Questions tagged [root-filesystem]

The root filesystem (`/`) contains the kernel and utilities needed to boot a system.

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What things are not saved in a btrfs snapshot?

I'm using BTRFS for my root partition and manage its snapshots with Snapper. I decided to create subvolumes for /var/tmp, /var/cache and /var/log as these are constantly changing its data which is not ...
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Boot loop device as root file system

I created an ext4-filesystem on a loop device with all necessary files to boot with, e.g.: /bin /boot /dev /lib /mnt /etc ... Now I want to boot from the loop device as an image (let's say ...
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Should only / be mounted as Read-Only for security in case of power loss, or also /boot

I have an embedded system (specifically, Google Coral with Mendel Linux), which will be running some models. I expect it to get turned off in not a secure way (basically plugging it off) mostly every ...
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Is there a difference of which directory I am in - when using eg. the usermod command?

As a newbie, I was in doubt if I had to be in the right directory when using certain commands - like eg. chgrp, addgroup or adduser. I understand the relative path and complete path, but groups does ...
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Encrypted rootfs wont boot

I've encrypted my rootfs with LUKS+lvm (sda5). sda1 is my boot partition where grub.cfg stored (not encrypted) sda2 and sda3 not encrypted rootfs sda4 - swap (not encrypted) I want to boot sda5 ...
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Booting arm64 linux from PHRAM device on RAM failed on systemd processing

I'm trying to boot a busybox based ext4 Liunx image built by yocto, from the RAM, using PHRAM device(dev/mtdblock0) as rootfs. The machine is Intel FPGA board(Stratix 10). I have enabled PHRAM in ...
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Accidently moved root partition by error

cb@coreboot-bm-4:~$ pwd /home/cb cb@coreboot-bm-4:~$ sudo mv /* ADL-P/ and now I can't do anything when I try something like: cb@coreboot-bm-4:~$ ls -bash: /bin/ls: No such file or directory
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Increase root disc space and gain access to existing hard drives

I have an issue on my CentOS machine with hard drive space on root. df -h returns Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on devtmpfs 126G 0 126G 0% /dev tmpfs ...
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Why use relative symlinks in the root directory?

I have a question about symlinks in (or very close to) the root directory. My kernel version is 5.16.11-arch1-2 at the moment. When I run ls -l / it prints this: lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 7 Dec 6 ...
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root filesystem on usb drive

I am trying to move my linux partition (ext4) to usb drive and boot from this drive and not my hdd. I have slackware64-14.2 with kernel 5.15.25 and usb driver (xhci) built in kernel. I have made the ...
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How to fix Debian 11 not booting after kernel upgrade?

My Debian 11 shipped with version 5.10 of the Linux kernel. I wanted a newer one, so I downloaded 5.15 from here, extracted the tar file, copied over the existing configuration, ran make menuconfig, ...
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How is /tmp linked to /var/tmp

I've already read up on the differences between /tmp and /var/tmp, so note that this is not what this question is about. When I create a file in /tmp, it shows up in /var/tmp; however, neither ...
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Creating a bootable iso image from my current installation

We have an old physical machine with Ubuntu distro 20.04 and that physical machine has a total of 103GB /root partition and 10GB as swap memory. We have currently utilized up to 45GB. We want to ...
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Installation Destination (Kickstart insufficient)

I am installing RHEL using a KS file. The installation stalls because of the Installation destination not being properly set, the message I'm getting is the following: You have not defined a root ...
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Incremental network file system that would work like "Post-copy memory migration"

When booting an embedded system with initramfs I have the option to use the network to populate the rest of the root filesystem. I wonder if any current filesystem (or fuse) implementation would ...
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Is it necessary to separate /home and / to different partitions?

Is it necessary to separate /home and / to different partitions? Here are my guesses of two benefits of separation. Suppose /home is in the partition for /. Is it still possible to reinstall a Linux ...
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mount: /: mount point not mounted or bad option (fresh Gentoo installation)

Just rebooted gentoo install from livecd, and it seems like nothing is writable. On boot I get this error as it tries to remount the root filesystem read/write: mount: /: mount point not mounted or ...
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What's the difference between the pile paths '/' and '//'? [duplicate]

I noticed in Ubuntu that the following commands go to seemingly different locations in the file system, but the locations have the same files: cd / cd // ls-ing from both locations produces the same ...
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linux kernel cannot find init

I'm running Linux kernel 5.14 with u-boot on a custom ARM board with 32MB of ram and 1GB micro-sdcard. this proves that I have the init files in my rootfs: (u-boot command-line) U-Boot > ext4ls mmc ...
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Permissions denied in Kali Linux

I cannot get into /root and even when i use "sudo ls /root" it asks me for the password then nothing happens. Im new to linux and when I was testing out Kali linux i tried using permission ...
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Better alternative to alpine rootfs

I am using Alpine linux rootfs for playing with namespaces. But, I am running into a major issue - Bash is no available as part of the minimal root filesystem. "Busybox bash" does not work ...
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/root partition is filled up

Recently, my EndeavourOS install has been sending me a notification saying that my root filesystem was filled up, with 0 MiB remaining. What could be done to clean up the root system? Output of sudo ...
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How to confirm that I installed on correct EBS volume

I am relatively new to Unix. This problem is about Ubuntu Ec2 instance I am using to install Postgres. The fact is, I installed everything related to postgres, configured services and logging and all, ...
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Centos, How to delete files with full root (but not full file system), with out repartitioning

Nvidia has screwed me and kept every single old version of CUDA since cuda 10 including every minor version inside of root totaling up to nearly 30 gigabytes of my 50 gigabyte root partition, and upon ...
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Can we zerofree rootfs unattended?

If we want zerofree the root filesystem (/), we need to boot into a live CD to do that. Can we zerofree root filesystem in an unattended way (avoid manually boot into live CD and run commands by hand),...
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the whole root file system went read-only

This problem first appeared when I was downloading a huge data archive(about 500GB) but I didn't keep the output and logs at the time. I rebooted the system and it entered emergency mode automatically....
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What does ' sudo rm -rf /* ' do?

I ran this command on Fedora, which I anyway wanted to uninstall, so I decided to check out this command: sudo rm -rf /* just for fun. As soon as I ran this command, the GUI stopped working and ...
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How to perform a hot repair of a functioning, but limping rootfs with the switch_root command and a blank partition?

I have an extreme edge case that I may never see again, but I'd like to be prepared. I have an embedded system (u-boot) whose primary disk has 4 partitions. One of the partitions is the rootfs (ext4) ...
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Root partition full after 2 hours of usage

I recently received a message indicating space was running low in my root partition, so I decided to increase my partition's size from 9GB to 30GB (just to be sure) I wouldn't have to deal with this ...
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squashed then re-squashed give different size?

I extracted a firmware.bin using fmk mod kit and gave me 3 files: header.img , rootfs.img and footer.img now whenever I cat and repack all the files together in firmware2.bin again, it works and it ...
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Remove or change "Details" in debian

Debian 10, Gnome. VMWare Workstation 16.1.1 In the settings menu. The details you can find for Debian. See screenshot. Is there anyway to change these, remove the option or to remove certain ...
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Change init program location in linux

In the linux kernel I found the following lines in the main.c file: if (!try_to_run_init_process("/sbin/init") || !try_to_run_init_process("/etc/init") || !...
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Can the root filesystem be unmounted in Linux?

I am not talking about rootfs here. If there is only one process running in Linux and its working directory is /, then can it be unmounted? Will rootfs be what is left over? If it cannot be unmounted, ...
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Method to "unzip" and "zip" this boot image with root filesystem folders?

I am struggling with "unzipping" and "zipping" back this root filesystem from my bootable usb. I have found some similar questions but they are too old, i think, and maybe the root ...
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root filesystem not listed when executing mount

I'm running slackware 14.0 linux. I was recently doing an open office document and sent emails out and then my internet was cutting out then after a bit I got hinted that my disk was full then I ...
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Android: Deleting Hardware files leads sometimes to brick the phone

I started recently to look up for a way to permanently disable my wifi, bluetooth, NFS, Network and GPS. Unfortunately I didnt find a proper method to do that. There was the option to physically break ...
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is it possible to have a fat32 rootfs partition instead of ext4?

I've successfully installed u-boot and linux kernel on STM32F469-disco board but I still don't have a rootfs. my board has 16MB RAM and 16MB FLASH storage and 32GB SDCARD and the CPU core of it is ARM ...
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/mnt/nvme0n1 already mounted or mount point busy

I am trying to mount nvme /dev/nvme0n1 to /mnt/chroot I have created the directory /mnt/chroot when I "sudo mount /dev/nvme0n1 /mnt/chroot" I get "mount: /mnt/chroot: /dev/nvme0n1 ...
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Is it possible to have (at least some of) root directory contents moved to subdirectory? [duplicate]

Is there any technique or tool that makes it possible to have everything but home directories moved to /linux-5.10 for example and still have the system behaving like if chrooted into that directory? ...
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Root file system reported as being 100% without adding any file

I have a 35G mount as my root file system, and until now, it was reporting 1% usage. I was using an SD card for my storage and today I got a new one. I'm mounting my /swap partition on that, so I ...
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Why open() system call does not open swapfile in Ubuntu?

I have a question about open() system call. I am writing a C code, in which I need to open all files from a provided directory in read only mode. Before the open call I check if the user has read ...
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How to fix /dev/mapper/rhel-root doesn't exist issue at startup?

I was trying to increase my /dev/mapper/rhel-root size. I have available 136GB of free space. For testing, from GNOME disk graphical interface, I mounted ext4, 2 GB and then unmount it. I used ...
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Rollback root snapshot in BTRFS

I have only 1 BTRFS partition that contains both / and /home. I have snapshotted the root filesystem via the command: btrfs subvolume snapshot / /root/snapshots/test Now I want to restore this ...
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Why used space on new root partition is so big (almost 8GB) (MX Linux 19.2 KDE)?

After installation of MX Linux 19.2 KDE occupied space on root partition was 7.8GB. It is totally incoherent with user manual suggesting to leave at least 5GB for root partition (but if you plan to ...
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Efficiently turn a directory tree into a new filesystem on zfs

I "inherited" management of a system, whose "/opt" (and some other large directory trees) are stored in the root file system. My wish now is to create a new filesystem in the rpool ...
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Why is usr called a "filesystem" and the root filesystem should be small?

I am trying to wrap my head around filesystems in Linux, but there is still something that I do not understand. So far, what I got right is that a filesystem is the set of methods and data structures ...
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Relation between Filesystem Hierarchy Standard and the Root Filesystem

To me, it is seems like that the Root Filesystem is an implementation of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. Is it correct, or the relationship between the two concepts is somewhat different?
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Linux root directory and partition

I am having a problem trying to figure out this problem in my head. We say that the Linux file system has only one root directory. Supposing we have more than two partitions on our computer, how can ...
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Can multiple lvm2 volumes in a single volume group be bootable root volumes?

Or, perhap equivalently, can a bootable root volume be named other than "root"? While installing a new version of a Linux IS I created an lvm2 logical volume named "ub20-root" ...
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Is it possible to delete contents of a directory mounted inside itself?

Just for curiosity, is it possible to delete contents in a directory which is mounted inside of itself OR in a folder inside it? For example, I was taking a backup of my Arch installation with ...
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