Questions tagged [inode]

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Find the filename associated with an inode number on XFS filesystem

We have an inode number that we're trying to associate to an actual file name. The filesystem is XFS. Looking there are examples that purport to be able to accomplish this with xfs_db and/or ...
11
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1answer
264 views

Same file name different INODES

I recently discovered on a machine with RHEL6: ls -lbi 917921 -rw-r-----. 1 alex pivotal 5245 Dec 17 20:36 application.yml 917922 -rw-r-----. 1 alex pivotal 2972 Dec 17 20:36 application11.yml ...
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0answers
30 views

kubernetes inodes increasing on cluster nodes but are not evicted even with hard limit

I have a multi-node k8s cluster with pods running that increase the inode usage in the overlay folder over time. There are hard eviction limits set but these never trigger to evict any pod from the ...
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0answers
57 views

Linux bdev filesystem

In Linux kernel 2.6, bdev (special) filesystem is used to keep track of block_device vs major/minor mapping - block_device.bd_inode points to an inode in the bdev filesystem. The bd_inode field is ...
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1answer
79 views

Can every file really own at least 2 names (and thus 2 hard links)?

This page on inodes has been exceptional help in grasping the surface-level concept of file systems. On the same page, the author has inserted this snippet demonstrating that each file or directory ...
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1answer
27 views

Inode vs multi level paging

I'm studying for an exam right now and would love an answer to this little confusion I am having. Inodes have (say) 10 direct, 1 indirect, 1 double indirect, 1 triple indirect pointer. From those you ...
0
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1answer
49 views

LSM Hooks - What is the difference between inode hooks to path hooks

There are two groups of LSM hooks under Security hooks for inode operations: inode_* and path_*. Many of them look identical. For example, inode_link and path_link. What is the difference between the ...
1
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1answer
71 views

How does the sequence of inode numbers work? Can I expect consistency across identical installs on different computers?

I have 3 computers, A, B, and C, and I perform identical operating system and software installations on them. For any specific file on A, can I expect that same file on B and C to have the same inode ...
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1answer
145 views

What is the difference between “dentry” and “inode table” in Linux FS? [duplicate]

Are dentries and inode table same thing? If not what is the purpose of each and where are they stored? How does the filesystem exactly work specifically "ext4" or "xfs"?
2
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1answer
31 views

“Outside of the volume reference for inode…” How to proceed?

TL;DR: 1TB NTFS secondary drive. Using GParted, resized main partition to be ~800GB. Created and wrote to new partition in the newly-unallocated space. Deleted new partition, attempted to resize new ...
0
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1answer
47 views

Do inode values have any effect on performance?

I recently saved 7 files to two separate directories (I will call A and B). Out of curiosity I used Ubuntu's ls -i command and found files in each directory had consecutive inodes. I then noticed that ...
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0answers
185 views

How do I install the latest version of node on CentOS 7?

I'm trying to install the latest version of node on my CentOS 7 server. I was following the instructions here -- https://www.hostingadvice.com/how-to/update-node-js-latest-version/ . Specifically, I ...
0
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1answer
486 views

Restoring via inode that's no longer in the journal?

I had a folder deleted from a SMB share from a windows machine. Thanks to zero confirmation a whole folder was deleted. First ran photorec that pulled most of the files except 1, the very last file ...
2
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2answers
195 views

Debian btrfs filesystem shows a total of zero inodes total, zero used, zero free

This Debian server was running just fine until a week or so ago. Now it does not allow files to be allocated, despite there still being room. The root volume is configured with LVM. Kernel is ...
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0answers
18 views

Does the Linux Page Cache (Buffer Cache) only cache the files' clusters (pages) or does it also cache the Inodes (metadata)?

The Linux-Kernel implements a Page Cache (often also called Buffer Cache) to speed up the file systems of the underlying storage devices. Does the Page Cache only cache the pages or clusters of files ...
0
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1answer
62 views

Why does a file's Inode number change and nothing else?

Today I noticed that tripwire thinks that some Apache configuration files changed yesterday. I know I did not make any changes to those files. Looking at the info, it shows that only the Inode number ...
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2answers
56 views

Searching whole system for files with specific inode [duplicate]

I technically know how to do all these things, but combining it is problematic. Inode is saved in first line of text file (I can eventually read it directly from file), I need results saved to the ...
0
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1answer
193 views

Moving files to a bin [closed]

I am having issues with my code below: #!/bin/bash #Removing Files into the Recycle Bin(Deleted Directory) filemove=$1 #Saving the first argument as "filemove" mkdir -p ~/deleted #Create the deleted ...
5
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1answer
57 views

How can I find what a process is trying to watch using strace, lsof, and fdinfo?

I have a process (the NewRelic infra agent) that is hung on a RHEL 7, xfs filesystem host. I'm thinking that it's trying to watch a file or maybe a socket that another process already has in use. ...
4
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0answers
114 views

Why do ext2 inodes only have 12 direct blocks?

I'm currently writing a hobby file-system for fun. I was wondering if anyone knows why or where I could get information on the design philosophy of ext2. Specifically, I was wondering why each inode ...
2
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1answer
318 views

Overlay storage driver internals

A follow-up from this question. My further reading on Docker storage drivers revealed that the overlay driver merges all the image layers into lower layers using a hard link implementation which ...
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1answer
53 views

Too many inode?

I am using a MacBook Pro, and I found something weird recently, which is the number of ifree is ridiculously large. The following is the output of the df command: $ df -i -h Filesystem Size ...
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2answers
1k views

How to create a hard link to an inode (ext4)?

If I know the index node (inode) of a file, but I don't know its path (or any of its paths), is it possible to create a hard link to that inode directly? I could find the file using sudo find / -inum ...
1
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1answer
389 views

How should we understand symlinks under `/proc/pid/fd`?

They seems more like a link to inode instead a link to path. What does the readlink() mean to them, the canonical path of the inode from the calling process's root directory? What happened when a ...
6
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3answers
258 views

What characterizes a file in Linux/Unix?

What characterizes a file in Linux/Unix? A file can have many types: regular file, directory, symlink, device file, socket, pipe, fifo, and more that I miss. For example, a symlink: $ sudo file /...
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2answers
618 views

How do inode numbers from ls -i relate to inodes on disk

I'm trying to understand how inode numbers (as displayed by ls -i) work with ext4 partitions. I'm trying to understand whether they are a construct of the linux kernel and mapped to inodes on disk, ...
8
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1answer
364 views

Why directory with large amounts of entries does not shrink in size after entries are removed?

Close vote notice: While the linked duplicate asks same question, the comments and the only answer do not provide an answer which draws from authoritative source. The answer on my question by Thomas ...
0
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2answers
39 views

Find out which process has data open on the hard drive that is no longer visible in the directory tree [duplicate]

On my server, the root partition is 73GB, but the disk says, it is full, although there are only about 6GB used on that device: # df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on ...
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0answers
17 views

I Node and Data Retrieval

Is there a way possible to open a data block without the file if we know the i node number that it's linked to ? Is it possible to open the content in data block without the file ?
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0answers
558 views

Whose `I-Node` does `netstat -ap` for unix domain sockets refer to?

What does I-Node mean in the output of netstat -ap for unix domain sockets? It seems not the same as the inode of the socket file: $ netstat -ap ... Active UNIX domain sockets (servers and ...
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0answers
224 views

'No space left on device' error thrown when generating large amount of files, but there is no clear limit being reached

Running a python script to generate millions of empty text files just for fun on my Mint machine (18.1 Serena) before I wipe it. Recently the script failed with this error: OSError: [Errno 28] No ...
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3answers
3k views

List only regular files [duplicate]

I desire to list all inodes in current directory that are regular files (i.e. not directories, links, or special files), with ls -la (ll). I went to the man ls searching for type and found only this ...
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3answers
778 views

How do you count the total number of hard links within a directory?

I've been trying to use the -ls and find commands to total the number of hard link occurrences within a directory. Is there a simple way to accomplish this beyond physically counting all of the link ...
1
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1answer
590 views

Is it possible to read a file you only have executable permissions to on Linux through Bash?

I was wondering if it was possible to somehow get the contents of a file which you do not have read access to. I first attempted trying to get around the permissions using the inode number of the file,...
4
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1answer
281 views

Atomically write a file without changing inodes (preserve hard link)

The normal way to safely, atomically write a file X on Unix is: Write the new file contents to a temporary file Y. rename(2) Y to X In two steps it appears that we have done nothing but change X "...
2
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1answer
232 views

Is pCloudDrive really inaccessible to root?

pCloud is a cloud storage service that allows Linux users to mount their cloud storage inside of their home directory, appearing as: /home/username/pCloudDrive/ As far as I can tell, the pCloudDrive ...
0
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1answer
122 views

How do I format a hard drive EXT4 with lowest possible inode disk usage (for 1 Dir and 1 Massive File)?

I am trying to prepare a hard drive for burst mining on linux and want to maximize the hard drive space available for the plot file. So for this I need to set the inodes to the minimum possible that ...
1
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1answer
289 views

Filesystem design: necessity of inode number and table [closed]

The *nix filesystems maintain an inode table at the beginning of the disk (or at some fixed location). It is indexed by the inode number, which is an integer that uniquely identifies an inode. Knowing ...
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0answers
49 views

Why does the /run directory have inode 2? [duplicate]

It's well known that the / directory has inode number 2 (see also Why does '/' have the inode 2). And we also know that hard links share the same inode number. So far so good. Here's the confusing ...
0
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1answer
509 views

Understanding direct and indirect blocks?

Why can't we use use indirect blocks instead of direct blocks. Indirect blocks can store much more memory addresses which results in more data blocks. So why waste those 10 direct blocks in Inode ...
1
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1answer
153 views

Inode Timestamp Plus/Minus Interpretation

What does +0200 mean after the Access/Modify/Change timestamps? File: task-system.md Size: 197 Blocks: 24 IO Block: 4096 regular file Device: 33h/51d Inode: 14155787 Links: ...
17
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2answers
3k views

Can two files on two separate filesystems share the same inode number? [duplicate]

If I run a command like this one: find / -inum 12582925 Is there a chance that this will list two files on separate mounted filesystems (from separate partitions) that happen to have been assigned ...
2
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0answers
304 views

debugfs occasionally fails to read inode data

I need to get date and time when a file was created. The file is stored at ext4 filesystem so the information is available in the i-node and I use debugfs to read this information: # debugfs -R "stat ...
1
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1answer
184 views

Why inode number is zero for writeback mechanism in linux kernel

I'm researching linux kernel. Right now only for v3.10.61, it's just proof of concept. I need to pass-through some hints to hardware about what kind of data in particular WRITE\READ operation. E.g. ...
0
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1answer
227 views

Why is ls -i slower than ls?

I know that ls lists the names of the files in a given directory and ls -i shows the names and the inode numbers. But why is it slower? EDIT: This happens with big directories The names and the ...
1
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1answer
101 views

Cannot rm corrupt directory

CentOS6 I am logged in as root. It is a virtual machine running on a Windows 10 host in virtualbox as a vagrant machine. I tried chmod -R 777 /home/thomas/WWW chown -R root:root /home/thomas/WWW ...
0
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2answers
372 views

File system Inode flags: difference between FS_IOC_GETFLAGS and FS_IOC_FSGETXATTR

What is the difference between FS_IOC_GETFLAGS and FS_IOC_FSGETXATTR ioctl commands? What flags do both return?
5
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2answers
1k views

What are the final 3 bits in the UNIX permission mode bits?

I understand there are 12 permission bits of which there are 3 groups of 3 bits for each of user, group, and others, which are RWX respectively. RW are read and write, but for X is search for ...
2
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0answers
67 views

From where ls gets inode info in a deleted directory [duplicate]

I am not able to understand ls and cd behaviour in following case : Create directory a/b/c $ mkdir a/b/c -p $ ls -lhRai .: total 324K 24512531 drwxrwxr-x 3 mayank mayank 312K May 22 16:23 . 24380771 ...
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0answers
677 views

High inode usage of nfs mount

The data files of my application are stored in an NFS mount of a Linux system. The inode capacity of the NFS share is approx 300 MB. Now there are two directories where the data files are generating. ...