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318
votes
1answer
239k views

What is a bind mount?

What is a “bind mount”? How do I make one? What is it good for? I've been told to use a bind mount for something, but I don't understand what it is or how to use it.
147
votes
4answers
628k views

How to get the complete and exact list of mounted filesystems in Linux?

I usually use mount to check which filesystems are mounted. I also know there is some connection between mount and /etc/mtab but I'm not sure about the details. After reading How to check if /proc/ is ...
90
votes
12answers
10k views

Why is Linux's filesystem designed as a single directory tree?

Can anyone explain why Linux is designed as a single directory tree? Whereas in Windows we can have multiple drives like C:\, and D:\, there is a single root in Unix. Any specific reason there?
65
votes
10answers
69k views

Mount Google Drive in Linux?

Now that Google Drive is available, how do we mount it to a Linux filesystem? Similar solutions exist for Amazon S3 and Rackspace Cloud Files.
51
votes
3answers
20k views

understanding “mount” as a concept in the OS [duplicate]

I want to understand what mounting is. It is used in different contexts and situations and I can't find resources which: Describe the mount concept Explain the actions taken by the computer/OS/...
41
votes
2answers
73k views

Difference between 'sync' and 'async' mount options

What is the difference between sync and async mount options from the end-user point of view? Is file system mounted with one of these options works faster than if mounted with another one? Which ...
41
votes
10answers
113k views

Check if folder is a mounted remote filesystem

What is the best way (reliable, portable, etc.) to check if a given folder is on a mounted remote (nfs) filesystem within a shell script? I am looking for a command that would look like: chk-remote-...
38
votes
4answers
177k views

Best way to mount remote folder

I have two RasberryPi running debian wheezy and I would like to mount a folder from computer A on computer B. What is the best (as in most efficient) way to do this? I can do it via SMB, but that is ...
35
votes
5answers
87k views

How to find the type of an img file and mount it?

I have to mount a .img file but I don't know what type of .img it is. How can I figure out what type of .img file it is? # mount -t auto -o ro,loop gmapsupp.img /mnt/iso/ mount: you must specify the ...
32
votes
2answers
33k views

What mount points exist on a typical Linux system?

I have 2 questions. During Linux installation we specify memory space for 2 mount points - root and swap. Are there any other mount points created without the users notice? Is this statement correct:...
32
votes
2answers
14k views

Where do the files go if you mount a drive to a folder that already contains files?

I just accidentally mounted a new drive to a folder that already contained files. I don't care about them and have them somewhere else, but that folder appears empty now. I'm curious what happened ...
30
votes
7answers
11k views

What's the most “correct” mount point for a permanent NTFS partition?

I have an NTFS partition (containing a Windows installation from which I dual boot) that I would like to permanently mount from my Linux installation. Problem is, I can't figure out what the best/...
22
votes
2answers
66k views

Mount device with r/w access to specific user

How can I mount some device with read-write access for a given user?
21
votes
7answers
5k views

Why does Linux need to have both `/dev/cdrom` and `/media/cdrom`? [duplicate]

Inspired by this question. Why does Linux need both /dev/cdrom and /media/cdrom? Why not just access files on the cdrom through /dev/cdrom?
21
votes
7answers
4k views

Showing only “interesting” mount points / filtering non interesting types

I used mount to show mounted drives, I don't want to see the not so interesting ones (i.e. non-physical). So I used to have a script mnt that did: mount | grep -Ev 'type (proc|sysfs|tmpfs|devpts) ' ...
21
votes
2answers
4k views

Is there anyway to automatically mount a filesystem when I open a symbolic link to a directory on that filesystem?

I am using Arch with Xfce. Recently, I have created a symbolic link to a directory on a filesystem. But I don't want to mount the filesystem during boot or manually mount it before I open the ...
21
votes
3answers
34k views

Why does fstab use UUID instead of the actual file system name?

For example, this is the first line of my /etc/fstab: UUID=050e1e34-39e6-4072-a03e-ae0bf90ba13a / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1 And here's the output of df -h command (reporting free ...
19
votes
4answers
11k views

How can I determine the fs type of my current working directory?

I need a platform-independent and lightweight way of detecting the mount type of my CWD. Specifically, I need to determine if my CWD is in an SSHFS, NFS, CIFS, SMB, or local block store mount. I need ...
18
votes
2answers
36k views

Remount a busy disk to read-only mode

I want to force a disk partition to read only mode and keep it read-only for more than 30 minutes. What I have tried: mount -o remount,ro (partition-identifier) (mount-point) -t (filesystem) Issue:...
17
votes
4answers
18k views

mount info for current directory

I can do df . to get some of the info on the mount that the current directory is in, and I can get all the info I want from mount, but get to much info (info about other mounts). I can grep it down, ...
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Is that possible to integrate zip and tar.gz files as directory into the file system

I wonder if there is a way to integrate (it's a bit different from mounting, I think) compressed files as directories into the file system? E.g., one could download a compressed-file.tar.gz to his ...
14
votes
1answer
5k views

Is it possible to run a webdav fuse client with no root access?

I have seen examples showing how to use davfs2 under linux, but each has involved one of these things: Running mount as root Adding an entry to /etc/fstab Running mount.davfs setuid, which, alas, ...
12
votes
4answers
4k views

Why does one need a loop device at all?

I previously used to create image files using dd, set up a filesystem on them using mkfsand mount them to access them as mounted partitions. Later on, I have seen on the internet that many examples ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

When was `relatime` made the default?

What is the first Linux kernel release to set relatime as the default mount option?
11
votes
5answers
10k views

How to get mount point of filesystem containing given file

I am looking for a quick way to find the mount point of the file system containing a given FILE. Is there anything simpler or more direct than my solution below? df -h FILE |tail -1 | awk -F% '{...
11
votes
4answers
7k views

Serve files over USB

I would like to be able to serve a section of my box's file system over USB to another computer. For example, if the files are on box A and I am reading from box B, then B would mount A, see those ...
10
votes
1answer
10k views

What is type 'none' for mount points and why are mount points of the same type below /run?

In Ubuntu 14.04 when executing command mount I get following excerpt tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,size=10%,mode=0755) none on /run/lock type tmpfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev,size=5242880) ...
9
votes
6answers
24k views

Which partition is mounted to where? [duplicate]

How can we check the mount points for partitions listed in /dev/sd*? For example, I would like know if the partition for my home is /dev/sda4.
9
votes
5answers
5k views

mount ramfs as user

My fstab entry: none /home/jreinhart/ramdisk ramfs defaults,user 0 0 The directory before mounting: drwxrwxr-x 2 jreinhart jreinhart 4096 Oct 17 11:31 ramdisk The directory after ...
9
votes
1answer
447 views

How to format & mount a large partition with 4k sector size in Freebsd?

gpart show -l: => 6 146239733 da0 GPT (558G) 6 10 - free - (40K) 16 128 1 (null) (512K) 144 262144 2 efi (1.0G) ...
8
votes
1answer
10k views

What is in /dev, /proc and /sys?

After mount there are listed some filesystems. I need to know what's in the /dev, /proc and /sys. Some examples would be great!
8
votes
3answers
17k views

Mount HTTP Server As File System

I have a machine on which I wish to mount multiple remote servers to access them all centrally. For remote Linux based systems I am using SSHFS which works fine. But for Windows systems, or systems ...
8
votes
3answers
47k views

Device already mounted or resource is busy

Issue ::: I install Redhat 5.10 x64 on server which had faulty hdd . I removed the old faulty hdd and installed new one with 500GB capacity and after installation i need to copy some data from old ...
7
votes
4answers
29k views

Mounting multiple devices at a single mount point on Linux

Is there a way to mount multiple hard drives to a single mount point? Let's say I run out of space on /home and decide to add an extra hard drive to the computer. How do I scale the space on a mount ...
7
votes
1answer
664 views

du results on filesystem inconsistent with df

What explains the discrepancy in usage (82 GB vs 13 GB) that I see below? Using df: $ df -h / Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 96G 82G 9.9G 90% / ...
7
votes
2answers
409 views

Strange mount entries, procfs on net:

On a device I get among others the following strange entries for mount: none on net:[4026532603] type proc (rw,relatime) none on net:[4026532424] type proc (rw,relatime) Any idea what or for what ...
7
votes
5answers
24k views

vfat not recognized in debian

I want to mount my usb drive (kindle vfat32). When I do mount -t auto /dev/sdf1 /mnt/usb I get mount: unknown filesystem type 'vfat' I checked if the drive is recognized with sudo fdisk -l and the ...
7
votes
2answers
4k views

Querying an overlayfs

I'm looking for a way to query a mounted overlay filesystem (overlayfs) in order to check it's upper and lower directory, but until now I haven't found any suitable command for that. Is there is a way ...
6
votes
3answers
12k views

Trouble getting Exfat formatted drive to mount

I've just performed a new install of arch linux (3.15.3-1) on a macbook pro 8.2 All of my data is on an exfat drive, and I've installed exfat-utils. However, when I try mount -t exfat /dev/sdb1 ~/...
6
votes
5answers
12k views

how to mount this disk?

I'm trying to mount a disc created some time ago in Amazon EC2. This is what I see (line breaks added for the sake of readability): $ sudo file -s /dev/xvda4 /dev/xvda4: x86 boot sector; partition 1: ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

How can a file manager mount a drive without root?

I've been reading this question about why mount must be run as root (with some exceptions), and I was wondering, if mounting a drive requires root (generally), how does a graphical file manager (...
6
votes
2answers
7k views

Permission denied (even as root) on a mounted ISO image with Furius ISO Mount

I mounted a ISO image with Furius ISO Mount. I cd to the mounted directory and tried to copy a file with sudo cp file /dir but cp writes error message cp: cannot stat `file': Permission denied ...
6
votes
2answers
8k views

mounting to non-empty directory, then later deleting original files

I have some unused space on my disk, and decided to use a little of it to create a separate /var partition. There might be an easier way to do this, but my idea is to copy the existing /var ...
6
votes
3answers
4k views

What do first column in /proc/mounts really mean in Linux?

Run cat /proc/mounts and I get this (simplified): rootfs / rootfs rw 0 0 proc /proc proc rw,relatime 0 0 /dev/sda1 / ext3 rw,relatime,errors=continue,barrier=1,data=ordered 0 0 io /etc/blkio cgroup ...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

Keep local copy of nfs mount on computer

I mount all my home directories and what ever else on my laptop when it is on my home network. I was wondering if there is a way to keep a local copy of the nfs mount when my laptop is off the network....
6
votes
2answers
2k views

mount options shown in /proc/mounts

IIRC then the mount options shown in /proc/mounts have changed. Some time ago acl and user_xattr were shown, now it seems that only noacl and nouser_xattr are shown if these features are turned off. ...
6
votes
1answer
16k views

sshfs - can't unmount the point

I mounted a folder on a remote machine using sshfs, but didn't specify -o allow_other flag thus can't access the mounted directory. When I try to mount over with -o allow_other option sshfs gives me ...
6
votes
1answer
479 views

mkdir gives different errors (permission denied vs. file exists) depending on whether directory has been recently accessed

problem First, I log in to a new workstation. myAcct@ws5: mkdir /users/adminAcct/foo/parentDir/childDir mkdir: cannot create directory ‘/users/adminAcct/foo/parentDir/childDir’: Permission denied A ...
6
votes
1answer
723 views

How to Run Tunefs on Root Filesystem in FreeBSD?

I want to enable ACLs for a FreeBSD 11 system. According to the FreeBSD Handbook this can be done in two ways: By using a mount option -- mount -o acls By modifying a superblock -- tunefs -a enable ...
6
votes
3answers
7k views

USB Media filesystem problem

My USB is not detected recently, I tried mount, fdisk, dd, gparted, mkfs.vfat :~# tail -f /var/log/syslog Oct 27 12:54:29 mohammad-Inspiron-N5110 kernel: [18843.105772] usb 3-2: New USB device ...