Skip to main content

Questions tagged [inode]

For question pertaining to the inode (index node), a data structure in a Unix-style file system that describes a file-system object such as a file or a directory. Use this tag for questions about the inode data structure itself or questions about issues arising from querying or managing inodes in the scope of a filesystem.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0 votes
0 answers
58 views

Kernel BUG at fs/inode.c:613 during installation of Debian 12.5.0

I used the Debian 12.5.0 ISO DVD image from the official website and wrote it to a USB flash drive via Rufus. During the "Load installer components from installation media" process got stuck,...
Redstone1024's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

ext2 How to choose bytes/inode ratio

How approximately calc bytes-per-inode for ext2? I have 7.3GB storage (15320519 sectors 512B each). I have made ext2 filesystem with block size 4096 mke2fs /dev/sda2 -i 524288 -m 0 -L "SSD" -...
Андрей Тернити's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
31 views

Discrepancy between "df" and "du" on a CIFS network drive

When I run df -H, my network mount reports 100% usage: user@system:/mnt/backup$ df -H Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on ... //192.168.71.2/Linux-Database-...
widavies's user avatar
  • 113
0 votes
0 answers
49 views

Copying symlinks as symlinks

I’m attempting to copy a symlink of a file in one directory to another directory. I need the copy to be a symlink, not a hard link or a broken symlink. cp -A and cp -P generated broken (flashing) ...
TheorVHP's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
54 views

Kali - ext4_find_entry checksumming directory block 0 freezing everything giving input/output error

I'm having some problems with Kali Linux installed on a Dell notebook. It is installed on half of my SSD in dual boot with Windows, but I installed Kali later, so GRUB is from the latter. Kali was ...
minimanimo's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
27 views

reconstructing ext4 inode structure after folder deletion

My ext4 partition that had my whatsapp data had its entire folder deleted ( that is file / folder delete - no partition ). As I understand inodes have the metadata tree for files including their ...
user1874594's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
60 views

Inode limit reached with free space available

Let's assume I was very unlucky and ran out of inodes in my ext4 filesystem but left with enough free space. Inode usage is 100%, but it has 50% disk free space. How can I resolve it?
firdavs's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
46 views

Inode of a Directory

Can you show with some picture or illustration what does an inode of a directory in ext4 filesystem? Especially, how is the list of directory entries (list of filename-inode pairings) stored?.
firdavs's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
70 views

Ubuntu - trying to delete a file that has no inode

I try to delete a file that is left in a directory, but even an ls -i will not give me an inode to remove it. Deleting/removing the directory won't work even with the inode. $ ls -ila ls: cannot ...
merkc's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
2 answers
49 views

Each file gets one inode block

A question was given to us by a lecturer: How many data blocks are needed to collect all the data in an EXT4 file system using inodes if the file size is 54 KB and there is a block size of 4KB. ...
Matej Vesel's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
93 views

is there a way to allow only a single proccess to delete a file?

Is there a way to allow only a single main process to delete an original file? Other processes may read and modify it, but not delete. I know a process can empty its contents but there is no problem ...
VeganEye's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
96 views

Is this "stat [option]... inode number..." possible?

Is it possible to use stat for retrieving meta data of File1 by passing File1's inode number as an argument to stat instead of the file name? stat [option - any doing this?] [inode number of File1] ...
futurewave's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
65 views

Why do /dev, /run, /proc, /sys, ... have inode 1 (and not 2)?

I was reading the EXT4 doc about special inodes. It states that a FS root directory has inode #2. There are many posts in which people ask why directories like /dev, /proc, /run, /sys, and so on, have ...
ChennyStar's user avatar
  • 1,775
0 votes
0 answers
50 views

Any performance benefits of large inode sizes (ext4)

We have a video editing server split into two partitions. One for video footage and one for projects. On the projects partition there is totally 7TB of data and 250,000 files. Of these, 50,000 of them ...
swami's user avatar
  • 205
0 votes
0 answers
33 views

How do I get the number of hardlinks of a folder?

I am on Mac. However, I use gstat (GNU stat) so my understanding is that behavior should match linux. I cd to a folder. Then I use gstat --format=%h .. The output is 65. Next, I use gfind . -maxdepth ...
Matt Groth's user avatar
9 votes
5 answers
4k views

Why can't hard links reference files on other filesystems?

I'm aware that this article exists: Why are hard links only valid within the same filesystem? But it unfortunately didn't click with me. https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/filesystems/ext4/...
achhainsan's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
331 views

How does `ls` find hard links?

Setup The following sequence of commands is setup for my question. root@cd330f76096d:/# cd root@cd330f76096d:~# ls root@cd330f76096d:~# mkdir -p my_dir/my_subdir root@cd330f76096d:~# ls -...
Sweet Shell O'Mine's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
210 views

Lock icon suddenly appearing on folders in Ubuntu's /dev/sda8 partition

I'm encountering an issue on my Ubuntu system where folders in the /dev/sda8 partition shows a lock icon for some time then it goes away. It happened twice. In that locked state if I try to run any ...
RIR360's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
1 answer
663 views

ZFS Inode Consumption

I have a ZFS pool in raid Z1 that's around 90TB or so which acts as a PLEX server. I currently have ~300GB free. On average, most files are 70-80GB each. If I copy smaller files, ~10GB, I have no ...
Austin's user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
0 answers
124 views

Corrupt EXT4 filesystem, backup superblock no dice

I am a novice linux user, for some time. I need some help with recovering a corrupted EXT4 filesystem. Ideally, I would like to recover the filesystem intact. The drive in question is 'sda'. The ...
userk's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
1 answer
629 views

open a file by inode number [duplicate]

Is there any way to find exactly the blocks allocated to a inode, and view that file? I don't care if I have to be on a live cd, but i need to do this for example: cat verylongsentice > a ls -i a ...
jp_'s user avatar
  • 27
23 votes
5 answers
5k views

Is '..' really a hard link?

This is a bit of a theoretical question, but it's important to use proper names for things. In UNIX/Linux file systems, .. points to the parent directory. However, we know that hard links cannot point ...
dr_'s user avatar
  • 30k
0 votes
2 answers
192 views

Why is an open inode system call a security risk?

According to the accepted answer here, it is simply because you would not make the access checks at the directories leading up to that file. For example, with a call to openinode(inode #, flags). My ...
user129393192's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
475 views

In btrfs-check, how to automatically or manually fix the error "errors 2000, link count wrong"

I run btrfs-check and got the following errors: $ sudo btrfs check --progress --force /dev/nvme0n1p7 Opening filesystem to check... WARNING: filesystem mounted, continuing because of --force Checking ...
tribbloid's user avatar
  • 153
15 votes
4 answers
1k views

Why doesn't read permission on directories reveal inode numbers?

As far as I understand, the "read" permission on directories allows one to list all names under that directory, and no more than that. Based on common understanding of FS design, if a ...
iBug's user avatar
  • 3,548
3 votes
1 answer
221 views

mkfs ext2 ignore number-of-inodes

I want to make ext2 file system. I want to set "number-of-inodes" option to some number. I tried several values: if -N 99000 then Inode count: 99552 if -N 3500 then Inode count: 3904 if -N ...
Андрей Тернити's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
162 views

What exactly happens in the OneFS (FreeBSD) files system if I move files from one directory to another?

If I do an mv command from the command line in OneFS (Isilon, FreeBSD based), what exactly happens in the background and on the disks? Will the data be physically moved from sectors to other sectors ...
Root Loop's user avatar
  • 103
1 vote
0 answers
128 views

dentry/inode caching on multi-cpu machines / memory allocator configuration

While doing performance benchmarking on CPLEX, I ran across a strange issue. The details are posted in a blog: https://community.ibm.com/community/user/ai-datascience/blogs/xavier-nodet1/2021/07/08/...
LaszloLadanyi's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
610 views

Deleting a hard link's tail file changes the change time of the head or vice versa. Why?

Note: Question although says vice versa but it really does not have any meaning since both of them point to the same inode and its not possible to say which is head and which is tail. Say I have a ...
Himanshuman's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to find all hardlinks to a given inode? [duplicate]

Is there a way to list all hardlinks, by path/filename, or even just by file name alone, that point to a given inode? I have a file that ls -al reports has three hardlinks, but it should only have two....
DasKraut's user avatar
16 votes
4 answers
5k views

Does Linux support invoking a program directly via its inode number?

I’m asking because string comparisons are slow, but indexing is fast, and a lot of scripts I write are in bash, which to my knowledge performs a full string lookup for every executable call. All those ...
Jacob Valdez's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

How to list orphaned inodes? [duplicate]

I have noticed that my hard drive space is being consumed by a long running process, but I was not able to find the file(s) that are consuming the space. I suspect the files are temporary files, using ...
Eljay's user avatar
  • 101
0 votes
1 answer
155 views

How to determine which processes are running on outdated packages and needs restarting?

So, I know that it is possible to view or recover deleted files that are currently being used by a process. I've found out that this also applies to packages that were updated. So, let's say we update ...
nixvega's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
431 views

Inode size 512 and 1024 bytes functions in ext4 and its pros and cons? (Need a official reference)

When i first trying and installing openSUSE tumbleweed, i see when formatting a ext4 i can choose the inode size 128, 256, 512, or 1024 bytes. Typically it is 256. I am thinking a larger inode size ...
hateindirection's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
111 views

How can you list a directory using the inode not the directory name? I have the same directory name appearing twice with different inodes

When I do a directory listing of a python installation the include directory appears twice and each one has a different inode. ╰─○ ls -i1 2282047 bin 2641630 include 2642559 include 2282048 lib ...
vfclists's user avatar
  • 7,609
1 vote
1 answer
448 views

Access files inside a directory that has corrupt inode

I have an ext2 filesystem with corrupted/deleted inodes. The data I need does not appear to have corrupt inodes but the directory that the data is in does. $ ls -l ls: cannot access 'data_dir': ...
chaugen1's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
436 views

Ext4 "unused inodes" "free inodes" diffrence?

When I use the dumpe2fs command to look at the Block Group of the ext4 filesystem, I see "free inodes" and "unused inodes". I want to know the difference between them ? Why do they ...
Samuel's user avatar
  • 13
0 votes
1 answer
220 views

linux + list inode information show 100% used

we notices about some of our RHEL machines that inode information show 100% the following for example show that /dev/sdb is 100% df -i Filesystem Inodes IUsed IFree IUse% ...
yael's user avatar
  • 13.3k
0 votes
0 answers
133 views

ntfsundelete not reading entire partition

To avoid XY problem, here's the background of the problem I am facing... I have an external hard drive which should have hundreds of files and suddenly, all of them disappeared (I have no idea why). I ...
nicolasbk's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
457 views

Changing file permissions in inodes while a user has the file open

According to this SO question, when we open a file to read it we only check permissions once when we open it. And if we change the permissions of the file and say the user is no longer allowed to read ...
Ariel Yael's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
3k views

How Linux kernel sees the filesystems

I'm still confused about the concept of kernel and filesystem. Filesystems contain a table of inodes used to retrieve the different files and directories in different memories. Is this inode table ...
Lkaf Temravet's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
263 views

How does "Inodes per group" and "lazy_itable_init" flag relate to the "Inode count" value in an ext4 filesystem?

I am trying to root cause a customer case where 2 Identical drives, formatted with the same command, led to a difference of ~55GB in total disk space due to additional Inode overhead. I want to ...
RuMAN S's user avatar
  • 19
0 votes
1 answer
714 views

What's the difference between structures "cdev" and "inode" in the context of device driver programming?

I am currently studying device drivers in an operating systems course and am getting confused regarding the difference between the "inode" structs and "cdev" structs. Could someone ...
Izzo's user avatar
  • 971
1 vote
0 answers
308 views

ls displays no files even though folder contains files

This question is actually derived from a problem I have with a python library which deletes a file tree and then recreates the content, but on attempt of execution of a file inside the directory, the ...
PrivateOmega's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
596 views

mv on ext4 is doing copy-and-remove instead of inode relocation

I am under the belief that if you mv a file from an ext4 partition to itself, this is done instantly in constant time by updating directory entries and keeping the inode the same. Instead, sometimes I ...
spraff's user avatar
  • 931
1 vote
0 answers
23 views

Is there a system / btrfs tool whick will provide me with the record location for a specific inode number in a btrfs volume?

I want to find the location of the record data for a specific inode. Is there a system tool or a btrfs tool which will provide me with at least it's bloc number ?
Camion's user avatar
  • 284
1 vote
0 answers
335 views

Restore damaged folder inodes in ddrescue image

I restored my failing external ntfs hdd using ddrescue, around 80% of the data is restored, the rest seems to be bad blocks. I can mount the created image file and ubuntu detects it and shows the ...
Leon5x's user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
0 answers
994 views

what are the causes for "checksum does not match inode" HD problem, even if it says the inode check passed?

Root became RO after some minutes using the PC. On reboot it required manual fsck. Then this problem happened: it said the inode check passed fine ok, but said this problem: "checksum does not ...
Aquarius Power's user avatar
15 votes
6 answers
3k views

Reset ext4 filesystem without changing the filesystem UUID

I have a filesystem with many small files that I erase regularly (the files are a cache that can easily be regenerated). It's much faster to simply create a new filesystem rather than run rm -rf or ...
davidvandebunte's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

How to copy a file by using its inode number?

This problem is related to Samba and inodes are not necessary. I have a problem handling a certain file that has some special characters in it. If I search it by its inode it will list the file: $ ...
bomben's user avatar
  • 499

1
2 3 4 5
7