Questions tagged [init]

init is the first actual process (PID 1) spawned during the boot sequence of a UNIX system. Some systems may rely on alternative solutions such as systemd or Upstart (Ubuntu).

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kernel cannot execute binaries (error -8)

my platform: SOC = STM32H743 (ARMv7E-M | Cortex-M7) Board = Waveshare CoreH7XXI Linux Kernel = 5.8.10 (stable 2020-09-17) initial defconfig file = stm32_defconfig rootfs = built using busybox | ...
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What does switch_root do to mountpoints except /proc, /dev, /sys and /run

I'm unsure about exactly how switch_root handles other mountpoints. As per the description in switch_root manpage all I could know is that it moves /proc, /dev, /sys and /run to the newroot and ...
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Starting systemd and using Docker RUN?

Docker provides for the ability to run a command when the container starts. This is specified with CMD in the Dockerfile. However, if I want my container to start with systemd I have to use, CMD [&...
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What are systemd runtime unit files for?

The documentation I have read on systemd unit files states that unit files can be found in three locations on the filesystem: /etc/systemd/system/: system unit files /run/systemd/system/: runtime ...
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What is dependency-based init system?

My knowledge about init is limited. All the things I know is that init is the first process that kernel starts after getting booted and is assigned with Process ID of 1. Recently while going through ...
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Missing modules (cat /proc/modules; ls /dev) and UUID doesn't exist in BusyBox

I'm stuck in the boot and can't open any terminal. When I try to boot my laptop it shows the following error: Gave up waiting for root device. Common problems: -Boot args (cat /proc/cmdline) -Check ...
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How to change init system

I met a ubuntu 16.04 environment, when execute /sbin/initctl version echo upstart(version xxx).This caused me to fail to modify the port through /etc/init.d/ssh restart, because the script judged that ...
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systemd units and init scripts

Our servers are running Debian 9 and have systemd but also init scripts in /etc/init.d and /etc/rc*.d. I'm not sure why that's the case and it seems to mess up the system's stability because I'm ...
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Recover from wrong PID 1 process

I’ve just run into a curious situation. To set up a new server, I logged into the OS preinstalled by the hosting provider and performed a pivot_root to a tmpfs so I could unmount the drives and ...
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Are 'per-user' daemon services a new thing?

I always had the impression that daemon processes were system-wide services that are run, owned, controlled and maintained by the 'init' system. However, I have recently learned that some daemon ...
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What does “touch /reconfigure” before a reboot do?

We have a situation that spontaneous shutdowns are occurring on our Wind River Linux 6 system, and in the syslog, I see a /bin/touch /reconfigure followed by an /sbin/init 0. I can tell from another ...
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How are the kernel daemons running automatically?

I have written my custom init (PID 1) script. In that script I have just mounted the necessary filesystems, but if I run ps aux the list is similar to below: / # ps aux PID USER TIME COMMAND ...
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Where should I `dd` mfsBSD to get it to boot correctly?

I'm trying to install freeBSD onto a VPS (OVH provider). So far, the third method from this response has come the closest to getting me where I want to go. I think OVH has a problem with nested ...
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Network interface is not ready until I try and bring it up

My network interface does not come up when I boot. This was happening with systemd, and I switched to sysv (which I know better) and it's still happening. This is after I boot, no matter how long I ...
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How to use host PTY in container?

I'm learning about container technologies of Linux and wrote a minimal container implementation on my own. I'm currently confused about consoles / terminals for container processes, as I'm "reusing" ...
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How does Linux know what function to choose in rcX.d directory?

For example, I have the following script: ... start(){ echo "Starting..." su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart $ORA_HOME" su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/emctl start dbconsole" ...
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mounting a duplicate (swap) partition by parameter name

I'm trying to build a system with a duplicate partition that only one of the partition that is duplicated is mounted to the system. The scenario is like this: Suppose i have the following partition ...
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Transfer running instance of OS to another machine

Theoretical question, but for example, is it possible to hibernate on a laptop and boot into that image on a desktop which could have otherwise identical configuration in terms of distro/config files. ...
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AIX and daemon service

I see that the daemon service is started and stopped via the commands: startsrc and stopsrc on group/subsystem. I have init.d script and I want to make it daemon service in AIX. From these commands ...
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init: must be run as PID 1

Recently encountered a problem: when entering init 1, it gives an error: init: must be run as PID 1. I Entering ps and it turns out that /sbin/init has PID 1. How now can I use init?
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Is there a way to autostart a DISPLAY dependent script with Xorg that's Display Manager Agnostic?

The goal here is to run this command when the display manager starts: xrandr --setprovideroutputsource modesetting NVIDIA-0 xrandr --auto Or rather a script containing it upon startup of Xorg. The ...
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linux suspicious process spawn by init

i found a suspicious process,it spawn by process 1 (init),as per the guide i doble check the /etc/rc.d/rc3.d ,but i can't found a entry named Sxxkauditd,no suspiciou entyr found in the inittab file ,...
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Linux Mint Live USB wont boot. /Init line 7. Can't open sdb. No medium found

I have a live-boot USB with Linux Mint 19.1 Cinnamon, I placed the boot image with Rufus and it has worked without problems on other machines. Now I have built a PC with various parts I've found on ...
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Understand the /etc/inittab

I am using the following /etc/inittab file (systemv): # /etc/inittab: init(8) configuration. # $Id: inittab,v 1.91 2002/01/25 13:35:21 miquels Exp $ # The default runlevel. id:5:initdefault: # Boot-...
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Execute process with “low” priviliges inside shell with inittab

My goal is to modify the /etc/inittab file in order to execute a spesific program with minimal or customable permissions in an interactive shell with job controls enabled and once it will be ...
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A clean way to set a daily running time for a program

Kind of a noob question but I'm looking to have my networking daemon (wicd), run every day on my machine, only from 5am-6am and 6pm-7pm, regardless of when my machine was turned on, in other words, if ...
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How does initramfs mount root filesystem?

The iniramfs is like a small os which mount root file system and hand over control to systemd. So, how does initramfs work internally? Is there any scripts executed to mount the root in linux?
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What mean the number after S or K in /etc/rc{0-6}.d [duplicate]

I've already know that with an S will be started at the runlevel in question while those whose name begins with K will be killed. But there is some meaning in the number after S or K? one example: /...
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Is there a systemd equivalent for user sessions?

There are many times when I'd like to have a certain daemons run when a user logs in and killed when a user logs out. I'd like these daemons to be restarted if the daemon exits unexpectedly and I'd ...
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OpenWRT BusyBox init does not create /etc/init.d/rcS

I'm building an OpenWRT image (Chaos Calmer) that needs BusyBox to be configured to use init. So, in the busybox configuration, I enter the Init Utilities menu, then enable init, as well as support ...
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Early User Space Init Not found

I have been compiling a kernel for my Android device and there is this problem that I have encountered. I have ported the kernel from v3.10.108 to 3.18. I have got the kernel to last part and solved ...
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Fedora 30 can't boot: faild to start up manager

I newly installed Fedora 30 on a machine then I installed Oracle Database 12c and restored a really big dump (took two days). Then, I installed samba server and shared a folder with that. After that, ...
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how to properly halt linux system when exiting init

In Qemu, I'm starting a linux VM where init process (PID 1) is bash. It is working : I can use bash after boot. But when I quit bash with a exit or CTRL+D I got a kernel panic. Kernel panic - not ...
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Why do all the links in /etc/rc6.d start with K if runlevel 6 corresponds to reboot?

I was trying to find out how to run a script at startup and during shutdown during which I got to know that level 6 corresponds to reboot in ubuntu. When I opened the /etc/rc6.d every link's name ...
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What is the equivalent of systemd-analyze in CentOS 6?

systemd-analyze is the command to investigate time taken by each service during boot in CentOS 7. Is there a similar utility in CentOS 6 for doing this? update: extending the question after Lucas' ...
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ps axf shows “/sbin/init splash” for PID1

I want to reformulate a very interesting Q by Thelostcause ("Splash in PID =1"): How does and how can "/sbin/init splash" show up in the ps command? I also ask: aren't we (we who are running a "...
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1answer
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Does Linux sends `SIGCHLD` to `init` when it inherits orphaned zombie processes?

Does Linux sends SIGCHLD to init (PID 1 process) when it inherits orphaned zombie processes (processes that have not been reaped by its original parent)?
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Splash in PID =1

I have just started learning about process in Linux. I have come around this command called - ps -ef (which will shows all the process running ) I get output like this UID PID PPID LWP ...
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is there a proper way to shut down from single user mode

I've found a lot of inconsistent documentation on single user mode. I don't need to use it often, but I get curious, and I remember not being to use shut down commands in single user mode and ...
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/etc/inittab respawn already running process, Debian9

I added an antry in /etc/inittab to respawn a binary. The entry is like: id:2:respawn:/path-to-my-bin I then execute init q and the process is started by inittab. If I kill the process, it's ...
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Unable to change from graphical target to other systemd targets in Ubuntu

I am currently a newer user of terminal in Ubuntu. I was trying to demonstrate some features of targets in systemd. Each time that I do systemctl enable or systemctl isolate , I enter my credentials, ...
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Process ownership automatically changes to init process on GCP Ubuntu 18.04LTS

We recently moved our development infrastructure from our own old machines running Ubuntu 12.04 to Google Cloud instances running Ubuntu 18.04. Developers usually start some screens and run django ...
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Why should parent process wait (to terminate) until all of its child process terminates?

I know there is no enforcement for the parent process to wait until all its child process terminates. However it's a convention followed. Furthermore, I know that if parent process terminates before ...
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Is there a daemon which is not a server? [closed]

It seems that a server is not necessarily running as a daemon, e.g. X server. If I am not correct, please let me know. Is a daemon necessarily a server? Is there a daemon which is not a server? I ...
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Why is there a `systemd` process owned by each user that is logged in?

In my ps output: root 1 0.0 0.0 225552 5316 ? Ss /lib/systemd/systemd --system --deserialize 19 message+ 572 0.0 0.0 51564 3076 ? Ss /usr/bin/dbus-daemon --system --address=...
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Is telinit run as a daemon?

In sysvinit, telinit is a symlink to init. init is run as a daemon. Is telinit run as a daemon? I don't have sysvinit installed on my Lubuntu. For comparison, systemctl plays similar role to ...
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In sysvinit, do `telinit` and `init` run in the same process?

In https://manpages.debian.org/stretch/sysvinit-core/init.8.en.html /sbin/telinit is linked to /sbin/init. It takes a one-character argument and signals init to perform the appropriate action. ...
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On OSes with SysvInit, are `reboot` and `halt` symlinks to some executables?

On OSes with Systemd, reboot and halt are symlinks to systemctl. On OSes with SysvInit, what are reboot and halt symlinks to? Is it telinit? Or are they themselves executable files, not symlinks? ...
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What is the difference between “init” and “service manager”?

From When the operating system shuts down, how does a service manager know that it should sends SIGTERM and SIGKILL to its services? systemd IS BOTH the init and service manager What is the ...
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How does Linux operating system shut down? [closed]

Gilles wrote an excellent reply about how Linux kernel shuts down at https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/122667/674 I was wondering how Linux OS shuts down (in cases of both systemvinit and systemd)? I ...

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