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file system on an emmc damaged by a power surge?

I'm running a Quartz64 (Model A) booting off an eMMC drive, and it recently suffered a file system corruption after a power outage due to a lightening strike.  After this, it wouldn't boot up.  I had ...
jyoung's user avatar
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Puzzlement on PEBs reservation in Linux UBIFS

I am working on an embedded Linux system (kernel-5.10.24), and the system is using 128MB NAND FLASH as storage. I enabled the MTD and UBIFS in the kernel, and divided the NAND FLASH into 3 MTD devices,...
wangt13's user avatar
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Understanding the flash translation layer - SSD emulation

Can anyone suggest me a blog/article on how to get an NVMe simulation environment up and running? I'm basically looking at using NVMe as an emulated device in Qemu and tracing the read, write and stat ...
Skegg's user avatar
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Adding a JFFS2 file system to QEMU

I am trying to set up a development environment using QEMU to emulate a Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC ZCU102. I have a Petalinux image that I am able to run with QEMU and now I want to pass in and mount file ...
mstarks224's user avatar
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1 answer
446 views

Create UEFI/BIOS chip dump from within Linux

Some people recommend using flashrom to create backup dump of a PC's UEFI/BIOS SPI flash contents. However, flashrom does not work with all platforms. Sometimes people recommend finding the address ...
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2 answers
112 views

fdisk -l on an usb drive gives a very weird response

Today I nuked an old usb3 flash 8GB drive on a linux machine with: dd if=/dev/random of=/dev/sdb then I put it into a windows pc, it asked me to format it, I did an extended format with default ...
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Is it possible to define an MTD partition with a "hole" for another partition?

I'm working with a Xilinx Linux kernel and u-boot, which expects the u-boot boot script to be located at 0x3e80000-0x4000000. For Xilinx's devkits this is the end of the 64 MiB NOR flash, but I'm ...
Compholio's user avatar
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1 answer
331 views

How to read NAND OOB (including ECC) data in Linux?

I am working on an embedded Linux system (5.10.24), where there is a NAND FLASH as storage. The NAND FLASH supports internal ECC and has 128Bytes OOB. Its DS says if the ECC is enabled the last ...
wangt13's user avatar
  • 443
1 vote
1 answer
205 views

How to generate a raw UBI image with 2 UBI volumes?

I am working on an embedded Linux (kernel-5.24), where UBIFS is used as filesystem for both rootfs and user configuration data. Now I am trying to generate one single UBI image to burn the NAND FLASH (...
wangt13's user avatar
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1 answer
170 views

Is DD-WRT wasting NVRAM space?

Please explain how I am misunderstanding these two commands: root@DD-WRT:/tmp/var/log# cat /proc/mtd dev: size erasesize name mtd0: 00080000 00020000 "boot" mtd1: 00180000 00020000 &...
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Is it possible to break flash card programmatically?

I think I broke my flash card programmatically while was playing with automount configuration. Now I can't mount my card anuwhere. Was this possible? And if it was, then how to ensure and fix?
Dims's user avatar
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1 answer
451 views

How is MTD partition layout detected/parsed in Linux?

I am working on an embedded Linux system, which uses kernel-5.10.24. There is a NAND FLASH used as storage in system, and it has 4 partitons. When the kernel boots up, there shows 4 partitions as ...
wangt13's user avatar
  • 443
0 votes
1 answer
630 views

How to properly erase entire block device /dev/xxxx?

I have a block device that I'm trying to erase using dd. Seems like all my portion has been deleted. However, dd command is returning No space left on device. Block device information is as follows, ...
randomUser's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
4k views

Slow file transfer to USB stick

I'm copying files to a USB 3.0 stick. The USB stick is plugged to a blue USB port. I'm copying 22 files of 1.5GB. When I do the copy (simple drag and drop), the copy dialog reports a speed of ~60MB/s, ...
jpo38's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
3k views

How to write data to raw NAND FLASH through /dev/mtd0 in Linux?

I am working on an embedded Linux system (5.10.24), where there is a NAND FLASH as storage. The NAND FLASH is partitioned into 4 parts, part 0 is used for u-boot, part 1 is used for kernel, part 2 is ...
wangt13's user avatar
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Enable SPI flash device's power cycle write protection

Assume that an SPI flash chip is represented as /dev/spidev. How do I enable that flash chip's power-cycle write protection?
Melab's user avatar
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cp .iso /dev/sdd usb memory device full

I was informed, from here, the best (easiest) way in linux to put a bootable iso file to a usb stick and have it be bootable to do an install is simply via cp rhel-8.5-x86_64-dvd.iso /dev/sdd where ...
ron's user avatar
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RHEL8: Cannot read / modify / delete directory

We have a cluster of flash drives (8TB) mounted on /data as per: /dev/mapper/vg.data-lv.data on /data type ext4 (rw,relatime) There are a couple of directories inside /data with one being tmp: ls -...
user1192748's user avatar
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188 views

Using veritysetup with MTD on embedded Linux. mtd vs mtdblock

[Background] I am working on an embedded Linux platform trying to setup dm-verity on NAND flash. I am using v2.3.0 of cryptsetup (part of soc vendor's package), and this is my first go at it. With ...
chameleon's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
659 views

Block read and write in NOR flash

Actually i am working with NOR flash. I am getting confused about block read and write from NOR flash. From my understand block read and write means writing and reading complete sector of the flash. ...
Chithra M G's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
669 views

Help with (corrupted?) flash drive

When I plugged in my “old” flash drive to my Windows desktop, it seemed that Windows 10 was unable to read the data on that USB stick. I checked W10's disk management and the drive's filesystem is “...
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1 answer
1k views

Recover files from hardware failed ssd

I have an ssd that has had a hardware failure of some kind, I can rma it as it is still under warranty but their service does not include data recovery. I have collected my work files from it but my ...
DIGI Byte's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Reducing flash wear from Systemd Journald (embedded device)

I'm experimenting with Systemd and in particular Journald on a Yocto Poky (Linux) based embedded device with eMMC storage but I'm worried about flash wear since the write stats are excessively high as ...
squashed's user avatar
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1 answer
674 views

How can i copy data from NAND memory to sd card?

So basically, i have two Gumstix Overo and both are booting from their NAND flash memory, both devices use full linux image's Kernel. They are supposed to boot the same thing but one of them says that ...
João Sousa's user avatar
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0 answers
287 views

MLC NAND flash support in ubifs in 2021

I would like to ask about MLC NAND support in UBIFS as of 2021. I was recently bringing up a device with IMX6ULL and raw MLC NAND flash. I have built Linux 5.4 kernel, u-boot and rootfs (using ...
Filip Kubicz's user avatar
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1 answer
2k views

What does fdisk's Start and End values mean when looking at a compact flash

I'm analyzing a compact flash using fdisk and by comparing it to the contents of the partition table on the CF's master boot record. I don't understand what the "Start" and "End" ...
Frank's user avatar
  • 129
1 vote
1 answer
462 views

Unable to mount cloned compact flash after using dd to clone bootable compact flash

I'm trying to clone a bootable 1GB compactflash to a second 1GB complactflash, but when I try to mount it, i get an error like so, sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /media/frank/cloned/ frank@ThinkPad2:~$ sudo ...
Frank's user avatar
  • 129
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Which is the correct mechanism for auto-mounting a USB flash drive at boot?

I'm seeing apparently conflicting information on the proper way to auto-mount USB flash drives at boot. Most instructions on how to do it say to use an entry in fstab. Gnome Disks has a built-in ...
fixer1234's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
1k views

Can dm-crypt (LUKS2) be implemented on top of an UBI volume on a raw NAND flash?

If I have an embedded system with a raw NAND flash, with a bad blocks table etc., as I understand it, the best way to have partitions is to have have them as UBI volumes on top of MTD. UBI takes care ...
ruben2020's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
296 views

dd displays progress incorrectly when writing to flash card (faster than actual)

I am writing Raspi images on flash card with the following command dd bs=4M if=image.img of=/dev/sdf conv=fsync status=progress and it displays progress 5662310400 bytes (5,7 GB, 5,3 GiB) copied, 25 ...
Dims's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
186 views

Prevent filesystem from synchronizing

I have an embedded system running Debian with a ext4 file system on eMMC. If the power goes down, the system has about 1 second to detect and sync the file system before voltage is below threshold and ...
joing's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
223 views

How to know if embedded linux contains NAND or NOR flash?

Is there any shell command that can find out if embedded linux used NAND or NOR flash?
MicrosoctCprog's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
91 views

Linux partitioning vs. mount file system declaration

I'm looking a Linux device where blkid shows an eMMC partition type as ext2: /dev/mmcblk0p32: UUID="1c48ca57-c9eb-4ed1-a51a-212f7d1fd40e" TYPE="ext2" PARTLABEL="configs" ...
Nimjox's user avatar
  • 125
0 votes
1 answer
250 views

Format unmountable usb pendrive

I believe someone else has already encountered this very same issue. Yet, I googled a lot and couldn't find my specific case. Yesterday I created a "password reset disk" in Windows, using a ...
Jimmy Scionti's user avatar
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0 answers
45 views

How to install a Linux OS in pendrive and use it?

I am currently using UBUNTU in Raspberry Pi4. I have another PC that has a crashed hard disk. So what I am planning is to get rid of that HDD and use a pen-drive instead. What I am planning is to make ...
Sohan Arafat's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

Slow transfer/write speed to USB 3 flash. What are all possible solutions?

Please see the following screenshot of transferring to a USB 3 sandisk flash drive: This has been asked before but the answers didn't help. They always suggest changing this: echo $((16*1024*1024)) &...
xendi's user avatar
  • 613
-1 votes
1 answer
47 views

Why does the write speed keep changing, on a msdos file-system on toshiba 64Gb USB flashdrive

I have just bought a new 64gb toshiba 2.0usb flashdrive and put 13gb on it that took about 1 1/2 hours to transfer (max). But it started out saying about 7/8mb transfer and went to 1.3mb transfer, ...
dai's user avatar
  • 121
1 vote
0 answers
342 views

Is it possible to resize MTD partitions at runtime?

I have a very specific need: to partially replace the content of a flash and to move MTD partition boundaries. Current map is: u-boot 0x000000 0x040000 u-boot-env 0x040000 0x010000 kernel ...
ZioByte's user avatar
  • 880
2 votes
1 answer
3k views

dd if=/dev/zero leaves drive contents in-tact? Bad USB stick?

I thought I could nuke all partitions of a drive by using dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdX. In the past this has always worked for me, but in this case it is not working as expected. #check the partitions ...
Stonecraft's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
12k views

How to manually mount the virtual file systems, to copy MTD partitions

Linux version 2.6.26.5, ARM Linux Kernel on embedded device, NAND-based device. I'm at Busybox rescue shell (ash), with restricted command set. How to manually mount the virtual file systems, to copy ...
fxgreen's user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Replacing busybox in an embedded device

I'm using busybox in an embedded device. The built-in busybox is rather limited. So I want try to replace busybox in place with new, more complete version. I find some info about replacing Busybox on ...
minto's user avatar
  • 535
1 vote
1 answer
918 views

Read raw SMART data with smartmontools from CF card

I have a Transcend CompactFlash card; its datasheet specifies the SMART data structure i.e. "Power cycle count" is bytes 115-116 in this structure. I am running on a custom embedded system with ...
Free_D's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Limit on continuously writing to a log file

I am using Debian running on a BeableBone Black with 4GB of internal flash storage. My program is continuously writing / appending to a log file that I created with >> every minute, all day ...
Engineer999's user avatar
  • 1,171
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

U-boot messages regarding partition switches not understood

I am using a BeagleBone board with the default Debian image flashed to the internal emmc. I'm trying to understand the U-boot messages below that I get over serial when the device starts, especially ...
Engineer999's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
119 views

Is it possible to access linux/ramdisk code memory from its running system?

I'm working with an embedded Linux device that has to be auditioned by a regulatory agency. The agency will select a few devices in the field to check if the code running is the same as auditioned. ...
Jardel Lucca's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
3k views

Interpreting /proc/partitions

I'm confused about the partitions size of a flash memory in my embedded linux device: / # cat /proc/partitions major minor #blocks name 240 0 93184 ndda 240 1 85168 ndda1 ...
Jardel Lucca's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
4k views

Rootfs versus kernel confusion [closed]

I know that they are two different entities. Rootfs is a file system which describes how to store and access data. The kernel is actual code which executes. However, isn't the kernel code stored ...
Engineer999's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
818 views

How to format a rogue flash drive? (GParted tries to touch file system footer beyond actual capacity, and freezes up indefinitely) [closed]

On a limbo-type fake USB or SD card, all sectors starting from a specific position on the drive are unavailable (zeroes only or ones only or unreadable sector response). A flash drive might indicate ...
neverMind9's user avatar
  • 1,700
1 vote
1 answer
367 views

Passwordless encryption of flash drive

I am using Ubuntu and I have an encrypted flash drive which synchronizes with a folder on my desktop whenever I plug it into the computer (using rsync and a systemctl service that runs the bash script ...
mwater's user avatar
  • 113
1 vote
0 answers
677 views

Cannot access nand or emmc partition from linux

I have a i.mx6 based board running using buildroot and linux. This board have two storages nand and emmc. The nand had full rootfs and kernel on itself. I am now booting from SD card. From the boot ...
android_noob_xx's user avatar