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324
votes
2answers
244k views

What is a bind mount?

What is a “bind mount”? How do I make one? What is it good for? I've been told to use a bind mount for something, but I don't understand what it is or how to use it.
32
votes
2answers
33k views

What mount points exist on a typical Linux system?

I have 2 questions. During Linux installation we specify memory space for 2 mount points - root and swap. Are there any other mount points created without the users notice? Is this statement correct:...
7
votes
1answer
697 views

du results on filesystem inconsistent with df

What explains the discrepancy in usage (82 GB vs 13 GB) that I see below? Using df: $ df -h / Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 96G 82G 9.9G 90% / ...
148
votes
4answers
636k views

How to get the complete and exact list of mounted filesystems in Linux?

I usually use mount to check which filesystems are mounted. I also know there is some connection between mount and /etc/mtab but I'm not sure about the details. After reading How to check if /proc/ is ...
33
votes
2answers
14k views

Where do the files go if you mount a drive to a folder that already contains files?

I just accidentally mounted a new drive to a folder that already contained files. I don't care about them and have them somewhere else, but that folder appears empty now. I'm curious what happened ...
91
votes
12answers
10k views

Why is Linux's filesystem designed as a single directory tree?

Can anyone explain why Linux is designed as a single directory tree? Whereas in Windows we can have multiple drives like C:\, and D:\, there is a single root in Unix. Any specific reason there?
52
votes
3answers
21k views

understanding “mount” as a concept in the OS [duplicate]

I want to understand what mounting is. It is used in different contexts and situations and I can't find resources which: Describe the mount concept Explain the actions taken by the computer/OS/...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

mount options shown in /proc/mounts

IIRC then the mount options shown in /proc/mounts have changed. Some time ago acl and user_xattr were shown, now it seems that only noacl and nouser_xattr are shown if these features are turned off. ...
17
votes
4answers
18k views

mount info for current directory

I can do df . to get some of the info on the mount that the current directory is in, and I can get all the info I want from mount, but get to much info (info about other mounts). I can grep it down, ...
21
votes
3answers
34k views

Why does fstab use UUID instead of the actual file system name?

For example, this is the first line of my /etc/fstab: UUID=050e1e34-39e6-4072-a03e-ae0bf90ba13a / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1 And here's the output of df -h command (reporting free ...
21
votes
7answers
4k views

Showing only “interesting” mount points / filtering non interesting types

I used mount to show mounted drives, I don't want to see the not so interesting ones (i.e. non-physical). So I used to have a script mnt that did: mount | grep -Ev 'type (proc|sysfs|tmpfs|devpts) ' ...
12
votes
2answers
4k views

When was `relatime` made the default?

What is the first Linux kernel release to set relatime as the default mount option?
39
votes
4answers
178k views

Best way to mount remote folder

I have two RasberryPi running debian wheezy and I would like to mount a folder from computer A on computer B. What is the best (as in most efficient) way to do this? I can do it via SMB, but that is ...
65
votes
10answers
69k views

Mount Google Drive in Linux?

Now that Google Drive is available, how do we mount it to a Linux filesystem? Similar solutions exist for Amazon S3 and Rackspace Cloud Files.
35
votes
5answers
88k views

How to find the type of an img file and mount it?

I have to mount a .img file but I don't know what type of .img it is. How can I figure out what type of .img file it is? # mount -t auto -o ro,loop gmapsupp.img /mnt/iso/ mount: you must specify the ...
41
votes
2answers
74k views

Difference between 'sync' and 'async' mount options

What is the difference between sync and async mount options from the end-user point of view? Is file system mounted with one of these options works faster than if mounted with another one? Which ...
42
votes
10answers
114k views

Check if folder is a mounted remote filesystem

What is the best way (reliable, portable, etc.) to check if a given folder is on a mounted remote (nfs) filesystem within a shell script? I am looking for a command that would look like: chk-remote-...
22
votes
2answers
67k views

Mount device with r/w access to specific user

How can I mount some device with read-write access for a given user?
9
votes
1answer
10k views

What is in /dev, /proc and /sys?

After mount there are listed some filesystems. I need to know what's in the /dev, /proc and /sys. Some examples would be great!
12
votes
4answers
4k views

Why does one need a loop device at all?

I previously used to create image files using dd, set up a filesystem on them using mkfsand mount them to access them as mounted partitions. Later on, I have seen on the internet that many examples ...
10
votes
6answers
24k views

Which partition is mounted to where? [duplicate]

How can we check the mount points for partitions listed in /dev/sd*? For example, I would like know if the partition for my home is /dev/sda4.
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Is that possible to integrate zip and tar.gz files as directory into the file system

I wonder if there is a way to integrate (it's a bit different from mounting, I think) compressed files as directories into the file system? E.g., one could download a compressed-file.tar.gz to his ...
5
votes
3answers
11k views

Can anyone explain the output of mount?

I'm getting the following output when the mount command is executed. [root@]# mount /dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw) proc on /proc type proc (rw) sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw) devpts on /dev/pts type ...
9
votes
5answers
5k views

mount ramfs as user

My fstab entry: none /home/jreinhart/ramdisk ramfs defaults,user 0 0 The directory before mounting: drwxrwxr-x 2 jreinhart jreinhart 4096 Oct 17 11:31 ramdisk The directory after ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

How to create a file system as a non root user?

I'd like to create a filesystem image as a non-root user, the problem I'm facing is that the way I'm currently doing it, it needs a mount and as a non-root can't do a mount. This is what I'm now ...
4
votes
2answers
13k views

Mounting Disk Image in Raw format [duplicate]

While Trying to mount a disk image in Raw(dd) format using the following command mount nps-2010-emails.dd /media/manu/ I get the following error message mount: you must specify the filesystem ...
2
votes
1answer
566 views

Unexpected results when mounting two drives on a single mount point

I was running out of /tmp space on one of my servers today so I attached a new 100GB disk to the system and did the following without unmounting /usr/tmpDSK from /tmp: mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvde mount /dev/...
2
votes
2answers
13k views

Filesystem for boot partition

I created a BIOS boot partition on a hard drive, using gdisk : $ sudo gdisk /dev/sdb Command (? for help): p Disk /dev/sdb: 7821312 sectors, 3.7 GiB Logical sector size: 512 bytes Disk identifier (...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Append to sub-directory inside squashfs file

Suppose we have filesystem.squashfs, we can append to it by: mksquashfs somefile filesystem.squashfs which appends somefile to root of squashfs file. appending directory: mksquashfs somedir/ ...
2
votes
2answers
236 views

What file system is my file on? [duplicate]

How do I figure out which file system a given file/directory is located on? (For example, I would like to know if the file/directory is a temporary file in RAM, or if it's stored on disk. And what ...
2
votes
1answer
486 views

Atime value changing only once after file creation

I've mounted disk with explicit given value - atime: mount -o mount -o atime /dev/disk1 /myDisk then I've created a file by touch file_A after this operation stat output looks like that: Access: ...
11
votes
4answers
7k views

Serve files over USB

I would like to be able to serve a section of my box's file system over USB to another computer. For example, if the files are on box A and I am reading from box B, then B would mount A, see those ...
19
votes
4answers
11k views

How can I determine the fs type of my current working directory?

I need a platform-independent and lightweight way of detecting the mount type of my CWD. Specifically, I need to determine if my CWD is in an SSHFS, NFS, CIFS, SMB, or local block store mount. I need ...
18
votes
2answers
37k views

Remount a busy disk to read-only mode

I want to force a disk partition to read only mode and keep it read-only for more than 30 minutes. What I have tried: mount -o remount,ro (partition-identifier) (mount-point) -t (filesystem) Issue:...
7
votes
4answers
29k views

Mounting multiple devices at a single mount point on Linux

Is there a way to mount multiple hard drives to a single mount point? Let's say I run out of space on /home and decide to add an extra hard drive to the computer. How do I scale the space on a mount ...
11
votes
5answers
10k views

How to get mount point of filesystem containing given file

I am looking for a quick way to find the mount point of the file system containing a given FILE. Is there anything simpler or more direct than my solution below? df -h FILE |tail -1 | awk -F% '{...
4
votes
2answers
911 views

Mounting a subdirectory of home onto an own partition confuses disk usage report

1. Situation 1.1 Devices My filesystem has the following arrangement /dev/sda8 of 323 GiB is mounted to /home /dev/sda13 of 90 GiB is mounted to /home/user2/storage with the original intention to ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

How does the Linux or Unix “ / ” get mounted during bootup?

Devices can be mounted to a path. For example "/dev/sda1" can be mounted to "/home/user". What I don't understand is how and where the " / " is mounted during boot. Any help explaining?
2
votes
1answer
840 views

How to prevent fs from unmounting?

I'm trying to back up a disk that has been acting very strangely lately, but my back-up attempts fail after a few minutes, because the disk's file system (at /dev/disk4) "spontaneously" unmounts. (I ...
6
votes
1answer
756 views

How to Run Tunefs on Root Filesystem in FreeBSD?

I want to enable ACLs for a FreeBSD 11 system. According to the FreeBSD Handbook this can be done in two ways: By using a mount option -- mount -o acls By modifying a superblock -- tunefs -a enable ...
4
votes
2answers
4k views

Disk usage on a specific filesystem

I need to find out what's contributing to the disk usage on a specific filesystem (/dev/sda2): $ df -h / Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 96G 82G 9.9G ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

How can I have a filesystem mounted during user login?

I would like a file based filesystem (~/Archives/inventory.locker) mounted upon user login and unmounted upon logout (~/Documents/Inventory). pam_mount seems to provide the functionality I am after, ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

set umask for sshfs-mounted filesystem

I have a remote sshfs filesystem mounted on /mnt/data. Following is the relevant line in /etc/fstab: www-data@192.168.1.10:/var/www/ /mnt/data fuse.sshfs rw,noauto,nodev,nosuid,noexec,_netdev,...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

How can I extract files from a disk image without mounting it?

Say I have a disk image (possibly partitioned) that I have permission to read. However, I don't have permission to mount it via loopback*. In theory, the data is all there; I could write code that ...
3
votes
1answer
10k views

Mount samba filesystem into RHEL 5.5

I have a trial RHEL version for a proof of concept where I was asked to mount a windows filesystem into linux. I tried mount -t smbfs -o username=samba,password=samba //Desktop/Public /mnt/public ...
2
votes
1answer
12k views

How to restore a Fat32 filesystem under Linux

Here is what happened: I used the Laptop and accessed some data on my usb stick. Then I closed the Laptop putting the system into sleep mode. The USB-Stick was still plugged in. After the laptop was ...
2
votes
1answer
569 views

Mount linux mount in windows (without ftp)?

I successfully mounted my external hard drive (ntfs) to /mnt/seagate. I'm using debian and the server is connected over LAN to my PC. So how can I mount my hard drive in my windows explorer without ...
7
votes
5answers
24k views

vfat not recognized in debian

I want to mount my usb drive (kindle vfat32). When I do mount -t auto /dev/sdf1 /mnt/usb I get mount: unknown filesystem type 'vfat' I checked if the drive is recognized with sudo fdisk -l and the ...
6
votes
1answer
16k views

sshfs - can't unmount the point

I mounted a folder on a remote machine using sshfs, but didn't specify -o allow_other flag thus can't access the mounted directory. When I try to mount over with -o allow_other option sshfs gives me ...
5
votes
2answers
18k views

HDD no longer able to mount after editing /etc/fstab

I have an SSD which holds / and my home directory, but I also have a 1TB HDD with most of my music on. I tried to edit /etc/fstab to automatically mount the HDD to save me time. I am running Kubuntu. ...