Questions tagged [filesystems]

A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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Does fsck fixing at boot corrects the filesystem or do I need to replace the SSD?

A debian 9 server booted into grub menu with an error /dev/sda1: Inodes that were part of a corrupted orphan linked list found I ran fsck /dev/sda1 and fixed all the errors. Should I worry about the ...
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Extend the OS disk on Ubuntu 20.04

I have a VM on Azure with Ubuntu 20.04, the partitions looks like : # df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on udev 3.9G 0 3.9G 0% /dev tmpfs ...
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What things are not saved in a btrfs snapshot?

I'm using BTRFS for my root partition and manage its snapshots with Snapper. I decided to create subvolumes for /var/tmp, /var/cache and /var/log as these are constantly changing its data which is not ...
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Recover ext4 partition with bad superblock? (Failed after resizing, backup magic numbers don't work)

Background Had a Linux root ext4 partition that I needed more space; cleared it from my Windows install, and then modified the remaining stuff on KDE's partition manager on a live usb. I'm not ...
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Boot loop device as root file system

I created an ext4-filesystem on a loop device with all necessary files to boot with, e.g.: /bin /boot /dev /lib /mnt /etc ... Now I want to boot from the loop device as an image (let's say ...
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Should only / be mounted as Read-Only for security in case of power loss, or also /boot

I have an embedded system (specifically, Google Coral with Mendel Linux), which will be running some models. I expect it to get turned off in not a secure way (basically plugging it off) mostly every ...
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How to share a folder between two users on the same linux laptop

Ubuntu 20.4 installed with user Marco created other user Polo by going to |settings > Users > Add User| created "commonDir" folder in Marco's home directory. |right click > new ...
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Restoring filesystem of an extended root partition

I have a Debian/Windows 10 dual boot with a shared partition in between and I tried to extend my Linux root partition because I was running out of space. I made some space but splitting the SHARED ...
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How to mount image.ext2 file system that is in iso9660 image (livecd)

I have ISO9660 image. In this image there are isolinux bootloader, small initrd.gz filesystem, Linux kernel and real root.ext2/3/4 file system. After in virtual machine the system was loaded in the ...
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Trying to use NFS

Finally shut down my Linux Cent OS Server. Set up a new Fedora 36 Plex server. All set up, but ran into a problem. I can’t get the Fedora PC to connect automatically with the file system on my NAS. If ...
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wipefs + disk not cleaned

we erased the disk signature as the following ( this is after we performed umount ) wipefs -a /dev/sde /dev/sde: 2 bytes were erased at offset 0x00000438 (ext4): 53 ef then we check that disk is ...
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Is it possible to trace/record every file IO being done by one or all applications, both through syscalls and mmap?

I want to trace every IO operation an application does in its lifetime and don't want any caching effect to interfere. I cannot change the application source code, using a shim would be OK. ...
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I observe using `dd if=filein of=fileout` lead to filesystem fragmentation, what do I have to change?

There was a nice question that sadly got deleted while I was writing a rather extensive answer :( Not wanting to let that effort go to waste, let me paraphrase that question from the question text and ...
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Indexing files' metadata

Is there a tool that allows to index (search) files based on their metadata on linux? I've search a bit and found (here) that there are several tools that allow file indexing on linux: Recoll mlocate ...
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Is there any benefit to partition the disk if only one partition is required? [duplicate]

I believe we could use the block device directly to do mkfs or create one partition through parted on linux and mkfs on top of the primary partition. However, I'm not sure if there is any ...
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Mount filesystem with DAX enabled on RAM

I am trying to mount a filesystem with DAX feature on RAM. I used this answer to load brd module and get /dev/ram0. Then I tried all 3 filesystems that support DAX: ext2, ext4 and xfs. However, when I ...
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"Unable to retrieve fs info" when resizing btrfs partition

I have a partition formatted with btrfs and mounted in /home and in / (according to the fstab file and lsblk -f). I want to shrink the filesystem, but both of the following commands return ERROR: ...
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Is it ok to delete the /srv directory?

Is it okay to remove the srv$ directory in Kubuntu 20.04 There seems to be no files contained inside and it will clear up the structure. after research I found that it was very much up to what I want ...
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How Linux kernel sees the filesystems

I'm still confused about the concept of kernel and filesystem. Filesystems contain a table of inodes used to retrieve the different files and directories in different memories. Is this inode table ...
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Btrfs Send Snapshots Out of Order? (asynchronous replication)

I found this webpage on the internet discussing sending Btrfs incremental snapshots out of order. https://arstechnica.com/civis/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=1226135 From there, I've searched all over the ...
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Expand a raid5 LV from VG

I have around 20 PV in my HV. From where I have created a VG called storage with lvcreate --type raid5 --stripes 3 --stripesize 4 -l 100%VG --name raid5-1 /dev/storage You see that I have used 4 ...
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EXT4 journal=data and mmap

Does enabling data=journal for ext4 make any difference when using mmap() to update a file? The ext4 man page says: journal All data is committed into the journal prior to being written into the main ...
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Not able to create Logical Volume [closed]

While creating logical volume on the top of volume group in server getting error as below: lvol does not exist in the "/etc/lvmtab" file. lvol does not exist in the "/etc/lvmtab_p" ...
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How to create system.sfs with system.img?

I created an image file from system directory of an OS. I want to convert(or pack) with sfs format, but I don't know how to do this. I searched about it, but I didn't find any accurate method.
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Is this drive dead?

Frankly I don't know what to title this issue/question... I have this one particular drive in my basic home server that is causing me headaches. Just finished restructuring my media library (sorting ...
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deleting data in a domU-mounted image does not reduce the image size

I have difficulties understanding the following situation: Dom0 image: [root@Dom0]# du -h 19.12.0.0_dbhome_1.img 980M 19.12.0.0_dbhome_1.img is mounted on DomU: [root@DomU]# df -h /u01/app/oracle/...
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Which "file system type" to choose in "parted" for an LVM volume?

Running RHEL 8, the parted utility asks for a "File system type" for the partition being created. If I plan to use LVM which should I choose? does it matter or I can choose any type of file ...
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Filesystem with checksums?

I have a single hard drive. I want to use a filesystem that will give me less storage space, but as a tradeoff, give me checksums or any other method to help preserve data integrity. It is my ...
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How to investigate "ghost usage" of BTRFS?

It looks like I have about ~31 GByte free space, but when I try to copy a 2 GByte sized /usr dir to a "testing" directory it failed due to no space left on device: node02:~ # cd /usr node02:/...
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Volume group "vgubuntu" not found. My laptop won’t boot

Today, I rebooted my PC (a Dell G5 15) after a update from Ubuntu, you know, the kind of update that pops on the screen and asks you to reboot at the end to complete the update. Well, that’s what I ...
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Why does Parted mkpart ask for file system type, if I can later format with another file system? [duplicate]

What I Did I attach an HDD, lsblk -S shows this drive as sdc I use sudo parted /dev/sdc/ to start parted against sdc I create a partition table as: mklabel gpt I make a partition: mkpart my-cool-...
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Difference between fragment and extent in ext4

In the context of e.g. ext4 fs, I often stumble upon both 'fragment' and 'extent' words. They appear to be both related to fragmentation, extents for example are pretty extensively (duh) explained ...
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Interruptible/Pausable/Restartable file locks and descriptors on Linux?

I have this desired use case: unload then reload (a possibly different version of) a file system driver without having first to close processes that have open files on it. To do this, I am imagining ...
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HTML not loading local images in any of my browsers in my system [closed]

Problem In my main desktop system running Arch linux, when I create an HTML file with a tag and an image like so: <img src="imagepath" alt="sometext"> the image does not ...
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EXT4 partition became empty after reboot - why? possible to fix?

TLDR: I had a 1TB RAID1 partition containing 800GB of files before rebooting, now after rebooting, the partition is empty. Hardware: dual SATA 1TB drives in RAID1 (ASUS PIKE card, which is a LSI card)....
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How to turn off write protection on a micro sd card?

I came across an old micro SD card, previously received with a tablet sent by an educational content provider. I decided to delete the contents of that SD card in order to take it into my personal use....
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Manually telling EXT4 about bad sectors?

The drive is currently in NTFS. After running chkdsk for hours, I have found the locations of bad sectors (below). I want to reformat the disk in EXT4. I have heard that EXT4 has some sort of metadata ...
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Tried to open external harddrive img file

I have an img file, which is packaged in a centos virtual machine. I don't know how to open it. Now I have "parted" it on another machine and found that it is an lvm structure. The question ...
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Ideas to clear user xattrs from files without get/setfattr

I have a directory containing a root filesystem that I SquashFS and then mount as r/o on other boxes. However, before SquashFS'ing, i want to clear all the user-namespace xattrs from the filesystem. ...
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commit argument in ext4 fs vs commit mount option in fstab

Target Improve the I/O performance of ext4 file system, specifically. Background I got to know about noatime and commit mount options for fstab, and also a warning that the former can be a breaking ...
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How can i add up unused disk to existing partition folder

I have an unused 1TB HDD and I need to add it to my main storage /dev/sda3, how can I do this without modifying the files on that partition?
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Copy on write for directories?

Some file-systems notably XFS and btrfs support Copy on Write at block level for files. This is done by reflinking where the underlying blocks are shared between files until they are modified. Since a ...
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How to set up Hardware RAID on Linux Server for Access from Windows as a NAS

As I'm fairly new to Linux I wonder how to set up my RAID for network-wide access to use it as a NAS also from Windows. I got a used Server with an Adaptec 6405 Hardware RAID Controller and added 4x ...
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Fix Windows partition from Linux environment

I have a Windows machine. About two months ago I installed on a separate hard drive the Windows q4os distro. Now suddenly Windows can't manage to boot anymore, and the automatic repair tool isn't able ...
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Best filesystem for accidental external disk disconnects? [closed]

I have an external disk that is connected to the monitor that acts as a hub and then to my laptop. I rarely copy data to/from disk, but it's really convenient to just have it there when I am at my ...
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How does "Inodes per group" and "lazy_itable_init" flag relate to the "Inode count" value in an ext4 filesystem?

I am trying to root cause a customer case where 2 Identical drives, formatted with the same command, led to a difference of ~55GB in total disk space due to additional Inode overhead. I want to ...
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Is it possible for data to be persisted when redeploying a parition table to a previously used disk?

I am currently working on a project which uses a custom Android operating system, the project requires going back and forth between different versions of this OS (android 5 and android 9 respectively)....
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How can I fix an sd card's gpt filesystem when gparted won't recognize any changes and I have superblock errors

I simply want to properly format/partition my sd card so it can be used. I tried to format it but I have been continually hitting errors. Specifically I would like to format it as ext4. However when ...
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How to rename or change the filesystem label in a linux based device

I am working on a linux OS based device and writing a script to mount the USB Most of my working devices are having Filesystem with "/dev/sdb1" and I could mount them to the USB using a ...
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Using Raspberry Pi to emulate USB storage for files stored on NAS

Summary I am looking to bridge a NAS file share to a FAT32 "USB Gadget" that can save/load files transparently to the NAS as if the host device was writing them to the USB Storage. Apologies ...
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