Questions tagged [raid]

RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A Storage technology to provide redundancy and performance, to reduce I/O bottlenecks involved in using multiple disks for large storage.

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recover data from raid 1 disk after “mdadm --create”

I have disk that was part of raid 1. I created (probably mistakenly) new raid with that disk to recover the data: mdadm --create /dev/md0 --auto md --level=1 --force --raid-devices=1 /dev/sdc1 now ...
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NVMe RAID 0 for a Linux install? Is it possible?

I'm trying to install Pop! OS on a raid0 of two M.2 drives, but it simply doesn't see the "drive". And Ubuntu says Intel RST should be disabled. Some sources recommend switching to AHCI mode,...
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What are the options to create a single volume of multiple different hard drives with redundancy (i.e. heterogeneous RAID)

I have about 8 hard drives lying around, and enough SATA ports in my main PC (running openSUSE Tumbleweed) to connect them all. Some of the drives are more than 5 years old, and the sizes range from ...
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Rescue Data from OMV Raid 1

I have a big Problem: All my important data were stored on a selfmade OpenMediaVault-NAS. I have 2x 4TB WD Reds and one of them failed. It was a (software) Raid configured in OMV. When OMV rebooted, ...
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Debian: is possible to boot with a btrfs raid1 degraded?

I have setup a Debian vm to boot with a RAID1 btrfs made with two encrypted devices. I had setup the vm like this /etc/default/grub GRUB_DEFAULT=0 GRUB_TIMEOUT=5 GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR=`lsb_release -i -s 2&...
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What is the proper way of backing up raid

I have a two disk server where root is on a mirrored LVM volume, while /boot and /boot/efi are RAID1 partitions. I want to fully backup my server, so that when a disaster happens (both disks fail, or ...
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Can grub recognize a “degraded” raid1 mdadm partition?

Grub can boot(I have tried) from a zfs "degraded" raid1, is simple: create two zfs pools, one is boot, one is root, each one is raid1...and grub load Linux, with two disk, or with only one ...
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Missing drive in software RAID array after reboot

I have the Problem that I made a software RAID6-array of 6 HDD's. However, everytime the system gets rebooted the Array becomes inactive and after starting it again it degenerates, were always the ...
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dm-integrity and dm-raid slow resync

I'm running in a severe performance issue with the following setup and was hoping for some insights how to debug them. I run a level 6 dm-raid RAID with 4 HDDs and started replacing the RAID ...
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RAID 1 of /boot/efi partition on Debian

I have a CentOS 8 installation, where the partitioning and RAID 1 configuration where done using the automatic partitioning of the CentOS installer. Here is the output of lsblk: sda 8:0 0 ...
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mdadm does not find the superblock during the assemble operation

I had zero-filled partitions /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1 which I put into Linux RAID: # mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-disks=2 --metadata 1.0 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 mdadm: array /dev/md0 started. # ...
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How to resize partition with “raid” flag

Keep in mind that this question is not about how to resize/grow a RAID array or RAID partition. I have a 4 TB partition (/dev/sdb1) on a 8 TB physical HDD (/dev/sdb). The partition has the flag raid ...
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mdadm not showing RAID info on individual RAID array disks

I am testing the mdadm Linux tool in order to obtain metadata from each individual disk of a RAID array. So I have created a RAID array on a IBM Server (model IBM X3400 Dumpster Server, a Xeon E5410 ...
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Poor I/O utilisation with rsync, RAID6 and ext4

I noticed poor I/O utilization when rsync'ing from an external HDD (connected with USB 3.0) to a RAID6 (4 HDDs) with ext4. iostat shows that reading from the USB HDD happens for most part at 110 MB/s (...
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Is there any non-destructive way to change the preferred drive in a raid1 mdadm setup?

I have observed empirically that for a raid1 mdadm array, mostly serving sequential reads from single processes, the first disk is basically always picked. This is also confirmed by this code which ...
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Fast large-write performance with LVM RAID5?

I have a use-case that is dominated by large sequential writes. Seems to me that striped RAID5 performance for large writes should approach the performance of striped RAID0. Say you configured RAID5 ...
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MDADM raid dissappears when cd into dir

I have a raspberry pi running Ubuntu server 64 bit on a rockpi sata NAS enclosure. In essence its a simple powered sata board that sits on top of the Rpi and allows for four 2.5" hdd/ssd to be ...
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Cant create a VG . /dev/sda1: already exists in filesystem

Tried creating an LVM VG but getting this error sudo vgcreate /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 vg0 /dev/sda1: already exists in filesystem I've already removed all the VG, LV, and PV. I tried removing all the ...
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How can I use par2 to mimick the parity of RAID arrays?

Background: I'm using LTO-8 tapes and my concern is that over time, the data on the tape can become corrupted and the goal that I am trying to accomplish is to use par2 to create the parity that I may ...
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how to test disks in raid for health

What is the correct routine to test hdd disks in raid array? How to test them if the array suddenly degraded ? It is software linux raid. Or are there another ways to find the reason? SMART report for ...
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Best practice to switch unencrypted RAID1 (mdadm) to LUKS & RAID1

I have a raid1 setup with mdadm with 2x 4TB HDDs. My operating system is on a 500GB SSD. My OS HDD is encrypted with LUKS. I would like to get my raid1 under LUKS and LVM as well. Since I don't have a ...
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EFI stub kernel not booting, but black screen

I'm trying to boot a Gentoo Linux with an EFI stub kernel on a Hetzner AX41-NVME server, but it only shows a blank black screen while the server hangs up. Partition table: root@rescue ~ # sgdisk -p /...
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Mixed raid 10 with multiple SSDs and an HDD for redundancy

I currently have a raid 0 array consisting of several SSD drives for increased capacity and to some degree speed. This is set up via mdadm and has worked fine until a drive recently crashed. The array ...
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Centos 7 - Can you install raid 5 and include SDA?

Setup: I have a dedicated server with 4 hard drives each 8TB, there is already a CENTOS 7 installed on one of the hard drives (for some reason) without any raid setup. [root@ ~]# fdisk -l | grep sd ...
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Megaraid Controller sets slot ubad again and again

In one off our servers the megaraid controller started to mark one slot as ubad. This slot holds a hot spare device, I changed the disk at this slot two times. The installed os is debian stretch. A ...
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Slow read and write speed after some time - Failing HDD? Bad sectors?

I have a custom-build home NAS running Debian 8, running 4 HDD combined as a RAID5 (LVM on LUKS). A few days ago I noticed that for the most recently added files the read speed plummet to a crawl (...
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Can't access device created when using mdadm

I've created two block devices under /dev using mknod, and when I try to create two RAID devices using those two devices I get this error: mdadm: cannot open /dev/test_dev: No such device or address I'...
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mdadm RAID - Reboot during grow - reshape is not resuming

I am on Debian 10, a fresh install from a week ago. I moved my array from a previous server, everything went fine. I then added a new drive in the array and did a grow. mdadm --add /dev/md1 /dev/sda2 ...
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GPT error? /dev/sd*3 disappeared

This is related with this but simplify the problem. I have drive ~#mdadm --examine /dev/sdj /dev/sdj: Magic : a92b4efc Version : 1.2 Feature Map : 0x0 Array UUID : a9bcec2a:...
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Raid 5 suddenly missing two hdd at the same time

I made a raid 5 with 4 drives /dev/sdh3 /dev/sdi3 /dev/sdj3 /dev/sdk3 Normally I started raid with this command mdadm --assemble /dev/md128 /dev/sdh3 /dev/sdi3 /dev/sdj3 /dev/sdk3 Suddenly something ...
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How to fix a bad checksum error on mdadm raid5 array (Ubuntu)

I have a 4 x 4 TB drive configured in a raid5 array. Drives labeled as /dev/sdb1, /dev/sdc1, /dev/sdd1 & /dev/sde1 assembled as /dev/md0 mdadm assemble output When I tried to assemble the array I ...
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Is it possible to move non system but data software RAID-1 to different system

I promise I did some research before I ask this question. Still not sure about that. Here is what I am planning to do. I am building a backup server. I am using 2 small HDD software raid-1 for the ...
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Replace missing Btrfs RAID-1 device - btrfs replace and balance?

Recently, I replaced a device on two Btrfs RAID-1 filesystems because disks needed to be replaced. I did it like this: mount -o noatime,degraded /dev/sda3 /mnt/tmp btrfs fi show /dev/sda3 btrfs ...
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Can bcache have non-zero dirty cache forever?

I created a Raspberry Pi based bcache on SSD with a HDD based RAID 1 array. After populating the RAID with few TB of content, bcache showed 10% dirty cache. That would be expected, since I have /sys/...
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SoftRaid 3x2TB SATA?

I recently took a new dedicated server ovh whose description is: SoftRaid 3x2TB SATA but I'm not sure I understand the meaning. I suppose there are 3 physical 2TB disks so I would tend to assume it is ...
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zfs pool creation: misaligned HDD?

I recently created a new ZFS pool, comming from btrfs. I followed the common and recent tutorials and checked with the man pages and the Ubuntu manual. Every article says that ZFS will handle ...
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mdadm raid + luks + ext4 stride stripe-width optimization

In this setup raid+ext4, after creating a RAID, it is recommended to optimize the filesystem, this is done at fs creation time as shown in the following link. now, what is the procedure to optimize ...
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No shutdown with software-raid

i did some experiments with software-raid on my xubuntu 20.04. I created a raid with 2 hard drives and mounted it using the fstab. after that i couldn't shut down the system with the shutdown button ...
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Mounting a single hard drive from mirror raid

Following issue: My fathers data server has some hardware issues (most likely the motherboard, it wont start anymore). So I tried to get to the files by removing one of the hdds from the server and ...
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mdadm raid configuration from USB and best practice

I never configured mdadm before and I have a question. I have got two discs /sda and /sdb. Currently on disc /sda I have got debian system with sda1,sda2,sda3. Is it possible to run my debian and ...
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Dual booting Arch Linux and Windows with nvme ssd with raid (or fake raid, unsure)

I'm attempting to dual boot Arch Linux with Windows 10, but have run into some problems with partitioning. I was following the installation wiki and SavvyNik's tutorial for dual booting Arch Linux, ...
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Optimal way to create mdadm raid 1 on USB adapter and then put it into slot on motherboard

I'm looking for the optimal way how to perform the task. On one of my debian servers: I have 2xSSD connected via USB adapter (no free ports on motherboard) I need to create RAID 1 MDADM array (2USB ...
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How to fix Block Volume error on linux? (missing Block volume, Swap, Linux raid)

Hi all, I have a hard drive removed from the NAS, but in here there is some data to retrieve, when it opens it has an error like this, I can't get anything inside, the status is locked , so how do I ...
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Clone excisting main HDD to new raid 1 SSD array

I am currently running Ubuntu server on my main server at my homelab. As for now the main drive that contains everything is just an old 250gb HDD I pulled out from an workstation in 2007. Everything ...
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How to remove an errant ZFS spare entry?

I have a ZFS spare reporting in an odd way. There is no sda spare. The spare "was" actually in use, listed as spare3 in screenshot below. However, sda is in fact the non-ZFS boot drive. ...
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What are the implications of Flatcar Linux's root filesystem RAID limitations?

As described here, not all partitions of Flatcar Linux's root filesystem support RAID 1 Other system partitions, such as USR-A, USR-B, OEM, and EFI-SYSTEM, cannot be placed on a software RAID array ...
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ZFS setup, adding drives on the go

I am not very knowledgeable when its comes to ZFS or drive pools. I am currently running an Ubuntu server with 5 different ext4 drives. 1x 128gb SSD for the OS, 1x 10tb 80% used, 1x 8tb 80% used and ...
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Do I need RAID 1 when setting up Btrfs on Linux?

I would like to install Debian setting up my disk using Btrfs. I have read on the Debian documentation (https://wiki.debian.org/Btrfs) on the recommendations section, it says that I should use at ...
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How to (re)assemble raid5 array from files?

I have a RAID5 array with 3 disks, I have the image (files) of two of them only. How can I use mdadm to obtain an image of the volume ? I can use the linux subsystem from Windows or a GNULinux virtual ...
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bare metal raid array with LVM dissapears after reboot

tl;dr: RAID array + LVM dissapears after reboot. Detail I wanted to set up an encrypted raid array, based on this SO. I set up a RAID array "bare metal" (i.e. on the disks not on the ...

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