Questions tagged [initrd]

initrd is a method for loading a temporary file system into memory, during the process of booting the Linux kernel.

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initrd and intramfs purpose confusion

My understanding of the purpose of having initrd or intramfs is for the kernel to be able to mount a temporary file system in RAM to load drivers and other things in order to be able to mount the ...
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In a systemd initrd, how do I persist a mount into the new root

Background I'm building a custom initrd using dracut. It: mounts an ext4 disk partition to /data retrieves a squashfs image over the network, which it stores in /data mounts the squashfs mounts an ...
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Initrd - rebooting issue

I recently booted into Root via Ubuntu kernel recovery mode. When I finished what I was doing, and not altering anything in my system, I tried to reboot with shutdown -r now. This started various ...
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Ubuntu 18.04.3 netboot PXE fresh installed boots up with Ethernet not managed by Network Manager

I'm trying to set up a PXE server to deliver Linux image for end user workstation in my company. I've finally made it to set up dnsmasq and nfs-kernel-server so now I can get the images via network ...
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How create RAID 1 on working Slackware 14.2?

I use Slackware 14.2 (with kernel 4.4.14-smp) on sda and I'm trying to create the RAID 1 with additional sdb. I'm using the VM VirtualBox. First, I have cleaned the sdb: dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb ...
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Grub: boot with USB key, then continue booting from SD card?

I have an old laptop that has a built-in SD card reader, only it's not available at boot. I can however grub boot linux (Debian) from a small 8GB USB key (USB 2.0), but it's very slow. The SD card is ...
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Linux kernel on ppc64le: vmlinux equivalent in arch/powerpc/boot/

When I run self compiled kernel on ppc64le on QEMU with vmlinux, it works (instructions from https://github.com/linuxppc/wiki/wiki/Booting-with-Qemu): wget -c https://openpower.xyz/job/initramfs/job/...
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Initramfs not reading new configuration/scripts

I am trying to add some custom initramfs scripts to /etc/initramfs-tools/scripts/init-bottom/. However, these are not executed at next boot, after having rebuilt with # update-initramfs -u In fact, ...
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1answer
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How to boot OpenWRT FROM PXE?

I have downloaded OpenWRT files for PC from OpenWRT site. I have installed DHCP and TFTP (in my LAN) and can boot (other) kernels from them. Now I want to boot these OpenWRT files. I wrote in PXE ...
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Os-prober doesn't detect Arch initramfs.img

I have Fedora managing GRUB2 and everything seems normal except i can't boot Arch, the entry appears in grub but checking the menuentry commands i realised that the initrd line points only to /boot/...
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Take initrd out of the Linux boot process

I have "one" machine which is static. The following never change: CPU, GPU, motherboard, harddrive, keyboard, mouse, USB ports I have dual-boot Windows and Linux (specifically Windows 10 and Ubuntu) ...
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initrd and initramfs confusions

I read from arch wiki: In case your root filesystem is on LVM, you will need to enable the appropriate mkinitcpio hooks, otherwise your system might not boot. However, both my initrd and ...
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Is there a command named 'run_scripts' in open SUSE for the init daemon?

For a particular init daemon, I've come across a command 'run_scripts' and a directory specified after the 'run_scripts' for the initialization of those daemons. What is it, and why is it used in such ...
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How to copy the /bin files along with dependencies using commands?

The /bin folder of Ubuntu 14.04 has files with dependencies. I want to copy the symbolic links along with the files, into a separate directory. Is there an inbuilt command for this?
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My initrd has only one directory, after decompressing, namely 'kernel'

The file shows 56 blocks as the size. I am using the system Ubuntu 16.04 and I need a solution that does not require me to update the kernel.
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trap signal in bash initramfs fails to work

inside /init bash script executed by the kernel in initramfs.img i need to send a signal to drop me to a rescue shell, so i have trap "exec /bin/bash" SIGINT but ctrl+C isn't effective. First why ...
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Kernel can't find initrd?

When trying to mount ext2 I get this error: Creating 4 MTD partitions on "MPC8313RDB Flash Map Info": 0x000000000000-0x000000100000 : "U-Boot" 0x000000100000-0x000000300000 : "Kernel" 0x000000300000-...
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Can't mount squashfs loop during initramfs

I am trying to mount a squashfs file during initramfs. I have included loop and squashfs modules. Currently using mount /foo.squashfs /mountpoint or mount -t squashfs -o loop /foo.squashfs /...
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how to know the right size of /boot

for now /boot on our linux machines is /dev/sda1 497M 157M 340M 32% /boot we want to create a new linux redhat template and I have the feeling that /boot size is too small for ...
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kernel sysfs doesn't recognize storage kobjects [closed]

I am using ubuntu kernel 4.xx with corresponding ubuntu initrd.img, and it works. But, I want to use a custom initramfs inspired by lfs (linux from scratch) initramfs. The kernel extracts, and runs ...
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How to add ssmtp into initramfs?

I'm trying to add ssmtp into initramfs. However, I can not find (or compile at the moment) the statically linked version. I guess my only option is adding the current, dynamically linked version. I'...
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Ubuntu 18.04 LUKS boot problems

Problem description I am trying to achieve dualboot of Windows 10 (pre-installed) and Ubuntu 18.04 on a new laptop. This is not very difficult, however it appears to get much more complex if you also ...
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Why can't dd write to /dev/ram0 on Core Linux?

I created an ext2 file-system on /dev/ram0 ramdisk, and mounted it at /mnt/ram. mkdir /mnt/ram mkext2fs /dev/ram0 sudo mount /dev/ram0 /mnt/ram -o rw Reading from ramdisk with dd works. dd if=/dev/...
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How to find modules used in initrd?

Is there a way to see all the kernel modules/drivers put in the initrd/intramfs?
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GRUB Can't find sda partition

I have dualboot on my laptop with windows being the primary OS. Today after my linux os froze I hard rebooted the laptop. After that I got a kernel panic. I've been trying to solve it using GRUB. I ...
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Did the pivot_root() documentation anticipate the feature of mount namespaces?

pivot_root() moves the root filesystem of the calling process to the directory put_old and makes new_root the new root filesystem of the calling process. The typical use of pivot_root(...
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Accessing initramfs-tools features in Yocto generated initramfs image

I would like to load a few kernel modules, and activate framebuffer access prior to Plymouth launch. This is normally done using /etc/initramfs-tools directory provided with the initramfs-tools. ...
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Why kernel cannot do the initrd/initramfs job itself? [closed]

Currently I am learning about linux booting process.Here i noticed that the initrd will create temporary root file system that includes drivers(LVM, NFS, etc) which are required by kernel.After that ...
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Uboot Hangs when Initrd size increased in FIT image

Im booting Linux on arm64 using FIT multi image (image + initrd + DTB). So if I increase the initrd size (from 16 MB -> 20MB) board hangs at "starting kernel"). However if I change the load address of ...
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How to boot a debootstrap-ed system bare metal?

I debootstrap an Ubuntu Xenial system as: debootstrap --variant=minbase --include=linux-image-generic,linux-headers-generic,systemd,systemd-sysv,dbus --components=main,restricted,universe,multiverse ...
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How to combine linux kernel and initrd without compiling?

I know that it's possible to extract from a linux kernel the embedded initramfs cpio. I want to know if the reverse operation is possible; i.e., given both a compiled kernel and initramfs archive, how ...
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Tntfs.ko - How can I put it in an initrd file? Or load on boot?

I'm trying to load that specific module (for zenworks purposes), but I can't find the right command to put in my server boot. I tried insmod and modprobe commands, but I'm unsuccessful in doing that. ...
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Linux 2.4.0 - How to Create a Root Filesystem for a diskless install

I have a really old build of Linux (version 2.4.0). Please don't ask me why I have such an old version since it's for a very specialised bit of old hardware. Anyway, problem is, I get this message ...
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2answers
3k views

Debian system doesn't mount or find /sbin/init during boot

I'm getting the dreaded "target filesystem doesn't have requested /sbin/init", am getting dropped into initramfs busybox prompt, and am unable to boot. This is after upgrading to the latest 4.9.0-3 ...
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How to change the kernel on Kali Linux live usb persistence?

I am using Kali Linux on a bootable USB with persistence. I have updated it using all the update/upgrade/dist-upgrade commands. When I tried to install VMware I noticed a problem with the kernel. It ...
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Using an initrd/initramfs as the root filesystem

In Android, the initial RAM disk stays mounted throughout the entirety of the time the operating system is running. No switch_root/pivot_root takes place. Is this kind of setup easy to pull off with ...
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How to change the boot kernel of a usb live w/ persistent running Kali

First, the issue that I'm having is being unable to run VirtualBox on Kali 2.0. I set up a usb live with persistence running Kali 2.0, which at the time had the 4.6.0-kali1-amd64 kernel. I have ...
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1answer
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Can't find initrd file on GRUB console

My PC boots to the grub command line. $ ls (hd0) (hd1) (hd1,gpt6) (hd1,gpt5) (hd1,gpt4) (hd1,gpt3) (hd1,gpt2) (hd1,gpt1) (lvm/fedora-swap) (lvm/fedora-home) (lvm/fedora-root) $ ls (hd1,gpt5)/ ...
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1answer
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Proper manual OS setup on LUKS encrypted drive with non-aes algorithm on yum-based distro (CentOS)

I'm trying to achieve LUKS-encrypted CentOS 7 install with separate /boot partition and lvm on EFI-friendly motherboard. I've done partitioning fresh CentOS install from old CentOS(installed from GUI)...
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931 views

Repack the filesystem image from vmlinux.bin (embedded initramfs) without rebuilding?

In How do I extract the filesystem image from vmlinux.bin? and https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Custom_Initramfs#Salvaging methods are presented for getting and unpacking an embedded initramfs/initrd ...
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Flavour of initrd

This Arch wiki page says: If you are using a systemd based initrd, you must pass: rd.luks.options=discard How do I query the initrd mini-shell to find out if I am running a systemd-based initrd?...
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uCLinux (linux 4.9 nommu) VFS: Cannot open root device “(null)”

I'm stuck with this kernel panic. What I want is to embed an initramfs into the kernel xip Image, but linux panic and tell me to pass a valid "root=" rootfs value. But WHY does Linux look for this ...
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Why don't we include File System drivers in the kernel itself instead of using Initrd/Initramfs

The Linux kernel contains very minimal code that is necessary to boot on a majority of devices but I don't get the point of having Initrd/Initramfs.As far as I've understood Initrd/Initramfs job is to ...
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1answer
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GRUB freezes after loading initrd unless exact steps are taken

I have a HP Notebook 15-f004wm, which I use as my daily driver. However, there's a strange issue where GRUB "freezes" (a.k.a can't get past "Loading initrd...") whenever I try to boot. The only way ...
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1answer
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switch_root gives Invalid argument

My goal is to unmount the root disk so I can format it. To do this, I want to switch root from the hard disk to some other root. I have chosen to use the files from the initramfs (which contains a ...
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622 views

Initramfs and Block Devices

In this introduction to initramfs, Robert Landley mentions the following as the motivation behind ramfs. But ramdisks actually waste even more memory due to caching. Linux is designed to cache ...
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1answer
291 views

How to use only automatically build RAID arrays on Ubuntu?

I have an Ubuntu 16.06 system where / on an SSD primary partition and /home with md RAID0 on four SSD devices. The file /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf is automatically generated by mkconf and contains no ...
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1answer
2k views

initrd built with NFS module cannot mount NFS root

I'm building a custom initrd so that I can boot diskless nodes with a tmpfs root rather than NFS root (a script in the initrd copies the contents of the root device to a tmpfs filesystem, then changes ...
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2answers
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Can initramfs programs access all memory - do they run in real or protected mode?

This is in the context of current 64-bit processors and current linux kernels (I'm using 4.6.4.) Is it possible for me to write a program that during boot can examine base memory, 640k and under, ...
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Booting kernel (FIT image) with no rootfs

An embedded Linux device I am working with has the following kernel parameter: root=/dev/ram0 Additionally, the kernel image is bundled together with an initrd and device tree to make a flattened ...