Questions tagged [inode]

For question pertaining to the inode (index node), a data structure in a Unix-style file system that describes a file-system object such as a file or a directory. Use this tag for questions about the inode data structure itself or questions about issues arising from querying or managing inodes in the scope of a filesystem.

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Inodes of directories

While I was learning about inodes in ext4 file systems(or almost all Linux file systems), I found that directories also have inode entries. But I am a bit confused about a subtle aspect. Are inode ...
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Linux find command - find files based on inode and device?

I want to find the files with a given inode number. Using find with -inum is not entirely helpfull as its listing files with the inode number from every file system/device. How to confine this search ...
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How to find evey softlink to a directory?

Take /etc dir as example. On my system it has 144 links. And as dir's can't have hardlinks (this is my understanding), the number 144 should refer to softlinks (1 original + 143 softlinks). $ ll -i ...
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1answer
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Why inode numbers of /dev and /run are same as that of /? [duplicate]

Please see below output: In below output, the inode numbers of /dev and /run are same and equal to 2. The inode numbers of ./ and ../(could be a special case as ../ should point to ./) are also 2 and ...
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2answers
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How to effectively trace hardlink in Linux?

Softlinks are easily traceable to the original file with readlink etc... but I am having a hard time tracing hardlinks to the original file. $ ll -i /usr/bin/bash /bin/bash 1310813 -rwxr-xr-x 1 ...
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1answer
65 views

dpkg-query: no path found matching pattern /usr/bin/bash

What does it mean when package manager can not determine from which package the corresponding command was installed. When I do - $ sudo dpkg -S /usr/bin/passwd passwd: /usr/bin/passwd from the ...
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0answers
26 views

*nix command `df -ih /` - interpreting output [duplicate]

I came across this article over inodes - How to Get Total Inodes of Root Partition. Then, i ran below on my machine - $ df -ih / Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% Mounted on /dev/sda4 ...
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56 views

How to get unix socket inode given its path?

Let /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock/ be an open socket. I can stat it to get inode of the file (here 1200) # stat /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock File: /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock Size: 0 ...
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1answer
18 views

Are XFS quotas and linux quotas part of the same thing?

I see there are two ways to create quotas, there is xfs_quota and then this suite of utilities like edquota and repquota. It seems all of these utilities can provide inode quotas. How does that tools ...
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17 views

inode, list block pointers

The inode structure of some filesystems includes a list of pointers to the blocks used to store the file contents. This list should exist for ext2/3/4, as specified in the first comment to this ...
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1answer
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rhel + efsck + Deleted inode xxxxx has zero dtime

when I try to resize the disk we get that resize2fs /dev/sdb resize2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013) Please run 'e2fsck -f /dev/sdb' first. so when I try to do e2fsck I get the following e2fsck -f /dev/sdb ...
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Does GNU tar incremental backup save an entire file again, even if only atime or mtime is different?

mkdir test echo "hi" > test/file1 tar -c -f archive.0.tar -g test.snar test touch -a test/file1 # changes atime and ctime, doesn't change mtime tar -c -f archive.1.tar -g test.snar test ...
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XFS space full and also inode got full too? How could this happen?

# df . -i Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% Mounted on /dev/mapper/vgFOO-lv_bar 53136 52857 279 100% /bar # df . -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /...
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How to find which running process is modifying a file's permissions (Linux)? [duplicate]

There's a process in my system (a standard desktop installation with upwards of 150 quiescent processes at any time) that is sporadically resetting a config file's permissions that I have explicitly ...
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1answer
56 views

How to calculate the amount of blocks occupied by certain file sizes in a unix inode filesystem? [closed]

Given a hard disk with a Unix-like filesystem and the following specifications: The block size is 4KB, the block address length is 4 bytes and the i-nodes have a traditional structure (10 direct ...
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1answer
50 views

struct file_operations vs struct vnodeops

As per my understanding kernel maintains 4 tables. Per process FD table. System wide open file table struct file Inode (in-memory) table struct vnode Inode (on-disk) table. struct file have one ...
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1answer
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confusion about inode numbers

On xfs file systems, I was under the impression that: # xfs_info /dev/mapper/rootvg-root meta-data=/dev/sda1 isize=512 agcount=16, agsize=1285043 blks = ...
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1answer
60 views

ext4 inode ratio discrepancy between /etc/mke2fs.conf and tune2fs

I installed debian strech through the installer in a software raid 10 configuration.There are 4 drives, each is 14TB. Partition was formatted by the installer with ext4. The inode ratio defaults to ...
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May I remove files that have a semicolon ; in them (created by updates?)

I have found, by accident, a few dozen files in /usr/bin that have a semicolon ; in them. If I remember correctly files like that are created when a file opened by some program is written to (e.g. ...
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How to change inode without changing contents?

For various reasons I'd like to have a new inode for a specific file path, with identical contents. One way to achieve this is to create a copy of the file and then moving the copy over the old file: ...
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1answer
273 views

No space left on device Oracle Linux

My Oracle Linux Machine is complaining that there is no space left on device. I ran some commands to see disk utilization and Inode utilization. Can anyone tell me if this looks right? dev/sda2 doesn'...
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1answer
71 views

Why do inode offset values appear to exceed inode size?

I'm studying the Ext4 filesystem and am confused by the 128 byte inode size because it appears to conflict with the last metatdata value it stores which is supposed to be offset at byte 156. In this ...
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1answer
266 views

What does upper/lower bits mean?

I'm learning a bit about Ext4 file system here. In the first table on this link they are describing fields of the inode. Each field entry has an: offset size name description In the description ...
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Command line tool to rewrite all files in directory tree

Is there a command line tool that can be used to rewrite all regular files in a directory tree either in-place or by creating new inodes? With rewriting a file in-place, I mean opening the file for ...
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4answers
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Can a program continue to work on an opened file after it is moved by another program? [duplicate]

When a program opens a file, and another program moves the file so that it has a different pathname/filename, can the first program still work on the file, for example, modify the file's content or ...
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1answer
413 views

Find the filename associated with an inode number on XFS filesystem

We have an inode number that we're trying to associate to an actual file name. The filesystem is XFS. Looking there are examples that purport to be able to accomplish this with xfs_db and/or ...
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Same file name different INODES

I recently discovered on a machine with RHEL6: ls -lbi 917921 -rw-r-----. 1 alex pivotal 5245 Dec 17 20:36 application.yml 917922 -rw-r-----. 1 alex pivotal 2972 Dec 17 20:36 application11.yml ...
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kubernetes inodes increasing on cluster nodes but are not evicted even with hard limit

I have a multi-node k8s cluster with pods running that increase the inode usage in the overlay folder over time. There are hard eviction limits set but these never trigger to evict any pod from the ...
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Linux bdev filesystem

In Linux kernel 2.6, bdev (special) filesystem is used to keep track of block_device vs major/minor mapping - block_device.bd_inode points to an inode in the bdev filesystem. The bd_inode field is ...
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1answer
87 views

Can every file really own at least 2 names (and thus 2 hard links)?

This page on inodes has been exceptional help in grasping the surface-level concept of file systems. On the same page, the author has inserted this snippet demonstrating that each file or directory ...
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1answer
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Inode vs multi level paging

I'm studying for an exam right now and would love an answer to this little confusion I am having. Inodes have (say) 10 direct, 1 indirect, 1 double indirect, 1 triple indirect pointer. From those you ...
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1answer
88 views

LSM Hooks - What is the difference between inode hooks to path hooks

There are two groups of LSM hooks under Security hooks for inode operations: inode_* and path_*. Many of them look identical. For example, inode_link and path_link. What is the difference between the ...
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1answer
155 views

How does the sequence of inode numbers work? Can I expect consistency across identical installs on different computers?

I have 3 computers, A, B, and C, and I perform identical operating system and software installations on them. For any specific file on A, can I expect that same file on B and C to have the same inode ...
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1answer
457 views

What is the difference between “dentry” and “inode table” in Linux FS? [duplicate]

Are dentries and inode table same thing? If not what is the purpose of each and where are they stored? How does the filesystem exactly work specifically "ext4" or "xfs"?
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1answer
50 views

“Outside of the volume reference for inode…” How to proceed?

TL;DR: 1TB NTFS secondary drive. Using GParted, resized main partition to be ~800GB. Created and wrote to new partition in the newly-unallocated space. Deleted new partition, attempted to resize new ...
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1answer
91 views

Do inode values have any effect on performance?

I recently saved 7 files to two separate directories (I will call A and B). Out of curiosity I used Ubuntu's ls -i command and found files in each directory had consecutive inodes. I then noticed that ...
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359 views

How do I install the latest version of node on CentOS 7?

I'm trying to install the latest version of node on my CentOS 7 server. I was following the instructions here -- https://www.hostingadvice.com/how-to/update-node-js-latest-version/ . Specifically, I ...
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1answer
1k views

Restoring via inode that's no longer in the journal?

I had a folder deleted from a SMB share from a windows machine. Thanks to zero confirmation a whole folder was deleted. First ran photorec that pulled most of the files except 1, the very last file ...
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2answers
434 views

Debian btrfs filesystem shows a total of zero inodes total, zero used, zero free

This Debian server was running just fine until a week or so ago. Now it does not allow files to be allocated, despite there still being room. The root volume is configured with LVM. Kernel is ...
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0answers
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Does the Linux Page Cache (Buffer Cache) only cache the files' clusters (pages) or does it also cache the Inodes (metadata)?

The Linux-Kernel implements a Page Cache (often also called Buffer Cache) to speed up the file systems of the underlying storage devices. Does the Page Cache only cache the pages or clusters of files ...
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1answer
120 views

Why does a file's Inode number change and nothing else?

Today I noticed that tripwire thinks that some Apache configuration files changed yesterday. I know I did not make any changes to those files. Looking at the info, it shows that only the Inode number ...
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2answers
74 views

Searching whole system for files with specific inode [duplicate]

I technically know how to do all these things, but combining it is problematic. Inode is saved in first line of text file (I can eventually read it directly from file), I need results saved to the ...
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1answer
321 views

Moving files to a bin [closed]

I am having issues with my code below: #!/bin/bash #Removing Files into the Recycle Bin(Deleted Directory) filemove=$1 #Saving the first argument as "filemove" mkdir -p ~/deleted #Create the deleted ...
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1answer
114 views

How can I find what a process is trying to watch using strace, lsof, and fdinfo?

I have a process (the NewRelic infra agent) that is hung on a RHEL 7, xfs filesystem host. I'm thinking that it's trying to watch a file or maybe a socket that another process already has in use. ...
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127 views

Why do ext2 inodes only have 12 direct blocks?

I'm currently writing a hobby file-system for fun. I was wondering if anyone knows why or where I could get information on the design philosophy of ext2. Specifically, I was wondering why each inode ...
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1answer
452 views

Overlay storage driver internals

A follow-up from this question. My further reading on Docker storage drivers revealed that the overlay driver merges all the image layers into lower layers using a hard link implementation which ...
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1answer
82 views

Too many inode?

I am using a MacBook Pro, and I found something weird recently, which is the number of ifree is ridiculously large. The following is the output of the df command: $ df -i -h Filesystem Size ...
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2answers
1k views

How to create a hard link to an inode (ext4)?

If I know the index node (inode) of a file, but I don't know its path (or any of its paths), is it possible to create a hard link to that inode directly? I could find the file using sudo find / -inum ...
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1answer
630 views

How should we understand symlinks under `/proc/pid/fd`?

They seems more like a link to inode instead a link to path. What does the readlink() mean to them, the canonical path of the inode from the calling process's root directory? What happened when a ...
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3answers
372 views

What characterizes a file in Linux/Unix?

What characterizes a file in Linux/Unix? A file can have many types: regular file, directory, symlink, device file, socket, pipe, fifo, and more that I miss. For example, a symlink: $ sudo file /...

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