Questions tagged [root-filesystem]

The root filesystem (`/`) contains the kernel and utilities needed to boot a system.

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initrd and intramfs purpose confusion

My understanding of the purpose of having initrd or intramfs is for the kernel to be able to mount a temporary file system in RAM to load drivers and other things in order to be able to mount the ...
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Not enough space on Filesystem root, Linux Mint

update: I have rebooted the system, first it looked like the ambiguity between images 1 and 2 in my original question below has gone, however it is 10 minutes now from my reboot, and the disk space is ...
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Installing packages during kernel compilation

I'm fairly new to linux compilation and I wonder whether is it possible to install packages (like what we get from package managers like apt , dpkg) during kernel compilation or when we are trying to ...
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File Systems: Change commit interval while file system is mounted?

is it possible - and if yes, how - to change the commit interval of a mounted file system while the file system is mounted?
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install Veracrypt on Ubuntu root partition

Is it possible to encrypt with Veracrypt root partition of already installed Ubuntu without data loss? I think I need to use boot flash cause impossible to encrypt mounted root partition, right? Do I ...
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Unable to mount root file system as read-only at boot

I am running Raspbian Buster on a raspberry pi, and I have tried to make the filesystem read-only as I don't need to write data and I want to spare my sdcard. I have followed a guide that basically: ...
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Building Kernel Image for Embedded Linux Platform

I am interested in compiling a linux image for Ingenic SoC based platform. The vendor vaguely provided instruction on how to compile the linux kernel for the target SoC. So based on vendor ...
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1answer
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ownership & permissions inside /var for systemd service

I'm working on an application that needs to read some config files under /etc and write to a db file under /var/lib I'm working on a .service file in order to enable this application to be executed ...
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1answer
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Creating a grow-on-demand loop filesystem without sparse files

I wish to create a file to loop mount as a root filesystem that grows dynamically as required (up to a limit). The commonly quoted solution to this is to use a sparse file, which would do exactly ...
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Stuck on /init with custom CPU

For a university project I was tasked with implementing privilege levels on an existing RISC-V (rv32i) processor with the end goal to have it run Linux. Due to complexity, my project ended with the ...
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Best practice run a filesystem check on lvm volume?

Have many systems with ext4 directly on the block device and others on lvm. I routinely create new systems with ext4 directly on the block device and use tune2fs to have automatic filesystem checks. ...
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*** /dev/sda1 will be checked for errors at next reboot *** but it never is; remedy?

System: Linux Mint 19 "Tara" - Cinnamon (64-bit), based on Ubuntu 18.04, kernel 5.3.0-24-generic Problem duration: 1 month. Problem description: since this computer malfunctioned before my ...
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Building arm / aarch64 rootfs

I am interested to generate a Debian rootfs for aarch64 machine from an x86_64 workstation. What are the required steps to achieve this ? As far as I know the proper way is to use debootstrap: https:...
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Why does user_namespace isolate the root directory?

User namespaces isolate [...] the root directory [...]. http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man7/user_namespaces.7.html I thought root is more of a concept like we build houses on the floor. So if I ...
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Is it possible to export/save Docker's full Linux OS system as a rootfs.tar.gz?

I would like to export or save the full Linux OS, i.e, all root directories – /bin, /home, /usr, etc. as a rootfs.tar.gz and to view and access all full root directories. If I mount the Docker's ...
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Which directories can be on a different partition outside of root?

This question has surely been answered somewhere else but I'm having trouble finding it. I'm in a situation where I'm moving my root file system from a Debian install off of a hardware RAID and onto ...
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Is there a way to automatically restore system files from lost+found

I am running Debian Buster, and out of nowhere the file system of the root partition got corrupted. I wasn't doing anything out of the ordinary, just surfing the net basically, and at some point i ...
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How can I implement resuming from hibernation in my initramfs script? (swap file on encrypted root partition)

So I messed up and executed echo disk > /sys/power/state instead of echo mem > /sys/power/state accidentally. And then realized what I had just done. Some details about the setup: It's using ...
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mmcblk mounted as 1 -> root=UUID fail finding rootfs

I just upgraded Linux kernel (from 3.10 to 4.14), and now mmcblk rootfs partition as mmcblk1 (while in the older kernel in mmcblk0). I would have assumed that things should yet boot correctly from ...
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How do I create an ethernet device file in unix - debian based embedded systems?

In my root file system, I can see that I have a directory /sys/class/net/eth0/. However, I want to create another interface /sys/class/net/eth1 and /sys/class/net/eth2. How can I do so? I am ...
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backup privileged data on remote servers without root ssh

I'm sufficiently new to Linux that I don't understand how to do what I think I want. If you think you know what I actually want, please tell me. I would like to use Duplicity to backup privileged ...
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Linux permission denied

Every single command I run gives me permission denied as root, this happened shortly after I changed /etc/fstab and remounted ext4. The only commands I appear to be able to run is echo and cd, not ...
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Got stuck in Emergency mode with ACPI Error

I am using ubuntu 16.04. I probably have done sth which damaged the system file. After reboot, I am stucked in emergency mode. The error is about ACPI like below. I am not sure what is wrong here. ...
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Contents of /var/run persist across reboots

Does it mean my distro is broken (it's a custom distro for a board I'm using, it could easily be buggy)? Can I tweak this behaviour?
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move system partitions to different physical drive with different filesystem

My RHEL7 system is configured like this: Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/rhel-root 50G 18G 33G 36% / /dev/mapper/rhel-home 504G 147G 357G 30% /home /...
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How to configure embedded linux kernel so that the file system is visible on the host linux

I am using a powerpc, and after building and flashing the linux kernel on the device I can see the file system. But if I try to create a user or make any changes they get erased and resets to default ...
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Error when booting live-usb device

While booting a live-usb system, the following errors are returned: Attempting to mount media /dev/sda2 [...] EXT4-fs (sda2): Unrecognized mount option "uid=1000" or missing value [...] EXT4-fs (...
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Is it accurate to say that the Linux partition is “mounted” to the “/” directory?

Say we have a partition called /dev/sda2, in order to use this partition, we have to mount it to some directory, for example we can mount it to the /mnt/sda2 directory. Now say that Linux is ...
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1answer
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Making space available to my main partition

I have a cloud hosting provider, I pay for 120GB but only get 50GB and I need to make this space available on my main partition (?). My hosting provider has not been very helpful, below is my fdisk -...
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how is the boot directory of the EFI/ESP partition related to the boot directory of the root partition?

are the files inside these 2 directories mirror images of each other? how are they related? for example the below command that i execute: sudo cp -a initramfs-4.18.16-300.fc29.x86_64.img /boot/EFI/...
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Rootfs versus kernel confusion [closed]

I know that they are two different entities. Rootfs is a file system which describes how to store and access data. The kernel is actual code which executes. However, isn't the kernel code stored ...
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1answer
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VFS: Cannot open root device mmcblk1p1 or unknown-block(179,33)

I am trying to run Linux on custom board based on Nvidia TK1. When I try to boot the board from SD card, I get following error: VFS: Cannot open root device "mmcblk1p1" or unknown-block(179,33): ...
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Moving / directory in linux

I installed ubuntu with dual boot alongside Windows 8. While partitioning I allocated 9.8 GB to the root directory of linux.Now i am short on space with only 700MB space remaining in this root ...
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Switch root filesystem after copy

I currently have a script that copy the content of a microSD card to the eMMC of a BeagleBone Black. Once the copy is done, I would like to switch root filesystem for the eMMC and finish installing ...
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2answers
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How does linux know where the rootfs is?

I'm trying to understand how the linux kernel knows where the desired rootfs is on boot. I read this document: https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/filesystems/ramfs-rootfs-initramfs.txt One ...
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1answer
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Change permisions of a file with my cat's help

root@system:~# less myfile -bash: /bin/less: Input/output error The root filesystem is dead. But my cat is still alive (in my memory): root@system:~# cat > /tmp/somefile C^d root@system:~# He's ...
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743 views

How do you completely switch the root files system on Linux?

I am running my rootfs on a flash device (MTD device with UBIFS) - Note: it's a bitbake system so its not full-blown ubuntu or anything. I want to be able to format that device and write a new rootfs ...
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2answers
319 views

Replace LUKS partition with ext4 partition with same contents

I have a LUKS (Linux Unified Key Setup) partition that contains the rootfs. I wish to replace it with an unencrypted ext4 partition containing the same rootfs. Having searched far and wide I've seen ...
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Where should I put my source code? [duplicate]

I am using multiple tools developed by the suckless people which are not configured via a config file but via their source code (in this case C) and then simply installed through make install. So I am ...
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1answer
581 views

Adding ZFS to a Preseeded Debian Installer

I'm looking to create an (internal, for legal reasons) preseeded debian (stretch) installer that will automatically create a root zpool from all available HDs instead of going through (whether ...
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1answer
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Is it possible/practical to use a Linux server to authenticate Windows devices?

I am from a small concern and we are currently looking into getting a server purely for authentication and saving user data's. I do not want to push software to the devices or anything like that. I ...
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2answers
693 views

Where does kernel define the SD card naming index?

I'm running an embedded board that is booted from an SDCard. The location of the rootfs gets passed to the kernel via kernel parameters: Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 ...
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What makes debian different from other variants given they have same kernel? [closed]

In the recent project we have been asked to create a debain based system for a SOC. Doing some gooogling I did find guides that point to ways to use yocto to create a debian system [1]. But then I ...
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du command shows larger size than nand erase block size in ubifs. How to check the exact size in ubifs?

I use UBIFS for rootfs. I would like to check the size of each direcotries in /. When I checked with du command, it shows larger than mtd size. Would you tell me the way how can I check the correct ...
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1answer
379 views

Diskless Ubuntu - manpages fail

I've set up diskless client, but man does not work: man: error while loading shared libraries: libmandb-2.8.3.so: cannot open shared object file: Permission denied Root is mounted like this (mount):...
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What are limitations chrooted system? [closed]

Chroot allows us to change the root directory, or rather root directory of specific process. Now obviously this does restrict the process to the specified tree (unless it doesn't relinquish the ...
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1answer
538 views

Read-only filesystem - Considerations and Loss of Functionality

I'm creating an embedded system using Buildroot. Currently, my Buildroot configuration ensures the rootfs is remounted as read/write during startup. However I would like to remove this feature and ...
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1answer
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When can Linux boot with a Read-Only Root Filesystem

I am working on a embedded Linux with u-boot as bootloader and systemd init system. The tools are limited to standard busybox. While analyzing some problems, I figured out the root filesystem is read ...
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setcap settings do not reflect in getcap

root@localhost:~# setcap cap_net_raw+p /bin/ping root@localhost:~# getcap /bin/ping root@localhost:~# ls -l $(which ping) -rwsr-xr-x. 1 root root 34752 Nov 8 2014 /bin/ping root@localhost:~# ping ...
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Using a different directory than /usr as standard

Is there any possibility to use a different directory than /usr as the standard directory to install things? I am asking, since I got an Endless OS system where /usr is read-only, thus not being able ...