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Raid 0+1 Failure Cases VS. Raid 1+0

I have heard that RAID 1+0 is more fault-reliant than RAID 0+1, because a secondary drive failure is more likely to cause data loss in RAID 0+1 than RAID 1+0. In the above image, if "Disk 1"...
quixotrykd's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
16 views

what are the steps to run Grub Hook Script in Debian 12.5

I have installed Software RAID 1 in Debian 12.5. I want if 1st HDD fails the automatically my system should be able to boot from 2nd HDD and visa versa. What steps I should take for the same? My ...
linux01's user avatar
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0 answers
43 views

Recover data from a raid 1 disk

i would like to recover some data from a disk which was part of a MD RAID 1 Array in an old fileserver. Drive 1 had a HW issue and it seems that drive 2 stuck in a Rebuilding State. My idea was to get ...
csiko's user avatar
  • 1
2 votes
1 answer
142 views

Accidentally used fdisk on mdadm RAID1 array, can I recover my data?

I installed a new disk today and was prepping it, before realizing that I'd done my "prep" work on an existing RAID1 array!! I'd LOVE to be able to recovered if possible. My array was ...
Vince's user avatar
  • 41
2 votes
1 answer
247 views

Migrate existing RAID1 volumes to LVM on Proxmox

Notes: I read How to convert SW MD RAID1 arrays to LVM mirrors? but wanted to pose the question as that is quite an old post. This is my first post. I have a sw RAID1 (2 8TB HDDs that present to ...
stauntonjr's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
61 views

Recover data from old working RAID 1 disk

I am running a system with Debian 12. /root/ is on a RAID1 array with mdadm with 2 mirrored SSD (let's call them disks A and B). All disks are perfectly functioning. I wanted to replace the two A and ...
giovi321's user avatar
  • 907
1 vote
1 answer
66 views

Linux RAID1 replace disks with higher capacity

I have a server which has two 256GB SSDs. They were partitioned as following: /dev/sda1 100GB linux-raid-autodetect /dev/sda2 100GB linux-raid-autodetect /dev/sda3 23,6GB linux-raid-autodetect /dev/...
DF8OE's user avatar
  • 33
-1 votes
1 answer
938 views

What is the difference between BTRFS RAID1 and BTRFS RAID5 on 3+ devices?

According to "Examining btrfs, Linux’s perpetually half-finished filesystem", BTRFS RAID1 is said to be "guaranteed redundancy—copies of all blocks will be saved on two separate devices&...
Evan Carroll's user avatar
  • 31.7k
1 vote
0 answers
579 views

What's the best method to raid1 a btrfs and efi boot drive?

I have two NVME drives, one of which is already working as I want and I boot off of it: it has two partitions one for EFI, one for the BTRFS Linux filesystem. Device Start End ...
Evan Carroll's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
154 views

How to create a data-redundant encrypted filesystem on an external SSD?

What's the easiest way to format an external SSD with encryption and RAID1-style data replication? As I recently grew suspicious of my SSD+luks+btrfs setup, I've started wondering how to reduce risk ...
Nemo's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
76 views

Recovering data from old RAID 1 NAS drive

I'm trying to recover data from an old NAS drive that failed. I'm not sure of the cause of failure, but the files are relatively intact on the drive, and I've been able to pull some stuff off in the ...
grenademoose's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
213 views

How to extend madam RAID1 with LUKS and ext4 filesystem on Debian 10

I am trying to expand an existing RAID1 array with an ext4 filesystem on a LUKS volume on Debian GNU/Linux 10 (buster). This is my disk layout from lsblk: NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE ...
Ellen Trendy's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
66 views

FreePBX distro on CentOS failed to boot with RAID

I have a regular FreePBX (latest 7) distro with LVM RAID1 volume on two physical disks. After power fail it can't boot and drops to emergency mode. Main LV is inactive and I can't enable it because ...
Alexander  Verzakov's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
417 views

Recover mdadm raid1 built with full disks (overwritten partition data)

While setting up my new PC I also setup a new RAID 1 with 2 drives with LUKS on top. After copying all the data to it I made sure everything was usable and afterwards shredded the old drive. But now I ...
felix jochems's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
97 views

Raid profile missing or gone after drive replacement

I have a 5 year old PR4100 with 4 x 2TB WD red's. It was always configured in the default Raid1 setting. A week ago, my PR4100 showed a red led on the first drive. My files were still accessible and ...
WIWIWWIISpitFire's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
89 views

Trim and btrfs with raid1

I know that btrfs support trim/discard, as a mount option or manually (fstrim -A). I want to made a raid1 of ssd, I will get any problem with trim?
elbarna's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
228 views

Creating a new raid1 mdadm luks device creates two unwanted partitions

I am trying to create a raid1 (with mdadm) device with luks. However, it creates two partitions instead of one as you can see below: sde 8:64 0 3,6T 0 disk `-sde1 8:65 ...
giovi321's user avatar
  • 907
2 votes
0 answers
84 views

Can reads from an MD RAID 1 be inconcsistent?

While a RAID 1 gives the benefit of redundancy I'm trying to understand whether using a RAID can lead to inconsistencies under any circumstances (I/O errors, not disk, ...). In an effort to understand ...
fischerman's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
431 views

Recover files from Linux Raid1 member disk - as bad as it gets

I hope you´re doing well. I work as a technician in an IT company focused on Windows systems and cloud stuff, hence my knowledge to Linux is sadly very limited. So please excuse any dumb questions but ...
KofftheHoff's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
139 views

Problems after creating mdadm RAID-1: disk identifier 0x00000000 and same serial number on both disks

I need your help with a problem that I’ve been trying to solve for days now.  I recently purchased a Western Digital (WD) My Book Duo, and after setting it to make it work as two independent disks I ...
Shevek's user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
1 answer
117 views

Linux mdadm + LVM2: "Cloned" logical volume across three RAID1 blocks?

My disk setup in a Debian Linux box shows like this: > lsblk NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT sda 8:0 0 931,5G 0 disk ├─sda1 8:1 0 ...
Antonio López's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
639 views

mdadm shows wrong array size, and can not growing

I used 2 partitions to create a RAID1 array. both of them are 967131168 sectors, 512 bytes per sector. so the raid array size should be 483564544. but it shows: Array Size : 483433472 (461.04 GiB ...
user2919667's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

Raid 1 on two partitions: is this a good thing to do?

So, I have a 2TB HDD (sda) and a 500GB one (sdb). I created a partition on sdb occupying the entire device (sdb1), noted how large it is, and then I created a partition on sda the same size (sda1). ...
Andy3153's user avatar
  • 165
3 votes
1 answer
3k views

Fixing missing superblocks on both RAID1 disks using mdadm

My RAID1 array was working fine at /dev/md128 but seems to have completely disappeared after a reboot, with mdadm reporting both disks are missing superblocks. My question is how to fix this? ...
tater's user avatar
  • 273
1 vote
0 answers
21 views

mdadm: after a re-install, two raid1 partitions were relabeled raid0 but the data are raid1

Maybe the simplest thing is to just mount one partition by itself read only and pull the little bit of data not fully backed up and rebuild from scratch. Otherwise, since there has been no I/O ...
Bruce's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
0 answers
5k views

Mounting LVM partition on a RAID1 disk from a bricked QNAP NAS

I have a QNAP HS-251+ NAS with two 3TB WD Red NAS Hard Drives in RAID1 configuration. I'm quite acquainted with Linux and CLI tools, but never used mdadm or LVM so, despite knowing (now) that QNAP ...
Xabier Villar's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

MDADM RAID-1 arrays always do automatic check after booting from a several-day long shutdown

I have multiple PCs with Fedora 35 and RAID-1 MDADM arrays. Among them, only one is facing a weird problem: If I leave it shutdown for more than 2~3 days, it will definitely perform an automatic check ...
Zhang Xiang's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
212 views

Primary GPT table corrupt (RAID-1 and mounted as /home) stopping me reinstalling Linux

Env: Linux TRANQUILITY 5.3.18-150300.59.49-preempt #1 SMP PREEMPT Mon Feb 7 14:40:20 UTC 2022 (77d9d02) x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux Also OpenSuse Leap 15.3 with KDE Plasma 5 When I run the OS ...
Greg's user avatar
  • 115
0 votes
1 answer
145 views

OS and addtional software raid is it a good approach?

A friend of mine wants to use a root server for his wordpress pages. His idea is to use one SSD as main drive for the OS and two HDDs for WWW-Root and database data. The idea is to use both HDDs in a ...
mkey's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
0 answers
530 views

Recover data from RAID1 with one disk in rebuilding state

I am attempting to recover data on a MDADM RAID1 array with one HDD that suffered a mechanical failure and another that is stuck in a rebuilding state. I have two 2TB HDDs that were installed on a ...
user514025's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
787 views

Is it possible to avoid cached data duplication in bcache and Btrfs RAID1?

There is a possibility to attach single bcache cache drive to multiple backing devices. Since bcache is not aware about filesystem which lies on top, this means it is not aware about any software RAID ...
carbolymer's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
384 views

Can't make an ext4-partition on a specific raid

I have a hardware raid-1 on two WDC-SSDs with 500GB on each SSD. The raid controller is a Marvell-88SE9128 via two GSATA connections (the controller is directly on the motherboard and not an ePCI ...
cone1018's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

slow access/reads of linux md raid1 array

I have a Linux md-raid raid1 array (ext4 fs), with 2 3TB disks. The array has been showing significant slowness in access and read times over the last few months. Doing an ls on a directory w/ less ...
baronmog's user avatar
5 votes
4 answers
24k views

MDADM - Adding a new hard disk to an existing RAID1 [duplicate]

my dedicated server has a RAID1 array with 2x1TB HDD It is filling up i want add new hard disk (It has already been physically added) I have no idea how to do it. I'm afraid of losing data I found ...
abdolwahab alemi's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to install GRUB2 on shrunken RAID1 disks?

TL;DR: Trying to install GRUB2 on block devices that are in RAID1. Stuck at installing bootloader. Goal to replace HDD-s with smaller SSD-s. Here are the steps that I've taken: # Booted into rescue ...
krg's user avatar
  • 196
1 vote
2 answers
1k views

JBOD: How to Raid1 drives with different capacities? Btrfs, ZFS?

I have selection of hard drives, with capacities: 1 TB 500 GB 320 GB 250 GB I'd like to make Raid1 out of them, in the sense, that copy of any data will be always on two drives out of four I have. ...
saXh26Ql0zkF's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

How to recover Data after "mdadm zero-superblocks"

I wanted to swap from CentOS to Openmediavault. I had a RAID1 with mdadm in place and wanted to split it again into two separate disks. The Guide (Similar to ArchWiki) told me to do the following: ...
TheLPfy's user avatar
  • 41
0 votes
2 answers
261 views

RAID1 as a personal desktop backup system, pros and cons

I'm seriously considering ways to safeguard my data since I'm really tired of loosing files because of bad redundancy. I was reading about RAID1 and it seems a very practical method of keeping updated ...
Lerian Acosenossa's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
626 views

Is there any non-destructive way to change the preferred drive in a raid1 mdadm setup?

I have observed empirically that for a raid1 mdadm array, mostly serving sequential reads from single processes, the first disk is basically always picked. This is also confirmed by this code which ...
JoeSlav's user avatar
  • 128
0 votes
3 answers
1k views

mdadm RAID1: can you grow to 3 disks, then revert back to 2?

I have a Linux (CentOS7) software RAID1 system with two disks which are getting old. One has been starting to show signs of failure. I'd like to phase these disks out one at a time with new disks ...
user3822177's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
2k views

Replace missing Btrfs RAID-1 device - btrfs replace and balance?

Recently, I replaced a device on two Btrfs RAID-1 filesystems because disks needed to be replaced. I did it like this: mount -o noatime,degraded /dev/sda3 /mnt/tmp btrfs fi show /dev/sda3 btrfs ...
maxschlepzig's user avatar
  • 57.9k
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

mdadm - root raid1 partition wont boot ( device not found )

I had some soft raid issues, so i booted with SystemRescueCD and recreated / raid mirror ( md2 ) with "--create" option ( maybe that was a failure moment ). So on RescueCD boot all raid ...
user1128677's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
309 views

What are the implications of Flatcar Linux's root filesystem RAID limitations?

As described here, not all partitions of Flatcar Linux's root filesystem support RAID 1 Other system partitions, such as USR-A, USR-B, OEM, and EFI-SYSTEM, cannot be placed on a software RAID array ...
dippynark's user avatar
  • 327
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is it possible to split a single Raid 1 array pair and mount a single disk?

I'm having a lot of problems with raid 1 arrays on my server. Is it possible to split a raid 1 array into two seperate disks, and mount one, or either of them, as regular disks. The raid 1 devices ...
user3728501's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
708 views

MDADM RAID1 Creation - Which device is "master"?

In a RAID 1 config with MDADM, which device is the master device during the initialization process? In a RAID 1 config with 2 devices, presumably (?) one device acts as a master and the other as a ...
user3728501's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
44 views

Identify bad disks which is in OS HW RAID

We have servers where a CentOS OS disk is in hardware RAID 1, however we couldn't determine if there was a disk problem until both disks failed. smartmontools seems like it doesn't work well for this ...
xrkr's user avatar
  • 279
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

Replace 500GB raid1 with 120GB raid1 with mdadm

I have a home server with two mirrored (soft raid1 with mdadm) 500GB HDD that contain the operating system. I would like to replace both the drives with two 120GB SSD mirrored in raid1 the same way. ...
giovi321's user avatar
  • 907
2 votes
2 answers
541 views

RAID1 primarily used disk

I'm kinda new to the setup of raid-drives. So my current setup looks like this: Disk1: 1x NVMe DataCenter Edition 960GB ("low" IOPS) Disk2: 1x NVMe Octane 480GB (high IOPS) Disk 1 has 3 ...
ByteAlex's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
219 views

Attempted to replicate partition table to replacement RAID1 disk, but source partition table now empty

I had a disk (/dev/sda) show signs of eventual failure in a RAID1 array, so I failed and then removed it from the array. I then replaced the disk, booted back up, and began the process of replicating ...
Luke Pittman's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why am I getting this "File exists" error trying to mount unmounted filesystem?

Help greatly appreciated. I have a hot swappable USB C 3.1 5 bay storage device (https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07VMK6ND7/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_taa_BETlFb399BQF4) attached to a Debian box. 1st 2 bays are a 4tb ...
narnie's user avatar
  • 121