Questions tagged [ls]

The ls command lists the contents of a directory.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
220
votes
8answers
39k views

Why *not* parse `ls` (and what to do instead)?

I consistently see answers quoting this link stating definitively "Don't parse ls!" This bothers me for a couple of reasons: It seems the information in that link has been accepted wholesale with ...
80
votes
2answers
283k views

How can I assign the output of a command to a shell variable?

I want to assign the result of an expression to a variable and concatenate it with a string, then echo it. Here's what I've got: #!/bin/bash cd ~/Desktop; thefile= ls -t -U | grep -m 1 "Screen Shot"; ...
74
votes
6answers
62k views

Understanding UNIX permissions and file types

I've never really got how chmod worked up until today. I followed a tutorial that explained a big deal to me. For example, I've read that you've got three different permission groups: owner (u) ...
86
votes
5answers
75k views

The result of ls * , ls ** and ls ***

I know using the command ls will list all the directories. But what does the ls * command do ? I used it and it just lists the directories. Does the star in front of ls mean how deep it will list the ...
67
votes
4answers
23k views

What does size of a directory mean in output of 'ls -l' command?

What does size of a directory mean in output of ls -l command?
154
votes
8answers
193k views

What causes this green background in ls output?

There are two directories shown by 'ls'. Normally directories anywhere are blue on black background. But the first one is blue on green and impossible to read. Why is this? How to make it blue on ...
207
votes
3answers
35k views

Why is 'ls' suddenly wrapping items with spaces in single quotes?

I just noticed that on one of my machines (running Debian Sid) whenever I type ls any file name with spaces has single quotes surrounding it. I immediately checked my aliases, only to find them ...
239
votes
4answers
334k views

What do the fields in ls -al output mean?

The ls -al command shows the following output; -rwxrw-r-- 10 root root 2048 Jan 13 07:11 afile.exe What are all the fields in the preceding display?
134
votes
7answers
45k views

What does the @ mean in ls -l?

I am using Mac OSX. When I type ls -l I see something like drwxr-xr-x@ 12 xonic staff 408 22 Jun 19:00 . drwxr-xr-x 9 xonic staff 306 22 Jun 19:42 .. -rwxrwxrwx@ 1 xonic staff 6148 25 ...
134
votes
10answers
114k views

List files sorted numerically

I have a bunch of files from log1 to log164. I'm trying to LIST the directory (sorted) in a UNIX terminal but the sort functions are only providing the format like this: home:logs Home$ ls -1 | sort ...
49
votes
2answers
33k views

Output from ls has newlines but displays on a single line. Why?

I think I may be overlooking a relatively fundamental point regarding shell. Output from the ls command by default separates output with newlines, but the shell displays the output on a single line. ...
123
votes
6answers
183k views

How do I do a ls and then sort the results by date created?

In what order are the dated ordered by? Certainly not alphanumeric order. ls -lt sorts by modification time. But I need creation time.
17
votes
8answers
28k views

Convert ls -l output format to chmod format

Say I have the following output from ls -l: drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 7 17:21 foo How can I automatically convert this to the format used by chmod? For example: $ echo drwxr-xr-x | chmod-...
15
votes
2answers
13k views

How do regular expressions differ from wildcards used to filter files

While we use * to denote zero or more previous characters in grep, we use *.c to find all C files when we use it with the ls command like ls *.c. Could someone tell how the use of * differs in these ...
6
votes
3answers
3k views

When you type “ls -a”, what is the significance of “.” and “..”?

Whenever you type ls -a into the command prompt, you usually get all of your folders, files, and then you see that the first two entries are . and .. Just curious, but what is the significance of ...
39
votes
2answers
33k views

Why does a new directory have a hard link count of 2 before anything is added to it?

Say I just create directory newDirectory and then I do ls -ld command. I see that the number of hard links is 2. What exactly makes the hard link 2 from the start? Also is the number of subdirectories ...
11
votes
1answer
57k views

No such file or directory but I can see it!

I'm trying to run a python script, on a headless Raspberry PI using winSCP and get the following error message: Command '"./areadetect_movie_21.py"' failed with return code 127 and error message /usr/...
11
votes
10answers
18k views

What's the best way to count the number of files in a directory?

If parsing the output of ls is dangerous because it can break on some funky characters (spaces, \n, ... ), what's the best way to know the number of files in a directory? I usualy rely on find to ...
25
votes
7answers
45k views

How to report number of files in all subdirectories?

I need to inspect all sub-directories and report how many files (without further recursion) they contain: directoryName1 numberOfFiles directoryName2 numberOfFiles
38
votes
3answers
7k views

Is there a reason why ls does not have a --zero or -0 option

This question was prompted by questions about ls' -1 option and the recurring tendency of people to ask question and answers that includes processing the output of ls. This reuse of the output ls ...
9
votes
3answers
17k views

file block size - difference between stat and ls

I've noticed that when I do a: ls -ls file It provides block count, say 8 blocks. When I do: stat file I notice that the block count is 16, twice the number given by ls. The block size on my ...
30
votes
3answers
11k views

ls command: what does the first line mean?

When I do ls -l I get this: calico@A000505:~/Documentos$ ls -l total 2020 -rwxr-xr-x 1 calico calico 8559 2010-11-16 11:12 a.out -rwxrw-rw- 1 smt smt 2050138 2010-10-14 10:40 Java2.pdf -...
12
votes
4answers
862 views

ls command operating differently depending on recipient

How does commands like ls know what its stdout is? It seems ls is operating different depending on what the target stdout is. For example if I do: ls /home/matt/tmp the result is: a.txt b.txt c....
1136
votes
16answers
2.5m views

How do I get the size of a directory on the command line?

I tried to obtain the size of a directory (containing directories and sub directories) by using the ls command with option l. It seems to work for files (ls -l file name), but if I try to get the size ...
267
votes
10answers
542k views

How to list all files ordered by size

I would like to list all files in the order of big to small in size and the files could be present anywhere in a certain folder.
86
votes
11answers
130k views

Sorting files according to size recursively

I need to find the largest files in a folder. How do I scan a folder recursively and sort the contents by size? I have tried using ls -R -S, but this lists the directories as well. I also tried ...
27
votes
3answers
9k views

Why does ls sorting ignore non-alphanumeric characters?

When sorting file names, ls ignores characters like -,_. I expected it to use those characters in sorting as well. An example: touch a1 a2 a-1 a-2 a_1 a_2 a.1 a.2 a,1 a,2 Now display these files ...
132
votes
8answers
300k views

List only regular files (but not directories) in current directory

I can use ls -ld */ to list all the directory entries in the current directory. Is there a similarly easy way to just list all the regular files in the current directory? I know I can use find find . ...
86
votes
10answers
96k views

Is there any option with 'ls' command that I see only the directories?

Sometimes, I need to check only the directories not files. Is there any option with the command ls? Or is there any utility for doing that? EDIT: I'm using Mac OS X, and ls -d gives me . even though ...
51
votes
5answers
101k views

Argument list too long for ls

I get the following error when trying to ls *.txt | wc -l a directory that contains many files: -bash: /bin/ls: Argument list too long Does the threshold of this "Argument list" dependent on distro ...
10
votes
1answer
28k views

How can I make ls show information about the directory specified only, not info about its sub-files or folder contents?

Say I have folder "foo" residing, the home directory. I want to get some info of it, owner, group, permissions, etc... I then do this to try to get the information: cd ~ ls -l foo Of course it now ...
19
votes
3answers
3k views

is piped ls the same as ls -1?

ls returns output in several columns, whereas ls|cat returns byte-identical output with ls -1 for directories I've tried. Still I see ls -1 piped in answers, like ls -1|wc -l. Is there ever a reason ...
4
votes
2answers
10k views

View extended ACL for a file with '+' in ls -l output

A file in a ls -l listing has permissions such as: -rw-r-----+ How do I find the extended Access Control List (ACL) permissions denoted by the +?
4
votes
2answers
2k views

`du -b` shows different size than `ls`

I have a directory with a few hundred files (real files, no symlinks, no subdirectories). When I use ls -la and sum up the sizes in Excel I get 287190 bytes(?). When I use du -b or du --apparent-...
92
votes
8answers
233k views

How to output only file names (with spaces) in ls -Al?

I should echo only names of files or directories with this construction: ls -Al | while read string do ... done ls -Al output : drwxr-xr-x 12 s162103 studs 12 march 28 12:49 personal ...
57
votes
14answers
42k views

What's the most resource efficient way to count how many files are in a directory?

CentOS 5.9 I came across an issue the other day where a directory had a lot of files. To count it, I ran ls -l /foo/foo2/ | wc -l Turns out that there were over 1 million files in a single ...
70
votes
4answers
76k views

What's the difference between “s” and “S” in ls -la?

When I ls -la, it prints many attributes. Something like this: -rwSrwSr-- 1 www-data www-data 45 2012-01-04 05:17 README Shamefully, I have to confess I don't know the exact meaning of each ...
30
votes
8answers
93k views

How do I list every file in a directory except those with specified extensions?

Suppose that I have a folder containing .txt, .pdf, and other files. I would like to list the "other" files (i.e., files not having the extensions .txt or .pdf). Do you have any advice on how to do ...
21
votes
4answers
3k views

How can I make “ls” show dotfiles first while staying case-insensitive?

Create the following files in a directory. $ touch .a .b a b A B 你好嗎 My default ls order ignores the presence of leading dots, intermingling them with the other files. $ ls -Al total 0 -rw-r--r-- ...
28
votes
2answers
18k views

What does a dot after the file permission bits mean?

I performed an ls -la on directory on my CentOS 6.4 server here and the permissions for a given file came out as: -rwxr-xr-x. I understand what -rwxr-xr-x means, what I don't understand is the . ...
34
votes
5answers
29k views

Why does “ls -all” show time for some files but only year for others?

If you issue ls -all command some files or directories have the year and some have the time? Why do some show the year while others show the time? Is the time representative of the time the file was ...
17
votes
8answers
31k views

ls content of a directory ignoring symlinks

I have a directory in which I would like to list all the content (files and sub directories) without showing the symbolic links. I am using GNU utilities on Linux. The ls version is 8.13. Example: ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

The -F option for ls

For command ls -F, --classify append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries Wikipedia says * represents executable and / dir. Regular files are not followed by any of the above ...
5
votes
4answers
8k views

How can I search for a file with fixed name length using ls?

In a directory, I have files like lazer_100506 lazer_100707 lazer_091211 lazer_110103 lazer_100406_temp lazer_100622#delete etc How can I get a listing of only the first four files? $ ls lazer_.......
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Why doesn't my loop over the output of ls work?

I am trying to feed Directory names into a for loop. My code is as follows: td='/Test/TopDir/' cd "$td" for x in $(ls -d */ | cut -f1 -d'/'); do echo x=$x done The top directory I run this on ...
5
votes
5answers
805 views

execute command on a defined range of directories

Is it possible to 'partition' a directory listing - say in to blocks of some number, to perform different actions on each 'range'? For example, lets say I have the following directories inside ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Number of lines outputted by ls

When ls is called, it outputs all the files/directories in the current directory, attempting to fit as many as possible on each line. Why is it that when passed to wc -l, it outputs the number of ...
4
votes
2answers
384 views

Why does `ls` list the following files in seemingly different orders?

Why does ls list the following files in seemingly different orders? By default, doesn't ls list files in the lexicographical order for my current locale, which I guess is the default one? $ ls a_1 ...
3
votes
1answer
744 views

What happens when the current directory is deleted?

In the first terminal A, I create a directory, enter the directory, and create a file: $ mkdir test $ cd test $ touch file1.txt $ ls file1.txt Then in another terminal B, I delete the directory: $ ...
1
vote
5answers
2k views

Can you use anchors ^ $ with ls?

Do anchors only work with grep or can it be used with other commands? For example: ls -l ^cat

1
2 3 4 5