Questions tagged [flash-memory]

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New CF memory card not empty (random pattern instead of zeros)

I recently bought a 16 GB "Sandisk Ultra" Compact Flash card for my camera. I always do some testing on new storage devices before starting normal use: first some scanning, then maybe a copy of the ...
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48 views

Mounting MTD root file system (squashfs) on NAND flash

Device use embedded Linux version 2.6.26.5, 11 MTD partitions created on "gen_nand" at boot time. # cat /proc/mtd dev: size erasesize name mtd0: 00060000 00004000 "u-boot" mtd1: 00020000 ...
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1answer
44 views

How to manually mount the virtual file systems, to copy MTD partitions

Linux version 2.6.26.5, ARM Linux Kernel on embedded device, NAND-based device. I'm at Busybox rescue shell (ash), with restricted command set. How to manually mount the virtual file systems, to copy ...
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1answer
59 views

Replacing busybox in an embedded device

I'm using busybox in an embedded device. The built-in busybox is rather limited. So I want try to replace busybox in place with new, more complete version. I find some info about replacing Busybox on ...
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1answer
28 views

Read raw SMART data with smartmontools from CF card

I have a Transcend CompactFlash card; its datasheet specifies the SMART data structure i.e. "Power cycle count" is bytes 115-116 in this structure. I am running on a custom embedded system with ...
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56 views

Linux command that is equivalent to uboot's nand erase.chip or old flash_eraseall

On occasion when changing partition size/numbers on my nand flash I will get the following error: ubi0: attaching mtd4 ubi0 error: scan_peb: bad image sequence number 1463854777 in PEB 4080, expected ...
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135 views

Reading and writing NAND flash with dd

I have an embedded device and I'd like to backup the NAND flash. From the openwrt wiki I gathered that dd is not a suitable option for dumping. You can use dd, but the dump will be garbled. However, ...
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12 views

Readonly flag after error: why does Kernel detect an error?

I'm debugging a C++ application running on Linux Embedded: uname -r: 4.14.40 The application is downloading a file on an external flash SD card: mount: sd-path type vfat (rw,relatime,fmask=0022,...
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22 views

JFFS2 and SQUASHFS erasing entire flash chip

I am working on an OpenWRT system for a custom board with a Flash Memory Chip. One problem is that U-Boot only works if the Flash Memory is in 3 Byte Addressing Mode while Linux needs 4 byte ...
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1answer
41 views

Limit on continuously writing to a log file

I am using Debian running on a BeableBone Black with 4GB of internal flash storage. My program is continuously writing / appending to a log file that I created with >> every minute, all day ...
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1answer
35 views

U-boot messages regarding partition switches not understood

I am using a BeagleBone board with the default Debian image flashed to the internal emmc. I'm trying to understand the U-boot messages below that I get over serial when the device starts, especially ...
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Is it possible to access linux/ramdisk code memory from its running system?

I'm working with an embedded Linux device that has to be auditioned by a regulatory agency. The agency will select a few devices in the field to check if the code running is the same as auditioned. ...
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1answer
114 views

Interpreting /proc/partitions

I'm confused about the partitions size of a flash memory in my embedded linux device: / # cat /proc/partitions major minor #blocks name 240 0 93184 ndda 240 1 85168 ndda1 ...
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2answers
230 views

Rootfs versus kernel confusion [closed]

I know that they are two different entities. Rootfs is a file system which describes how to store and access data. The kernel is actual code which executes. However, isn't the kernel code stored ...
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1answer
79 views

How to format a rogue flash drive? (GParted tries to touch file system footer beyond actual capacity, and freezes up indefinitely) [closed]

On a limbo-type fake USB or SD card, all sectors starting from a specific position on the drive are unavailable (zeroes only or ones only or unreadable sector response). A flash drive might indicate ...
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1answer
95 views

Passwordless encryption of flash drive

I am using Ubuntu and I have an encrypted flash drive which synchronizes with a folder on my desktop whenever I plug it into the computer (using rsync and a systemctl service that runs the bash script ...
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0answers
199 views

Cannot access nand or emmc partition from linux

I have a i.mx6 based board running using buildroot and linux. This board have two storages nand and emmc. The nand had full rootfs and kernel on itself. I am now booting from SD card. From the boot ...
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1answer
33 views

Moving an Linux OS image from a 4 GB flash drive to a hard drive

I have a small flash drive (4 GB) that has a stripped down version of Redhat Linux. I'm currently attempting to move this OS from the flash drive to a much bigger hard drive (500 GB) that is bootable. ...
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1answer
60 views

Apply incremental patches on ubifs volume

To update a ubifs volume by replacing it with entirely new content, ubiupdatevol from mtd-utils can be used: ubiupdatevol /dev/ubiX_Y /path/to/ubifs.img Is there a way to apply patch on ubifs volume ...
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1answer
353 views

How can I create a bootable flash drive for Lbuntu and also store temporarily other personal files in the same flash drive?

I have a flash drive, whose information given by sudo fdisk -l is Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type /dev/sdb1 1 7864319 7864319 3.8G c W95 FAT32 (LBA) I would like to ...
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1answer
49 views

Question regarding naming EEPROM [closed]

EEPROM stands for electronically erasable programmable read-only memory. If it's erasable and programmable then why it's called read-only memory? Question should suggest that I am new in all these ...
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1answer
201 views

f3read - what is the difference between corrupted, changed and overwritten sectors?

I'm using f3 to test hundreds of USB flash memory sticks for errors. Here's an example output from a faulty drive. First writing test files with f3write: Free space: 3.74 GB Creating file 1.h2w ... ...
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284 views

UBIFS going into Read only mode

I have a customer unit having UBIFS file system on it. Unit is up and running fine. The unit under goes a test of power cycling (AC mode-Battery mode- AC mode). At some point of time the unit(UBIFS ...
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1answer
702 views

How can I backup Linux kernel image

Board with ARM926EJ CPU, running embedded Linux v2.6.26.5, on NAND Flash device, NAND 32MiB. Linux is on MTD partitions on NAND device. How can I backup Linux kernel image (SP2Xcybertan_rom_bin) from ...
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0answers
39 views

Search data stored on memory for particular string

Is it possible to search data stored on memory for particular string? Example: we want display memory contents corresponding to particular string in code, is possible search for this string and ...
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1answer
17k views

Fix read only file system usb

I have a usb flash memory which I can't do anything on it because its read only: sudo fdisk -l Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type /dev/sdc1 * 2048 7864319 7862272 3.8G ...
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1answer
1k views

Backup Nand Flash memory area

Linux version 2.6.26.5 embedded system on board. Device use full Image's Kernel. File system stored on NAND Flash memory, Hynix NAND 32MiB 3,3V 8-bit. # printenv baudrate=115200 ethaddr=FF:FF:FF:FF:...
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1answer
272 views

flash memory write-protected problem and bad superblock

I have problem with my flash memory. after connecting it I have /dev/sdc but I don't have any /dev/sdc# and after mounting the flash; I get the wrong fs type and bad superblock and write-protected ...
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1answer
9k views

df command shows 100% full, even after deleting files it shows same usage (100%)

Nand Flash storage partition shows as 100% full with df command. When manually calculated the usage it is about 7-80%(max) only. Deleted few files (say around 50~60MB), still df command output did not ...
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0answers
733 views

Flashing to BBBw from an SD card

I have been flashing images to to my eMMC from a SD card and have not been having the normal behavior. From my research the typical process to Flash an image from an SD card is: Download a compressed ...
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0answers
112 views

How does the kernel decide to make an SD card filesystem read-only?

I understand that low-level NAND flash can effectively wear out and that an SD card controller (residing on the card itself) is responsible for managing the flash and exposing a comparatively simple ...
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0answers
634 views

How to know the MTD char device Read/Write details? [closed]

I want to know the amount of bytes Read/Write on MTD char device. What is the way to get it? It would be OK either via C or terminal. I am mounting the mtd device as embedded device. mtd partitions ...
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1answer
516 views

Save U-Boot environment variables without Flash connected

I've seen multiple blog posts of people getting around the U-Boot bootdelay 0 environment variable to get to the U-Boot CLI. An example is here. The general process, as I understand it, is: Desolder/...
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0answers
233 views

How to read seemingly dead USB flash drive [closed]

A familiy member asked me if I could look at a USB flash drive with valuable content that "didn't work on the Mac". Thought I could try it on my Linux machine with more tools to work with. But I can't ...
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1answer
710 views

How to build a readonly root filesystem in Arch-ARM

I have the following set-up: hw: RPi 3 Model B os: 4.4.37-1-ARCH #1 SMP armv7l GNU/Linux file system: /boot(vfat), /(ext4), /var(ext4) partitions: three; mounted: /boot, /, /var storage: mlc nand ...
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1answer
167 views

moving /media mounted drives on tmpfs

I recently bought a new usb to run my linux-on-the-go system. I am aware of block limited write-cycles, so I am trying to minimize disk writes. I know that when I insert a disk, it mounts inside /...
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1answer
4k views

Access root filesystem from U-boot

I'm trying to debug an embedded device, connection via serial port, connected with USB to UART cable. Embedded Linux v.2.6.26.5 How to access the root filesystem "/" and subdirectories under the root ...
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0answers
317 views

Using busybox with UBI files system on an MTD flash device, du and df commands give incorrect values

I have mounted a UBIFS on my MTD partition which is 191.9MB in size. When I run mtdinfo -a the partition shows: mtd6 Name: data2fs Type: nor Eraseblock size: 65536 (64KB) Amount of Erase Blocks: ...
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1answer
171 views

Can linux be run on a flash drive long term

I have an arch install with the root partition on a flash drive. Additionally, I have an external hard drive which has my HOME and SWAP partitions on it. I have read online that using a flash ...
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1answer
1k views

Unallocated space in empty flash drive

Hello, I am trying to recover unallocated space in my flash drive. I'm not quite sure how it got to this point. I have tried the following commands: resize2fs sudo resize2fs /dev/sdc1 resize2fs 1.42....
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1answer
2k views

“The specified directory 'media/fa/FAF9-!C03' is not valid” Error when trying to open USB sticks!

I have an ARM-based computer(nanopi m1) that has 3 USB ports that all work good with other devices like mouse, keyboard, wireless dongle. but when I try any USB flash memories it doesn't work! What's ...
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1answer
58 views

Missing sdb1 on new flash drive, but works ok

recently in the lab we bought some HDs and a new flash drive for research stuff. My surprise was when I tried to connect them to linux. Gnome mounted them normaly, but did not exist the /dev/sdb1 ...
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1answer
522 views

How to read BIOS Flash Memory?

In the "Intel® Desktop Board DQ77MK Technical Product Specification", there is a section called "BIOS Flash Memory Organization". The content of this section is The Serial Peripheral Interface ...
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1answer
161 views

Override mtdparts after kernel has booted

Information about mtd partitions can be passed to the kernel via the kernel command line (mtdparts parameter) or via the device tree. Is it possible to override this after the kernel has booted?
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1answer
848 views

Does it make sense to have separate ubi volumes for safety with ubifs?

In the pre-ubifs days it was common practice in embedded systems to setup several (MTD) partitions in flash for protection. For example, a partition containing a read-only file system could be mounted ...
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1answer
2k views

Resize partition table using gdisk

I want to change my partition table (using openWRT Linux OS) due to a new flash memory card - 1GB instead of 256MB. For this, I've installed gdisk tool, and ran it using 'gdisk /dev/mmcblk0' command. ...
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2answers
4k views

Why my rsync slow down over time?

I'm trying to backup some files from my PC to an external hard-drive using rsync. The copy works fine but takes a lot of time even for the standard USB 2.0. For an USB 2.0 the real transfer speed ...
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3answers
60 views

Should I erase previous Linux on a bootable live usb first when I want to create a different one?

I have an UEFI laptop. I've created a bootable live usb flash with a Linux and then decided I wanted to install another distributive of Linux. How can I properly create a bootable usb again: should I ...
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1answer
106 views

Check if it's an external flash drive or usb flash stick?

When a usb flash stick or usb external drive get connected, is there any way to check whether it's a usb stick or external flash drive by means of Linux? Is there any utility or something like that?
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1answer
5k views

How is erasing MTD with “dd if=/dev/zero” different from “flash_eraseall”?

flash_eraseall <mtd device> is specifically provided command to erase all of the MTD (device). What is the difference between it and dd if=/dev/zero of=<mtd device>?