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Questions tagged [init]

init is the first actual process (PID 1) spawned during the boot sequence of a UNIX system. Some systems may rely on alternative solutions such as systemd or Upstart (Ubuntu).

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is there a proper way to shut down from single user mode

I've found a lot of inconsistent documentation on single user mode. I don't need to use it often, but I get curious, and I remember not being to use shut down commands in single user mode and ...
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1answer
34 views

/etc/inittab respawn already running process, Debian9

I added an antry in /etc/inittab to respawn a binary. The entry is like: id:2:respawn:/path-to-my-bin I then execute init q and the process is started by inittab. If I kill the process, it's ...
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37 views

Unable to change from graphical target to other systemd targets in Ubuntu

I am currently a newer user of terminal in Ubuntu. I was trying to demonstrate some features of targets in systemd. Each time that I do systemctl enable or systemctl isolate , I enter my credentials, ...
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29 views

linux kernel auto load driver module

I want to know how linux kernel know which module must load on startup ? i know some modules must defined in /etc/modules . but what happened if i change physical hardware ? for example ...
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1answer
39 views

Process ownership automatically changes to init process on GCP Ubuntu 18.04LTS

We recently moved our development infrastructure from our own old machines running Ubuntu 12.04 to Google Cloud instances running Ubuntu 18.04. Developers usually start some screens and run django ...
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2answers
142 views

Why should parent process wait (to terminate) until all of its child process terminates?

I know there is no enforcement for the parent process to wait until all its child process terminates. However it's a convention followed. Furthermore, I know that if parent process terminates before ...
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2answers
79 views

Is there a daemon which is not a server? [closed]

It seems that a server is not necessarily running as a daemon, e.g. X server. If I am not correct, please let me know. Is a daemon necessarily a server? Is there a daemon which is not a server? I ...
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1answer
88 views

Why is there a `systemd` process owned by each user that is logged in?

In my ps output: root 1 0.0 0.0 225552 5316 ? Ss /lib/systemd/systemd --system --deserialize 19 message+ 572 0.0 0.0 51564 3076 ? Ss /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=...
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3answers
43 views

Is telinit run as a daemon?

In sysvinit, telinit is a symlink to init. init is run as a daemon. Is telinit run as a daemon? I don't have sysvinit installed on my Lubuntu. For comparison, systemctl plays similar role to ...
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1answer
66 views

In sysvinit, do `telinit` and `init` run in the same process?

In https://manpages.debian.org/stretch/sysvinit-core/init.8.en.html /sbin/telinit is linked to /sbin/init. It takes a one-character argument and signals init to perform the appropriate action. ...
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1answer
29 views

On OSes with SysvInit, are `reboot` and `halt` symlinks to some executables?

On OSes with Systemd, reboot and halt are symlinks to systemctl. On OSes with SysvInit, what are reboot and halt symlinks to? Is it telinit? Or are they themselves executable files, not symlinks? ...
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692 views

What is the difference between “init” and “service manager”?

From When the operating system shuts down, how does a service manager know that it should sends SIGTERM and SIGKILL to its services? systemd IS BOTH the init and service manager What is the ...
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1answer
187 views

How does Linux operating system shut down? [closed]

Gilles wrote an excellent reply about how Linux kernel shuts down at https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/122667/674 I was wondering how Linux OS shuts down (in cases of both systemvinit and systemd)? I ...
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1answer
407 views

Status of sysstat.service showing active(exited)

When I see status of sysstat is see the following, ● sysstat.service - Resets System Activity Logs Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sysstat.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: ...
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1answer
47 views

kernel sysfs doesn't recognize storage kobjects [closed]

I am using ubuntu kernel 4.xx with corresponding ubuntu initrd.img, and it works. But, I want to use a custom initramfs inspired by lfs (linux from scratch) initramfs. The kernel extracts, and runs ...
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2answers
940 views

How can I make an executable run as a service?

On Ubuntu 18.04, I can start or stop some service by sudo service cron start/stop I can list some services by service --status-all The output matches the files under /etc/init.d/. I heard there ...
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1answer
264 views

Failed to execute /init (error -13), can't run '/etc/init.d/rcS': No such file or directory

Last night I broke my Arch. Now, when trying to boot, it says: [0.595364] Failed to execute /init (error -13) : can't log to /dev/tty5 starting pid 131, tty '': '/etc/init.d/rcS' : can't log to /dev/...
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2answers
474 views

Remove busybox from buildroot

As part of Linux hardening we want to remove busybox from filesystem created with buildroot. But I am not sure if system can boot without it. I am quite sure that there are init files that depends ...
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2answers
32 views

some process are started through init even i am using systemd

When I do ll /proc/1/exe I get lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 0 Oct 16 11:28 /proc/1/exe -> /usr/lib/systemd/systemd Which means i am running systemd daemon not init. But when I list ll /etc/init....
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1answer
130 views

What are runlevels and how they work

I have not a clear understanding of runlevels and how they work. I know runlevels are a digit indicating which processes should be started by init. Pratically speaking: at startup init sees this ...
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80 views

Linux Mint won't boot after issues saving .tex file

I've been having some problems booting into Linux Mint 18.2. It started when I woke the computer from sleep and tried to continue editing a .tex file I was working on. I got some errors which ...
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1answer
39 views

Background initialization with runit

I recently switched my init system on my ARM box running Linux 2.6 from sysvinit to runit with great success. However, I'm trying to fine-tune the initialization routine. I'd like to have something ...
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0answers
123 views

How do I stop trackpad driver via xinput disable

If I enter the xinput list command into a terminal I get the following output. Virtual core pointer id=2 Virtual core XTEST pointer id=4 Synaptics TM3096-006 id=11 SynPS/2 ...
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1answer
33 views

Setting up VM login instead of Local login [closed]

I had a question earlier, it is tied into this, that one was looking for the proper procedure, this one is looking how to implement. If you need a backstory refer to My first question I have a local ...
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1answer
70 views

what dependency-based linux init systems suitable for embedded systems?

Currently, I run Linux on an arm board using Sysvinit, but the network drivers of my board are not the best which causes the network service to stall the boot for a while, I also have problems with ...
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1answer
154 views

Targets and Unit files on Boot System

I have been going through all the docs and examples regarding the targets (referred to as runlevel) for the past few days but I am still confused with the topic. Can anyone explained me the ...
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1answer
32 views

Portable way to run a simple script at startup

I'm trying to run a script at startup as root. (Just sets up a root-owned directory in /tmp). Currently, I'm using this script to set up the boot hook and it appears to get the job done: #!/bin/sh -...
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0answers
33 views

What happens when a process in SysV boot fails?

If using SysV what will happen if a process fails during the init ? For example assume that the processes in the figure will be executed sequentially. So first networking, then dbus-1,... Now my ...
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2answers
320 views

Where is fsck run?

I was reading through all the things that are run during bootup and have seen that after mounting the rootfs, /sbin/fsck.ext4 is run and after that systemd is run. I was wondering where or how fsck is ...
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1answer
136 views

What happens if you fork before switch_root?

So typically an initramfs /init script will end with something like exec switch_root /newroot /sbin/init effectively replacing itself with systemd or whatever floats your boat. But what would happen ...
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1answer
47 views

Using second init/systemd startup on different partition

We have the following setup: A read-only system partition from which the kernel is booted from. (Debian Jessie) A read-write partition which has additional software to be started as daemons. A simple ...
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2answers
714 views

How to determine a Linux distro is systemd or sysV init without installing or booting?

I noticed in somewhere that most of the Linux distro are based on Systemd instead of SysV init. So I just want to know without installing and booting. Is there any possible way to find distro based ...
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2answers
529 views

How should one invoke docker to take care of the PID 1 problem with zombie processes?

The phusion/baseimage boasts of taking care of the pid 1 problem with a light weight init process. How can one use the phusion/baseimage properly? I tried to invoke the image with the command ps aux ...
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1answer
332 views

Can't mount devtmpfs, can't run init [closed]

I'm trying to run a recent enough kernel (4.9) on an Inforce 6540 board, a single-board computer with a Qualcomm Snapdragon 805 (Also called APQ8084, a SoC with four Krait 450 Cores, ARMv7-A). The ...
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1answer
115 views

--test option is not available for /sbin/init

According to man init(1) it is a --test option should be available. In fact when I am trying to test it I got an error root@mst-sls:~# /sbin/init --test /sbin/init: unrecognized option '--test' ...
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1answer
183 views

When will S99 launch if it isn't in a normal form?

If I do a: echo "foobar" > /etc/init.d/foobar chmod 744 /etc/init.d/foobar ln -s /etc/init.d/foobar /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S99foobar on a SLES 11, then when will the "foobar" command launch during boot?...
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1answer
3k views

How to pass arguments to a Linux kernel `init=` bootparam?

Update: I have succeeded in creating a very simple demo of using the init= bootparam to specify that a custom binary (written in golang and compiled) should be used in place of the standard init. The ...
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1answer
181 views

Opening raw UBI partition for writing on Linux if it's mounted and used by init

I need to update a raw UBI partition with a new UBIFS image from Linux userspace with superuser rights, however I'm getting EBUSY (Device or resource busy) error whenever I'm trying to open my ...
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1answer
176 views

runsv not redirecting standard error output, why?

According to the runsv man page: If the directory service/log exists, runsv creates a pipe, redirects service/run's and service/finish's standard output to the pipe, switches to the ...
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1answer
217 views

Understanding shutdown command in inittab

Looking in my /etc/inittab file I see the following entry: ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now What do the -t1 and -a options mean? They do not appear in the manual for the shutdown ...
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1answer
63 views

Linux bash scripting [closed]

I have lot of questions about scripts. How to configure the script that 1 It automatically turns on when the computer is turned on? 2 I was possible start and close the script with console? 3 After ...
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0answers
839 views

Why does Linux Mint starts in runlevel 5 even though DEFAULT_RUNLEVEL is set to 2?

When studying about Linux runlevels I came across something I was unable to explain to myself while trying to change the DEFAULT_RUNLEVEL. When I boot Mint, it starts in runlevel 5, even though it ...
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0answers
414 views

LXC does not stop, Failed to connect to bus

I just created a new LXC with the following command: lxc-create -n ${NAME} -t download I choosed debian, stretch and amd64 as characteristics. I'm using the LXC in unprivileged mode with UID/GID ...
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1answer
242 views

Arch Linux - How could I decrypt and automount multiple encrypted drives during init?

I have two encrypted drives (one SSD for booting and a hard drive for storage) I need both to be unlocked and mounted before all of the runlevel programs/services. Else some of my services would freak ...
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1answer
12k views

sudo reboot -> Failed to talk to init daemon

On my Raspberry Pi runs jessie. After installing mosquitto I can not run sudo reboot anymore. This error appears: "Failed to talk to init daemon.". What could be the problem? I have already ...
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0answers
46 views

Edit init file in order to remap ctrl to enter via xcape

I'm trying to remap cnrl to the caps lock and enter keys in way similar to the program karabiner for macOS. I found the following site http://emacsredux.com/blog/2016/01/30/remap-return-to-control-in-...
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1answer
412 views

Gentoo's openrc hangs forever in “caching service dependencies…”

Whenever I boot my gentoo laptop, openrc hangs forever in the "Caching service dependencies..." stage. This causes my computer to be unbootable unless I use a sysrq key to kill it and manually boot ...
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2answers
67 views

Print a message a given number of times, right after system boot (init) in a GUI-less system [duplicate]

I want that for a given number of system boots (say, 1 or 2 system boots), a message will appear. I will store the message somewhere, maybe in a variable: message='If you finished testing, make sure ...
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1answer
72 views

Why isn't my Apache server starting automatically wnen I reboot my server?

I'm using Amazon Linux. I just Apache via yum, however, I can't get it to automatically start when I reboot my server, despite the fact it starts on the command line ... [myuser@mymachine ~]$ sudo ...
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1answer
484 views

Init running in Debian 9.1

I have the /usr/lib/systemd and /etc/systemd directories, and systemd is running. But I also have the /etc/init/ directory, with several .conf configuration files, I thought this was a sign of ...