains the kernel and utilities needed to boot a system.

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Linux permission denied

Every single command I run gives me permission denied as root, this happened shortly after I changed /etc/fstab and remounted ext4. The only commands I appear to be able to run is echo and cd, not ...
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backup privileged data on remote servers without root ssh

I'm sufficiently new to Linux that I don't understand how to do what I think I want. If you think you know what I actually want, please tell me. I would like to use Duplicity to backup privileged ...
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Linux root on F2FS

I have my Linux root on an F2FS USB flash drive. The kernel is on another device accessible by the bootloader. I'm trying to start it with the parameters root=/dev/sda1 rootwait rootfstype=f2fs, but I ...
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Error when booting live-usb device

While booting a live-usb system, the following errors are returned: Attempting to mount media /dev/sda2 [...] EXT4-fs (sda2): Unrecognized mount option "uid=1000" or missing value [...] EXT4-fs (...
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Got stuck in Emergency mode with ACPI Error

I am using ubuntu 16.04. I probably have done sth which damaged the system file. After reboot, I am stucked in emergency mode. The error is about ACPI like below. I am not sure what is wrong here. ...
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What's the Debian equivalent of Ubuntu Core/Base images?

For Ubuntu I use the Core/Base images as available here: http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ubuntu-base/releases/ These 'images' are just base rootfs tarballs which can be used with for example rkt. More ...
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Mount new disk to existing root mountpoint using mhddfs (merging filesystems)

I have a new disk on server (sdb) and I want to mount it to existing root mountpoint (sda1 mounted on /) to merge it. There is an utility called mhddfs which is doing exactly what I want. But the ...
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Contents of /var/run persist across reboots

Does it mean my distro is broken (it's a custom distro for a board I'm using, it could easily be buggy)? Can I tweak this behaviour?
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Running QEMU with a root file system directory instead of disk image

In order to test the root file system i need to run QEMU with created disk image as root file system, the QEMU accepts -kernel which can be used for specifying kernel directly without deploying it ...
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Using a different directory than /usr as standard

Is there any possibility to use a different directory than /usr as the standard directory to install things? I am asking, since I got an Endless OS system where /usr is read-only, thus not being able ...
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Why are the first inode of the `/` mounted partition and inode of `/` different?

[~]$ stat -c %i / 2 As you can see in above, the inode for / is 2. But the First inode of /dev/sda2 is 11. [~]$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 ...
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How to build a readonly root filesystem in Arch-ARM

I have the following set-up: hw: RPi 3 Model B os: 4.4.37-1-ARCH #1 SMP armv7l GNU/Linux file system: /boot(vfat), /(ext4), /var(ext4) partitions: three; mounted: /boot, /, /var storage: mlc nand ...
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move system partitions to different physical drive with different filesystem

My RHEL7 system is configured like this: Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/rhel-root 50G 18G 33G 36% / /dev/mapper/rhel-home 504G 147G 357G 30% /home /...
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root file system stays read-only

I am currently trying to start working with an embedded linux device (arm). When I am trying to install packages it fails saying that some /usr/... path points to a read-only filesystem. By looking ...
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Is the root filesystem unmounted during a Linux shutdown?

If the root filesystem is unmounted, then how can init be accessed to run the last few steps that occur afterwards?
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How can I replace root / filesystem with another filesystem?

When the Linux kernel starts up, it uses initrd as the root / filesystem, then replaces that with a filesystem partition in fstab. Based on a test in an early init script, I want to replace that root ...
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Rootfs versus kernel confusion [closed]

I know that they are two different entities. Rootfs is a file system which describes how to store and access data. The kernel is actual code which executes. However, isn't the kernel code stored ...
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How to configure embedded linux kernel so that the file system is visible on the host linux

I am using a powerpc, and after building and flashing the linux kernel on the device I can see the file system. But if I try to create a user or make any changes they get erased and resets to default ...
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Can I use a read-write root filesystem disk image as an OverlayFS upperdir?

Is it possible to union-mount an existing disk image containing a root filesystem to the upperdir of an overlayfs mount for read-write access? I'm trying to union-mount some old disk images to a /tmp/...
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how do I copy an .iso file to root in Ubuntu

How can i copy an .iso file to the root directory in Ubuntu? Unetbootin cannot detect my ubuntu.iso unless it will be moved to the root. When I attempt to move it, into the root, the system tells me ...
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Is it accurate to say that the Linux partition is “mounted” to the “/” directory?

Say we have a partition called /dev/sda2, in order to use this partition, we have to mount it to some directory, for example we can mount it to the /mnt/sda2 directory. Now say that Linux is ...
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why are /media and /home /mnt/home so large?

I am trying to get hplip-3.14.10 on a desktop. I found out that the setup returns a make command failed with status code 2 which is caused by insufficient disk space. I used disk usage analyzer to ...
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Why is / called root, but there's also a use called root? [duplicate]

So in a unix system, / is root. But the default admin is also root. So why do these two quite different things have the same name.
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Making space available to my main partition

I have a cloud hosting provider, I pay for 120GB but only get 50GB and I need to make this space available on my main partition (?). My hosting provider has not been very helpful, below is my fdisk -...
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how is the boot directory of the EFI/ESP partition related to the boot directory of the root partition?

are the files inside these 2 directories mirror images of each other? how are they related? for example the below command that i execute: sudo cp -a initramfs-4.18.16-300.fc29.x86_64.img /boot/EFI/...
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Moving / directory in linux

I installed ubuntu with dual boot alongside Windows 8. While partitioning I allocated 9.8 GB to the root directory of linux.Now i am short on space with only 700MB space remaining in this root ...
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Which filesystem should I use in an SD card on a NAS?

My NAS can hold several 3.5" hard drives and an SD card. I'm planning to boot and run a custom Linux system (based on Debian, built by me) from an SD card, and the 3.5" hard drives will be used for ...
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VFS: Cannot open root device mmcblk1p1 or unknown-block(179,33)

I am trying to run Linux on custom board based on Nvidia TK1. When I try to boot the board from SD card, I get following error: VFS: Cannot open root device "mmcblk1p1" or unknown-block(179,33): ...
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Change permisions of a file with my cat's help

root@system:~# less myfile -bash: /bin/less: Input/output error The root filesystem is dead. But my cat is still alive (in my memory): root@system:~# cat > /tmp/somefile C^d root@system:~# He's ...
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Boot on aufs layered root file system

I would like to have a root file system composed of several aufs branches mounted on /. My Linux is a custom one created using buildroot and deployed on a board with a SAMA5D2 processor. The mmc of ...
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Switch root filesystem after copy

I currently have a script that copy the content of a microSD card to the eMMC of a BeagleBone Black. Once the copy is done, I would like to switch root filesystem for the eMMC and finish installing ...
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How does linux know where the rootfs is?

I'm trying to understand how the linux kernel knows where the desired rootfs is on boot. I read this document: https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/filesystems/ramfs-rootfs-initramfs.txt One ...
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What makes debian different from other variants given they have same kernel? [closed]

In the recent project we have been asked to create a debain based system for a SOC. Doing some gooogling I did find guides that point to ways to use yocto to create a debian system [1]. But then I ...
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Mount root filesystem from initramfs

It's a common scenario. For whatever reason, the initramfs (OpenSUSE, in case it matters) has failed to find the root filesystem, so it drops you into a rescue shell. I know perfectly well what device ...
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How do you completely switch the root files system on Linux?

I am running my rootfs on a flash device (MTD device with UBIFS) - Note: it's a bitbake system so its not full-blown ubuntu or anything. I want to be able to format that device and write a new rootfs ...
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Replace LUKS partition with ext4 partition with same contents

I have a LUKS (Linux Unified Key Setup) partition that contains the rootfs. I wish to replace it with an unencrypted ext4 partition containing the same rootfs. Having searched far and wide I've seen ...
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[dpkg: error: failed to open package info file /var/lib/dpkg/updates/0049 for reading: Input/output error]

I am trying to install qt4 dev. tools on bananapi. During installation half of the way, I got this error message: dpkg was interrupted, you must manually run 'sudo dpkg --configure -a'to correct the ...
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Where should I put my source code? [duplicate]

I am using multiple tools developed by the suckless people which are not configured via a config file but via their source code (in this case C) and then simply installed through make install. So I am ...
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Fault-tolerant iSCSI root fs for Linux

I am in the process of moving some Linux servers onto a virtualized environment with their filesystems mounted from LVM volumes, which are in turn hosted on a remote NAS via iSCSI. I am able to start ...
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can't build busybox with musl [closed]

I tried a lot of different configurations with musl and busybox but i can't get it to work. Starting out i though that busybox would build /bin /usr /sbin and musl would give me /lib and magically ...
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1answer
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Diskless Ubuntu - manpages fail

I've set up diskless client, but man does not work: man: error while loading shared libraries: libmandb-2.8.3.so: cannot open shared object file: Permission denied Root is mounted like this (mount):...
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How do I prevent the kernel from pivoting and overwriting the initial file system?

How do I prevent the kernel from pivoting and overwriting the initial file system? What switches do I pass to the kernel? Do I need to add any code to the initramfs? I cross-compiled busybox and ...
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Adding ZFS to a Preseeded Debian Installer

I'm looking to create an (internal, for legal reasons) preseeded debian (stretch) installer that will automatically create a root zpool from all available HDs instead of going through (whether ...
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Is it possible/practical to use a Linux server to authenticate Windows devices?

I am from a small concern and we are currently looking into getting a server purely for authentication and saving user data's. I do not want to push software to the devices or anything like that. I ...
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Read-only filesystem - Considerations and Loss of Functionality

I'm creating an embedded system using Buildroot. Currently, my Buildroot configuration ensures the rootfs is remounted as read/write during startup. However I would like to remove this feature and ...
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Where does kernel define the SD card naming index?

I'm running an embedded board that is booted from an SDCard. The location of the rootfs gets passed to the kernel via kernel parameters: Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 ...
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Why is there no rootfs file system present on my system?

The linux kernel documentation claims: Rootfs is a special instance of ramfs (or tmpfs, if that's enabled), which is always present in 2.6 systems. You can't unmount rootfs … On all linux ...
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Moved some files unable to use mv now

I accidently used mv mymods /* * . Now i am unable to undo it or either use any command. How do i fix that? I was in directory name /home/nginx/crap [root@somehost /home/nginx/crap]# mv mymods /* * ...
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Does Linux still use rootfs?

In the kernel documentation file "ramfs, rootfs, and initramfs" it says Rootfs is a special instance of ramfs (or tmpfs, if that's enabled), which is always present in 2.6 systems. I have not ...
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SquashFS+UnionFS as root filesystem?

What's an easy way to to use a union filesystem (read-only SquashFS + R/W overlay) as /? I'm thinking of using a custom boot script as the kernel init= argument. The script would mount the SquashFS + ...