Questions tagged [filesystems]

A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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inode based file system, What is the maximum size of a file in the file system

could someone explain how to tackle this questions? 1. **What is the maximum size of a file that could be handled by single indirect and double indirect?** Block size is 2K Address size is 4 Bytes 12 ...
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unable to remove files due to "resource or device busy"

I am trying to delete a folder from my linux system (actual system, not a VM). I was able to create all sub directories of this folder but for one sub directory i get: "rm: cannot remove 'path': ...
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can't boot into windows, was removed from grub. somehow

So. I installed Debian on my asus laptop, resized the windows partition, and installed Debian 11(stable). windows was automatically add to grub and everything was good. I apt update && apt ...
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antiX Linux. Issue with live server(VS code)

When I try to start the live server addon on VS code I get Then the terminal opens up with this messages: udevil mount http://127.0.0.1:5500/index.html mount: /media/asd/http-127.0.0.1-index.html: ...
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Recovering data from HDD after failed FS change attempt

I lost partition on my 5TB Seagate Backup Plus external HDD. I was trying to convert the file system from NTFS to HFS using Paragon HDD Manager 17. Windows is not recognizing the drive and MacOS is ...
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What would cause directories in Linux to be spontaneously overwritten by a previous version

Edited to add correct ESXi version I am running into a very odd issue that is making me feel like an idiot, although I'm sure it has some simple explanation that I'm hoping one of you fine folks can ...
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How to fix Debian 11 not booting after kernel upgrade?

My Debian 11 shipped with version 5.10 of the Linux kernel. I wanted a newer one, so I downloaded 5.15 from here, extracted the tar file, copied over the existing configuration, ran make menuconfig, ...
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Changing rights and owner in one command to safe resources

I have a backup script with the following function: function change_rights() { chown -R ${OWNER}:${GROUP} ${DIR} find ${DIR} -type f -exec chmod 0640 {} \; find ${DIR} -type d -exec chmod ...
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What is the purpose of partition type "Linux plaintext"?

While using fdisk, I was looking through the list of partition types and noticed one that I guess I hadn't before. Hex code 88, "Linux Plaintext". I searched around but couldn't find ...
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Creating bootable USB: does `dd` overwrite partition table, formatting, filesystem?

I'm creating a bootable USB in order to install NixOS. Given a USB at /dev/sda this could be done by running: # download the ISO wget https://channels.nixos.org/nixos-21.11/latest-nixos-minimal-x86_64-...
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How can a file have size (per Nemo), but does not take space on disk (in RAM)?

Today I downloaded several files. The app AFAIK reserves space for whole file from the start. For 1st and 2nd files I saw available RAM decreased right after download started, but for 3rd there was ...
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When does Linux flush data to the disk?

I know that usually the answer to this question is "when it sees fit", or some other obscure answer. And many times I saw that if the host gets hard booted, some of files that got recently ...
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search string with ack in linux OS while exclude non relevant folders

We installed the ack tool as follows (from - https://beyondgrep.com/install/) curl https://beyondgrep.com/ack-v3.5.0 >/bin/ack chmod +x /bin/ack Now, we want to search the string --> jessica in ...
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LVM, LUKS2 & BTRFS Problem

I had the following setup: 3 HDDs 10Tb of size, in LVM Raid5 configuration On top a LUKS2 encryption and inside a BTRFS filesystem. Since my storage got low i added another 16TB HDD (was cheaper than ...
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what is the right way to scan/search for words within file, on RHEL (Gnu/Linux)

We want to scan for words on our Gnu/Linux machine. A simple way is for example with grep grep -r "some_word" /var However in the case we want to scan the whole filesystem, then we can't do ...
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How to mount a unix directory on windows using WSL or powershell

I have this directory on Unix machine which I am trying to mount on my windows machine using WSL. mkdir ldp sudo mount //IPADDRESS/var/log/Log_Files -o username=root,password='password',domain=rdc-...
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"Error writing file, read-only filesystem" when file system says it's read-write enabled

I'm currently trying to update the network settings on an embedded Linux device. This is typically done by modifying the contents of file /opt/etc/network/interfaces. The file system mounted at /opt/ ...
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Custom Build - Unable to mount filesystem

So I'm building a custom Linux-based OS, and I chose to run it as a RAM disk (initramfs). Unfortunately, I keep getting a Kernel Panic during boot. RAMDISK: gzip image found at block 0 using ...
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How to copy (preserve when copying) file/inode "status change" time (not only access and modify)? [duplicate]

status change time changes when e.g. file is renamed. I'd like to have option to preserve that timestamp when copying. How to copy (or modify after copy) status change time? Web finds answers for only ...
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Root file system in Mint MATE

I am relatively new to Linux (read: tedious noob question), but now that I switched to Mint MATE, I have a question regarding the structure of the file system here (perhaps, even more generally in ...
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Bit Rot within LUKS Encryption

How does bit rot affect a LUKS container and the filesystem inside? Suppose you have a filesystem that is well suited to deal with bit rot. Now put it inside a LUKS container. In case bit rot ...
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How do I disable mount on AIX?

I want to disable mount mentioned in /etc/filesystems. (By disabling I mean set the mount option to false). I heard, that the /etc/filesystems file, should not be edited directly, so I don't want to ...
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How to shrink (Rasperry PI) IMG file with the same data

I have an IMG file with the following structure: $ fdisk -l myimage.img Disk myimage.img: 6,1 GiB, 6512705536 bytes, 12720128 sectors Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/...
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Files having Input/output error: how to completely ignore them as if they don't exist

Due to hardware problems, there are some Input/output errors. Some of my hard disk sectors are bad. # find . -name 'cpp-service.zip' find: ‘./.cache/chromium’: Input/output error find: ‘./.config/...
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How to create mkfs for LFS? [closed]

I am trying to run following command mkfs -v -t ext4 /dev/sda1 to create file system but I got an output /dev/sda1 is apparently in use by the system; will not make a filesystem here!. How can I ...
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Symlink to random cat image

Say I had a folder full of cat images. I'd like to create a symlink that points to a random cat from that folder and changes each time the symlink is accessed. I suppose I could create a script that ...
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rhel + root file-system is filling, despite no large files or directories

I want to share the following strange behavior on our rhel 7.6 server root file system is almost full ( used 95% ) , when root file system size is 100G we can see that folders that belong to root file ...
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1answer
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Does Linux Filesystem(ext4) synchronise writes to different files in the same disk?

I am working on an application in Linux that includes Append Only writes to a file from multiple threads. Currently, i am taking a mutex lock from each thread and then appending to a file. I want to ...
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1answer
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Why fcntl() range lock (some offset to length) is slower as compared to fcntl full file lock (0 offset to EOF)? [closed]

I am trying to write on 1 GB file from 8 different processes (every process will start writing from 0th offset till EOF) simultaneously; while following two different approaches. Before writing every ...
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LZMA compressed squashfs image bit-error fix algorithm

Long story short: NAND dump from embedded device. The device uses ubifs as a filesystem. Now, after fixing the dump, I'm left with the partitions inside it. Almost every partition inside has "A&...
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Count number of bytes read() from files on a file system

I have multiple XFS filesystems mounted on my Linux 5 machine. I'd like to know for one of them how many bytes were read() in a time period. Is there an easy way of doing that? I've been looking ...
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XFS: metadata I/O error in "xfs_trans_read_buf_map" error 5

Linux is continuously throwing these error logs: XFS: metadata I/O error in "xfs_trans_read_buf_map" at daddr ... len 32 error 5 XFS: xfs_imap_to_bp: xfs_trans_read_buf() returned error -5 ...
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Does a file system also use block storage?

I'm confused about the actual internal workings of a file system. The question is about file storage vs block storage. From what I understand, the difference is in the level at which we access data: ...
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Why does this new directory have a link count of 3?

$ sudo su # dd if=/dev/zero of=./myext.img bs=1024 count=100 . . . # modprobe loop # losetup --find --show myext.img /dev/loop0 # mkfs -t myext /dev/loop0 . . . # mkdir mnt # mount /dev/loop0 ./mnt # ...
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btrfs receive fails with incremental streams: "File exists"

For a btrfs subvolume, I have a simple incremental backup created from two stages: btrfs send old/@ > base.btrfs btrfs send new/@ -p old/@ > update.btrfs The two source subvolumes are snapshots ...
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Should I use XFS or EXT4 for music storage drive?

I have a 1TB SSD which sole purpose will be to store music in FLAC format. A FLAC file is about 20-30MB in size and there will be thousands of them on the drive. At a later time I would like to add Hi-...
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mergerfs union drive mount point shows up with d????????? ? ? ??

I've been using mergerfs for a while, but after reinstalling my system I seem to be having problems with the permissions. The mount point is /srv/virt, and normally I can read/write both with my user ...
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Are there specific folders in the file system that cannot be written to?

Leaving aside the need for that, I wanted to write (create a file) into /sys/devices/pci0000:00/{one-of-the-devices}/. Running touch a returns touch: cannot touch 'a': Permission denied. (I read ...
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prevent inode reuse

We are using Logstash to ingest our logs and we are facing some issues due inodes being reused. We tried all possible options on Logstash side so we are exploring the OS side. As far as I can see, if ...
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"Failed to write entry … read-only file system ... EXT-FS Error": sudden crashes of Debian 11

Debian 11 Stable KDE Plasma 5.20.5 About once per day my system is crashing. I wrote down on paper what seems to be the most pertinent errors: [83262.955525] systemd-journal [301]: failed to write ...
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tune2fs: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/sda1

I have a healthy file system, but I cannot run tune2fs on it: # tune2fs -l /dev/sda1 tune2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013) tune2fs: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/sda1 Couldn't find ...
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ZFS send/recv full snapshot

I have been backing up my ZFS pool in Server A to Server B (backup server) via zfs send/recv, and using daily incremental snapshots. Server B acts as a backup server, holding 2 pools to Server A and ...
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What‘s different between inode->i_rwsem and i_flctx?

When I trace the function graph when calling write(), I find that within function ext4_file_write_iter() it locks the inode->i_rwsem by calling inode_lock(inode) at the beginning. After that call ...
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How do I fix a directory that once had many thousands of files but now has few, but still is slow for 'ls' and 'find'? [duplicate]

I have a directory that I allowed the motion utility to load up with jpeg files until the disk was full. Then I read "Efficiently delete large directory containing thousands of files" and ...
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How to run fsck on boot with BTRFS?

Although this is very similar to many closed questions, I believe this is not a duplicate, as the only answers I can find seem to be specific to ext4. Is this possible?
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why does [df] tell me I have a full disk when root [du] tells me I've only filled the disk with ~500gb out of 5tb?

I have a new 5tb disk in a fused filesystem which I guess is basically empty but df tells me otherwise. I've tried going in as root and check with du and it told me roughly 500gb of space used. pi@...
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Extend root partition size in ubuntu 20.04

Distributor ID: Ubuntu Description: Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS Release: 20.04 Codename: focal I have been using the above mentioned ubuntu on my laptop. Now, I want to increase the size of root ...
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No such file or directory Error while using find or ls -al in unix directory

I am trying to find reason behind this happening and also a solution . When I try to run below command on Unix directory which has around 16 files and also one of the application process which keeps ...
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remove a pv from lvm

i have 2 disks (4T & 2T) as lvm formatted as ext4... i've only used around 1T and wish to remove the 2T disk. is this possible? i've tried running: pvmove /dev/sdb1 but errors No extents ...
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Listing directory takes forever on a folder that used to have millions of files [duplicate]

The filesystem is ext4, the machine hasn't been rebooted in years and we don't want to do that now either. We used to have a folder with millions of small (2-3kb of size) files. This almost broke the ...

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