Questions tagged [partition]

Disk partitioning is the act of dividing a hard disk drive into multiple logical storage units referred to as partitions, to treat one physical disk drive as if it were multiple disks.

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524
votes
37answers
549k views

Tracking down where disk space has gone on Linux?

When administering Linux systems I often find myself struggling to track down the culprit after a partition goes full. I normally use du / | sort -nr but on a large filesystem this takes a long time ...
111
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4answers
8k views

Why are there so many different ways to measure disk usage?

When I sum up the sizes of my files, I get one figure. If I run du, I get another figure. If I run du on all the files on my partition, it doesn't match what df claims is used. Why are there so many ...
91
votes
12answers
169k views

List partition labels from the command line

Is there a command that will list all partitions along with their labels? sudo fdisk -l and sudo parted -l don't show labels by default. EDIT: (as per comment below) I'm talking about ext2 labels - ...
80
votes
3answers
145k views

How to copy the partition layout of a whole disk using standard tools

I want to take a backup of the whole partition layout of a hard drive, including logical drives, so that I can restore that layout to another disk. I do not want to copy the contents of the partitions,...
77
votes
10answers
48k views

Is it good to make a separate partition for /boot?

I've seen some people make a separate partition for /boot. What is the benefit of doing this? What problems might I encounter in the future by doing this? Also, except for /home and /boot, which ...
73
votes
6answers
87k views

Clear unused space with zeros (ext3,ext4)

How to clear unused space with zeros ? (ext3,ext4) I'm looking for something smarter than cat /dev/zero > /mnt/X/big_zero ; sync; rm /mnt/X/big_zero Like FSArchiver is looking for "used space" ...
66
votes
5answers
133k views

Create partition aligned using parted

I'm partitioning a non-SSD hard disk with parted because I want a GPT partition table. parted /dev/sda mklabel gpt Now, I'm trying to create the partitions correctly aligned so I use the following ...
60
votes
6answers
139k views

How can I increase the number of inodes in an ext4 filesystem?

I had a problem (new to me) last week. I have a ext4 (Fedora 15) filesystem. The application that runs on the server suddenly stopped. I couldn't find the problem at first look. df showed 50% ...
59
votes
4answers
111k views

Moving /var, /home to separate partition

I am attempting to move some folders (such as /var and /home) to a separate partition after reading this guide: 3.2.1 Choose an intelligent partition scheme I was able to move one folder ...
58
votes
6answers
32k views

Different linux distros sharing the same /home folder?

What is the best way to share the same /home directories between different linux distribution? I mean, I want to have both, say, Fedora and Arch, and I want to find my files at home no matter which ...
51
votes
9answers
50k views

Why put things other than /home to a separate partition?

So recently a Debian 5.0.5 installer offered me to have separate /usr, /home, /var and /tmp partitions (on one physical disk). What is the practical reason for this? I understand that /home can be ...
47
votes
5answers
65k views

How to safely turn off swap permanently and reclaim the space? (on Debian Jessie)

I installed Debian Jessie with default partitioning on my SSD drive. My current disk partitioning looks like this: As I have 16GB of RAM, I assume I don't need swap. But since I have other disk ...
45
votes
7answers
55k views

How to change the volume name of a FAT32 filesystem?

I know I can set the volume name when I format the partition with the -n option of mkfs.vfat. But how to just change the name without formatting? I especially want to be able to use lower and ...
45
votes
3answers
26k views

Are there any side effects when two distros share a swap partition?

In order to save disk space, I want to have two OS installations share a single swap partition (a dual-boot). Is this a good idea?
40
votes
9answers
20k views

What is the /boot partition really for?

I'm reading a relatively old text on Linux partitions and file systems (the LPIC 1 Certification Bible). It says: Some versions of the Linux boot loaders cannot access a kernel that is outside ...
37
votes
5answers
18k views

The merits of a partitionless filesystem

I ran into something a couple of weeks ago that I'd never seen before: A filesystem (ext3 I believe) installed to a storage device without a partition. In essence /dev/sdb was the entire filesystem. I ...
36
votes
1answer
18k views

What is the difference between a name and a label in gparted?

When I create a new partition on my disk using GParted, I have the option to set both a name and a label. Some partitions I have already have both, some only a label. If I right-click on an existing ...
35
votes
5answers
86k views

How to find the type of an img file and mount it?

I have to mount a .img file but I don't know what type of .img it is. How can I figure out what type of .img file it is? # mount -t auto -o ro,loop gmapsupp.img /mnt/iso/ mount: you must specify the ...
33
votes
7answers
74k views

How to partition 22TB disk?

I have a 22TB disk on /dev/sdb. How do I create a 22TB partition? Don't really care about the file system - ext4 or zfs is fine. Running CentOS 6.2 - Partition will be used as a data dump. Only a ...
33
votes
2answers
28k views

What are the differences between the various partition tables?

When I am looking to create a new partition table, I have the following options: aix amiga bsd dvh gpt mac msdos pc98 sun loop The default in gparted appears to be msdos which I guess is an 'MBR' ...
32
votes
2answers
33k views

What mount points exist on a typical Linux system?

I have 2 questions. During Linux installation we specify memory space for 2 mount points - root and swap. Are there any other mount points created without the users notice? Is this statement correct:...
32
votes
6answers
146k views

How do I partition a USB drive so that it's bootable and has a Windows-compatible data storage partition?

split from here I have a 16gb flash drive, which I want a live ISO to boot from (via unetbootin or something similar). It'll be some 32bit distro that I can plug-in and boot on whatever computer I ...
30
votes
5answers
85k views

How to reduce Volume Group size in LVM?

[root@localhost ~] vgdisplay --- Volume group --- VG Name vg_root System ID Format lvm2 Metadata Areas 1 Metadata Sequence No 7 VG ...
29
votes
7answers
19k views

How can I use DD to migrate data from an old drive to a new drive?

I am upgrading the internal SATA hard drive on my laptop from a 40G drive to a 160G drive. I have a Linux/Ubuntu desktop which has a SATA card. I would actually like to do the same thing for a couple ...
29
votes
3answers
96k views

What's the easiest way to resize an ext4 partition from the command line?

What's the easiest way to resize an ext4 partition (or any type partition depending on the method) from the command line (potentially with the fewest commands, but also the easiest to understand)? ...
28
votes
6answers
12k views

File systems vs partitions vs directories

I am new to Linux so pardon me for the possible confusion you may encounter in this question. From what I understand, filesystem specifies how a partition stores/manages file, with standards such as ...
27
votes
4answers
117k views

How to extend filesystem partition on Ubuntu VM?

I'm running Ubuntu Desktop 14.04 as a VM on a mac with vmware fusion. I'm getting space warning issues and now want to expand from 20GB to 200GB. I powered off the VM and on the vmware side ...
25
votes
3answers
130k views

How can I expand ext4 partition size on debian

I have a drive with this configuration: fdisk -l Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Sector size ...
25
votes
5answers
14k views

Wipe last 1MB of a Hard drive

Is there an easy command that I can use to zero out the last 1MB of a hard drive? For the start of the drive I would dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx bs=1M count=1. The seek option for dd looks promising,...
25
votes
1answer
80k views

/dev/mapper in fdisk

After installing CentOS, I see several lines like /dev/mapper/centos_jackpc--11-swap and /dev/mapper/centos_jackpc--11-root when I issue fdisk -l. What is the purpose of these? And why do they not ...
23
votes
4answers
53k views

Finding the sector size of a partition

I answered this question, assuming that the *.img file had a sector size of 512. How do I query a device, or the image of a device, to find the correct sector size?
23
votes
4answers
8k views

What's the difference between creating mdadm array using partitions or the whole disks directly

Can someone please explain to me, what the difference is between creating mdadm array using partitions or the whole disks directly? Supposing I intend to use the whole drives. Note, that they are with ...
23
votes
3answers
32k views

How to perform full check of ext4 file system structure?

I have 2TB ext4 partition with half million files on it. I want to check whether this partition contains any errors or not. I don't want to search for bad blocks, only logical structure should be ...
23
votes
1answer
42k views

Updating disk free size without rebooting the host

I use RHEL4 with LVM2 on it. At times even after removing large files more than a GB, the partition size is not getting updated when using the df command. -bash-3.00$ df -h Filesystem Size ...
22
votes
4answers
42k views

boot partition is almost full in CentOS

I got a warning of my /boot partition is almost full(85%). What should I do? Can I remove one of the backup kernel? How to do it safely? My partition right now Filesystem 1K-blocks ...
22
votes
3answers
16k views

How can I move the home directory to a separate partition?

I would like to install another distribution but keep my home directory. Is there a way to move the home directory to a separate partition? I don't have an external hard drive available to back up my ...
21
votes
2answers
53k views

How can I use fdisk to create a ntfs partition on /dev/sdx?

I would like to know how to create a ntfs partition on /dev/sdx. I could not figure out if I should use partition type 7 86 or 87. What is the full list of commands to use?
20
votes
1answer
38k views

How do I determine the new size for resize2fs?

I want to shrink an ext4 filesystem to make room for a new partition and came across the resize2fs program. The command looks like this: resize2fs -p /dev/mapper/ExistingExt4 $size How should I ...
20
votes
3answers
57k views

partitioning using 2 hard disks (SSD and non-SSD) in linux [closed]

I have the following free spaces on 2 disks: SSD - 240G (sda) non-SSD - 240G (sdb) I understand that I should use SSD to install packages and non-SSD just for storing data. What's the best ...
20
votes
2answers
14k views

Using LVM with SSD and SATA drives

I saw in this question that it is possible to place both a SSD and a standard SATA hard drive into a single LVM volume group (VG). How does this affect performance? Is there a way to force the OS ...
19
votes
1answer
21k views

Swap partition in LVM?

I was wondering if putting the swap partition into a logical volume group has any drawbacks (e.g. performance), or would it be "just the same" as having it as a separate primary/logical partition? I ...
19
votes
5answers
12k views

Convert image of a partition into image of a disk with partition table

I have an image of an existing partition generated with dd if=/dev/sdXN of=image.bin. Now I want to use this image as the basis for a virtual machine. I know how to convert the image into a format ...
18
votes
6answers
50k views

Change the number of the partition from sda1 to sda2

I have a disk with two partitions: sda1 and sda2. I would like change the number of sda1 to sda2 and sda2 to sda1. It's possible but I don't remember the procedure. i.e. My first partition will be ...
18
votes
5answers
30k views

Arch GRUB asking for /run/lvm/lvmetad.socket on a non lvm disk

I am running this script based on the ArchWiki setup procedure. It fails on the GRUB configuration step I am using the archlinux-2013.12.01-dual.iso inside VMware Player with 1 GB ram, sda is 810 MB....
18
votes
1answer
27k views

How to mount multiple directories on the same partition?

I am installing an SSD and would like to put / on the SSD and /home, /var, and /tmp on the HDD. My current distro is Kubuntu but I would not mind trying another distro if this procedure can be ...
18
votes
5answers
66k views

How to salvage an unreadable usb flash drive

I have a 16GB USB flash drive that somehow got corrupted to the point in which even fdisk -l can't find it (I get a one-line error message saying: "Unable to open /dev/sdc") However, it is being ...
18
votes
1answer
8k views

What is the difference between “extended” partition and “logical” partition

What is the difference between "extended" partitions and "logical" partitions on my hard disk? What's the need for each? I am using Linux
18
votes
2answers
11k views

Defragmentation of LVM2 logical volumes

Question: Is there a tool supporting de-fragmentation of LVM2 logical volumes? (Making their extents into consistent sequences) Preferably by defining desired order of extents (something like "...
17
votes
3answers
96k views

Can I resize the root partition without uninstalling and reinstalling Linux (or losing data)?

I have started using a machine that has both Debian and Windows 7 installed. However, after installing some programs I started getting a message that there is not enough space. I knew that the system ...
16
votes
6answers
9k views

What's the best way to partition your drive?

I usually install Linux on a single partition since I only use it as a personal desktop. However, every now and then I reinstall the box. And what I do is to simply move my files around with an ...