Questions tagged [filesystems]

A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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Remove invalid characters from recursive Linux filesystem

I have a huge filesystem full of folders/files using invalid characters. I have found one command that almost does what I want and it came from this thread - https://stackoverflow.com/questions/...
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How can I write a file to a specific inode on an ext2 image?

I have an ext2 image file, and I need to write a file to a specific inode within the image using command line utilities in Linux. I tried using debugfs but I couldn't find a way to write to a specific ...
HoosierTransfer's user avatar
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Is it possible to get a higher memory buff/cache usage after writing a lot of data to the disk?

On an Apache server of my own, logging requests to files has been enabled using a custom Apache module. The log files can reach several GB at the end of the day. Using Nagios I have noticed memory ...
tigrou's user avatar
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ext4 separate files into subdirectories VS one big directory

Will organizing files into subfolders enhance read access performance on an ext4 filesystem compared to storing them all in a single large directory? We currently have a single large directory ...
Yevgeniy Logachev's user avatar
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1 answer
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What's limiting the depth of a recursive symlink chain?

Out of curiosity, I ran the following: mkdir haha cd haha ln -s ../haha haha Which created a recursive structure like this: ┌────────┐ V │ haha/ │ haha/────┘ I wanted to see how ...
CarmenCarmen's user avatar
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How does EXT4 handle sudden lack of space in the underlying storage?

Usually, block device drivers report correct size of the device, and it is possible to actually use all the "available" blocks. So, the filesystem knows how much it can write to such device ...
melonfsck's user avatar
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1 answer
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What could be the source of drastically different disk usage reports between df, lsblk and baobab?

Disk Usage Analyzer (baobab) reports a size of 29.3 GB for the root partition, out of which 2.5 GB are available: However, when selecting that device for closer inspection, I am presented with only 7....
kuadrat's user avatar
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Accesing encrypted HDD after reinstalling OS (Linux)

I have two drive on my PC: SSD HDD OS (Debian) was installed on SSD. HDD was formatted and encrypted from Gnome Disks from installed OS. In Gnome Disks information about HDD looks like: Now I need ...
vasili111's user avatar
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What is the significance of GPT's "Partition Type GUIDs"?

When I use cfdisk to create a new partition, I usually change its type to Linux filesystem. There's multiple types for most operating systems, but a very large number for Linux (architecture-specific ...
Simon Branch's user avatar
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Deleting an entry from the ext2 directory entry list

From this question, which references this site, I understand that when an entry in a directory is deleted, the size of the previous entry is pushed to the next entry or to the end of the block ...
Mora's user avatar
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ls long listing column "number of hard links": What does that mean? [duplicate]

Please shed some light on that erratic, second column of ls -l, that numeric column between the 1st one - the permission string - and the third one - the user ownership. I just can't pin it down, what ...
futurewave's user avatar
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Ubuntu 22.04 vm stuck on boot at recovering journal

I have an ubuntu 22.04 server running on proxmox. I use it to stream media and it randomly froze up the other day. I have tried resetting and at first it would get to the login screen but freeze ...
postelrich's user avatar
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How are block devices physically addressed in a file system

In this book, the following is mentioned about filesystem addressing: A file system does not need to concern itself with where on the physical media a block should be put, that is the job of the ...
user1234234's user avatar
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1 answer
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How are data organized when written in the Micro SD cards? [closed]

How are data organized when written in the Micro SD cards as there are no mechanical spinning platters like hard disks?
ordinary_guy's user avatar
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Reboot into `initramfs` after altering partition table

Problem Overview I recently upgraded my remote server contract with IONOS, increasing my hard drive space from 8GB to 80GB. I have an Ubuntu OS running bash. I then went about extending my working ...
user10709800's user avatar
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wifi stops working on linux 6.6 on fedora kinoite and says "no connections" when i to use the kde applet to connect to wifi i get nothing at all

I've tried turning it off and on again,rolling back and reupdating it,i even reseat my net card but nothing changed. the network adapter i'm using is the ralink corp, RT 2790 wireless 802.11n 1T/2R ...
SurrealG's user avatar
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Retrieve last time a file has been written to a folder (even though it isn't there anymore) in Ubuntu

We have two services, one downloads files from the internet to /tmp/myfolder, the other shuffels them from /tmp/myfolder to a mounted drive. Now since said folder is usually empty (as the files are ...
glades's user avatar
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Each file gets one inode block

A question was given to us by a lecturer: How many data blocks are needed to collect all the data in an EXT4 file system using inodes if the file size is 54 KB and there is a block size of 4KB. ...
Matej Vesel's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
146 views

Which filesystems support the C attribute?

On BTRFS filesystems you can disable CoW for a file using the C file attribute, like this: chattr +C filename I expected this to work on ZFS too, since it is also a CoW filesystem, but the attribute ...
Maestro's user avatar
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Synchronous syscalls and uninterruptible sleep

My application entered uninteruptible sleep. The process is stuck at linkat. ❯ sudo cat /proc/1308028/syscall 265 0xffffffffffffff9c 0x7fbd9f32a120 0xffffffffffffff9c 0x7fbd9f395930 0x400 ...
mq7's user avatar
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file system error on non-existent device (ext4_mb_generate_buddy)

Ubuntu 20.04 server running virtual server guests. root@virtual3:/dev# dmesg | grep dm-11 [16067.090601] EXT4-fs (dm-11): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null). Quota mode: none. [...
David's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
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What is the best place for storing of semi-short-lived data produced by a bash script?

UPDATE Came up with an even better solution: Base directory /var/tmp Because think about it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filesystem_Hierarchy_Standard | /var/tmp | Temporary files to be preserved ...
futurewave's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
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What can cause “multiply claimed blocks” on an ext4 drive?

“Multiply claimed blocks” is an error reported by fsck when blocks appear to belong to more than one file. This causes data corruption since both files change when one of the files are written. But ...
PetaspeedBeaver's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
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Is traversing a Linux filesystem faster as root

When traversing a filesystem with large numbers of files, is it quicker to do so as root compared to any other user? For example, if there are several million files under /data, and /data is owned by ...
squidpickles's user avatar
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1 answer
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Pop OS with a deduplication filesystem

I'm moving a friend development machine to Linux (PopOS), permanently. Don't worry guys, he dualbooted and he's ready for the tux. The problem is his drive. It's a 256GB SSD, and he is moving from a ...
DarkGhostHunter's user avatar
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Moving linux in a hard drive to an ssd

How would I go about moving my linux system (arch), to another drive previously containing windows (ntfs file sistem). Im deciding to move because I installed arch in a super slow hd and now want to ...
gen's user avatar
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mkimage: Can't read mydir: No such device

I want to convert the contents of a directory into a file with the u-boot format. To achieve this, I have used the mkimage tool, but I am encountering the following error (The directory 'mydir' exists)...
majidmc2's user avatar
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Challenges of file system handling with cloud storage solutions

So, it's not really news that the large commercial cloud storage solutions (Google Drive, Onedrive etc.) usually have no or poor Linux support and third party software like rclone may lack ...
Richard Rosner's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
970 views

Where does nvidia-smi get its information from?

Given how everything is a file in Linux, processes don't magically get their information out of nowhere. If you're seeing information without sudo, then that means there's a file somewhere in sysfs, ...
Tcll's user avatar
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Can't find files after unsuccessfully extracting rar to mounted webdav on Debian Linux

I unrared the big parted archive in my Debian Linux to a mounted WebDAV folder: unrar e file1.rar /mnt/dav When the process was complete, I went to the folder /mnt/dav, but apparently something went ...
Shekspire's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
526 views

How do I whitelist drives / partitions that can be mounted to only those that have entries in /etc/fstab?

On my Ubuntu system, I noticed that some file managers, when open, they can mount any drive that was connected via one of my USB ports (as non-root). In the attempt of preventing this from happening I ...
John Smith's user avatar
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1 answer
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lsblk: Why FSSIZE is not equal to FSAVAIL + FSUSED

sudo lsblk --fs -o NAME,FSTYPE,SIZE,FSSIZE,FSUSED,FSAVAIL,FSUSE%,MOUNTPOINTS,LABEL,PATH | grep -v '^loop' NAME FSTYPE SIZE FSSIZE FSUSED FSAVAIL FSUSE% MOUNTPOINTS LABEL ...
Porcupine's user avatar
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11 votes
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What's using all the space on a seemingly empty partition?

OS: RHEL8 Filesystem: xfs I'm guessing that some zombie process is holding the space, but I can't find it. The problem is with /var/lib/pgsql/14, which df says is using 1.1TB of space: $ sudo df -T -...
RonJohn's user avatar
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LVM extend filesystem based on increasing existing disk size

before couple months we extend root XFS filesystem partition size ( it was only 20G ) by adding the VMDK sdi disk and increase the root filesystem by +100G [root@DB_OP_SERVER ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdi ...
yael's user avatar
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Which SD card journaling file system for Windows and Linux?

I have to make a choice between all SD card file system for an embedded device under Linux. The goals are : Read and Write under Windows and Linux Journaling file system to prevent system crash or ...
oBe's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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How many files in a directory is too many for ext4?

I wrote a Golang program to measure how long it takes to create 100 new files and read 100 existing files in a directory with 2k files vs a directory with 200k files: // Create 200k files in one ...
1f604's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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What is "external fragmentation" in a file system?

I'm using EXT4, but I think my question concerns all Unix/Linux file systems. This 2022 answer to "Difference between fragment and extent in ext4" states that: External fragmentation occurs ...
ChennyStar's user avatar
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-3 votes
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Why am I not allowed to access files in /usr/bin/?

I have this machine. I am the sole user of the machine. I cannot access files in /usr/bin/ because of a location issue with /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/printrun/ and am currently receiving errors. ...
For Ward's user avatar
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0 answers
17 views

Enable fs-verity at root directory

Can fs-verity be enabled on the root directory of a filesystem or the root directory of a subvolume in btrfs?
Melab's user avatar
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1 vote
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Why doesn't accessing /dev/loopX raw update correctly (in real-time) when contents are modified?

If I create a file, such as /tmp/vdev (400KB in size and formatted to ext4) then map it to /dev/loop18, and then mount the /dev/loop18 to /tmp/mnt, and then create a text file under /tmp/mnt and write ...
mo FEAR's user avatar
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Command-line tool enabling tagging and related tags functionality

Is there a command-line tool that enables to give a file more attributes than a name? For example, we have a file called ubuntu.pdf and we give it tags like command-line, shell, nautilus, ...
xralf's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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Why is one of my files missing when using wine?

I have a directory with a collection of mp3 files. I plan to use a Windows program in wine on them, but one of the files -- 09.mp3 -- is "invisible" to wine. The program I'm using ignores ...
mrb's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Failed to read extended partition table (offset=x): Invalid argument bad disk partition size

I have a 500GB HDD that will only boot into grub rescue. It appears the partition table has become corrupt as fdisk is reporting one partition being 3.6T. I have run testdisk (results below) but not ...
Lurch's user avatar
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1 answer
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file time stamps - birth time changes after editing an saving a file, with libre office writer or xed

Im on Linux Mint 21, I have a EXT4 file system Filesystem features: has_journal ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype needs_recovery extent 64bit flex_bg sparse_super large_file huge_file ...
Schmaehgrunza's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
168 views

When installing linux, why do we need to mount our "root partition" to "/", and what does it do?

I'm installing arch linux, and I've got my root partition in /dev/sda2. As I understand, this partition will now be my root, containing all the subdirectories /home, /usr, etc. What's confusing to me ...
vw1262's user avatar
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2 votes
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EXT2 - boundaries of group descriptor table

I have to write a CLI program for university that takes in a drive formatted using the ext2 file system. I have to recover certain files. After reading this article I still have one question left. ...
Marcel Lorenz's user avatar
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Mount a filesystem in a K8S pod without privileged

I have a K8S deployment loading a volume as raw block (through volumeDevices): apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment ... spec: replicas: 1 ... containers: - name: somepod image: ubuntu:latest ...
Liquid's user avatar
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1 answer
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What to consider when making a copy of a system with rsync?

So I've got this USB stick with a Linux system on it and the plan is the following: I want to have a backup program on the USB stick that backs up the system to a server. The server has another USB ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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How to shutdown service before systemd starts unmounting

I have a systemd service that uses After=local-fs.target to ensure that all mount points are established (if possible) before the service is started. Not being too familiar with the systemd ...
Simon Kraemer's user avatar
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files disappear upon umount

I have a mystery ... a reproducibile one, but still a mystery. My ideapad 100s has a SD card reader which I use to store stuff while I work on it, as its built-in drive is super tiny. Its really just ...
Rho Phi's user avatar
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