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Questions tagged [filesystems]

A filesystem is a way to organize and store computer files with their data.

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Why did the root file system become RO?

Approximately once every 2 months, the remote dedicated server stops working. The logs show that all logs stop being written at the same time. Can't connect via ssh. The server responds, but ...
SkyN's user avatar
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What is rigid disk block (RDB) and how can I repair it?

I have a WD P10 external USB disk that is no longer being detected on macOS or Windows (on a different PC). To troubleshoot, I booted Debian (LMDE) from a Live USB and connected the WD drive again. It ...
sfxedit's user avatar
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How to Remove a Large File from ZFS Snapshots and Reclaim Space?

I have a series of daily ZFS 100Mb snapshots of archive_zp/my_zfs, going back 100 days. At day 60 (between @ss59%ss60) I had added a 10 GiB sized archive_zp/my_zfs/BIG.iso file, that 10 GiB now ...
NevilleDNZ's user avatar
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How do you look into sdb1 and sdc1 to make sure data is mirrored in RAID1 using mdadm?

I've spent hours fighting mdadm to the point I had to reinstall linux and do more fighting, mostly because of write-protected issues on the drives somehow (I still don't explain it), and also ...
Mister Mystère's user avatar
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Ext4 filesystem in LUKS container - container size calculation

On my Linux system I have a file "1gb.file" that is 1073741824 bytes in size. This file I'll put into a LUKS container ("1gb.file.crypt") with ext4 filesystem inside. What size ...
user447274's user avatar
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Why is head -c (and similar commands) much slower for large files than small files?

From other things I've read (for one example of many why does it take so long to read the top few lines of my file?_ ) I gather that commands like head -c 4 bigfile dd if=bigfile bs=4 count=1 or c++ ...
Jack's user avatar
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How to install an RPM file on CentOS into a custom location

On a CentOS 7.8 machine I install locally present RPM files usually with sudo yum localinstall /path/to/file.rpm Now I want to install a large RPM which yum lists as 1.1GB when it would install it. ...
halloleo's user avatar
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How to extract files from EXT2 filesystem

debian11. I copied EXT2 filesystem from some dump file. I'm not sure if this file is intact or has no errors. $ file ext2file ext2file: Linux rev -1358692254.9334 ext2 filesystem data (mounted or ...
minto's user avatar
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copy Linux EXT filesystem use dd

I used binwalk to scan firmware image, uncompressed & raw RAM dump. When scan for signatures with -I flag there is reference to Linux EXT filesystem: DECIMAL HEXADECIMAL DESCRIPTION -----...
minto's user avatar
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Mount in a directory I don't have permissions to for my user only

Is it possible to circumvent the traditional mount permission requirements if I just need my own user to see the mount? For example, I want to bind mount /home/$USER/folder into /folder. I do not have ...
Richard's user avatar
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Writing to an External USB Flash Drive When Power Could Be Lost

I'm looking into building a small embedded device, probably using a Banana Pi M2 Zero. In any case, the device will not have a graceful "turnoff" - it will simply lose power. However, I'm ...
johnnyb's user avatar
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Difference between 'source', 'chroot' and 'session' schroot namespaces

From schroot man page: Source chroots Some chroot types, for example LVM snapshots and Btrfs snapshots, provide session-managed copy-on-write snapshots of the chroot. These also provide a source ...
VIAGC's user avatar
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Disk error by partioning dual boot and running fsck -b

so after I partitioned with mini partion tool the drive containing Linux and windows 11 broke the windows so I hoped on linux trying to fix it but the linux partition sustained some damage too it ...
TheGuy's user avatar
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What is a value range for filesystem efficiency for btrfs with copying a file between directories? [closed]

There is no basic tool for Linux distributions for getting data rate or summary of data input/output for a directory (on a Linux filesystem). What is the percentage difference between a listed file ...
beyondtime's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Why does df shows same as "du --apparent-size"?

That seems completely backwards. (The block size on this NFS share is 512KiB, causing 20% waste, but that's a different issue.) $ df -BM --output=used,target /Database/backups Used Mounted on ...
RonJohn's user avatar
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calculate df available space [duplicate]

I made a partition of 5 GB -> /dev/sdd2 then made a filesystem sudo mke2fs -N 700 -t ext4 -L test2 /dev/sdd2 and set root reserved space to 0 sudo tune2fs -r 0 /dev/sdd2 sudo dumpe2fs -h /dev/sdd2 ...
Schmaehgrunza's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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Increase root space in RHEL

I have a VM (RHEL, in vSphere), that is running out of space in /dev/mapper/rhel-root. Wich one should be the easiest approach against this problem? I added 10GB to the virtual HardDisk of the VM and ...
Santiago Pelaez's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
71 views

Why are inodes in a tree if they don't contain file names?

Something I am a bit confused on is why directory inodes exist, if inodes don't contain file paths/names why order them in a hierarchy?
FourierFlux's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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ext4 /Home filesystem won't mount - possible to recover?

I am using Pop! OS on a workstation PC in my workplace. However, today the machine crashed into a recovery mode on boot, apparently because the /Home filesystem wouldn't mount. The filesystem is ext4 ...
Time4Tea's user avatar
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Changing file permissions from 777 to 755 or changing the owner doesn't do anything

[vagrant@localhost vagrant]$ sudo chmod 755 luser-demo01.sh [vagrant@localhost vagrant]$ ls -l total 5 -rwxrwxrwx 1 vagrant vagrant 101 May 30 19:44 luser-demo01.sh -rwxrwxrwx 1 vagrant vagrant 3464 ...
TechieMon's user avatar
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User accessible directory that is guaranteed to be tmpfs?

As in the title, I'm looking for a user accessible directory that is guaranteed to be tmpfs. /tmp is not even guaranteed to be wiped between reboots, so it's out. /run is guaranteed to be tmpfs, and ...
jaskij's user avatar
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USB drive is not recognized due to a failed partition formatting

(sorry for my poor English) I created a encrypted partition on my Kingston USB drive (/dev/sda) using VeraCrypt. I was trying to format the partition using GNOME Disk Utility after mounted the ...
Ezra's user avatar
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Why the access to /proc/[pid]/ns needs to generate symlinks?

The directories of the form /proc/[pid]/ns get populated each time they are accessed. That is, each time they are accessed the kernel produces a symlink to somewhere in the namespace filesystem (not ...
caciquekampeon's user avatar
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Program not running with permission of the owner even though SUID is set [duplicate]

I have a program ./prog that is owned by root and has the SUID bit set. Permission: -rwsr-sr-x 1 root Then I check the EUID by geteuid() but when I run this (as a user), the output EUID is still my ...
Calliastrophile's user avatar
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file system on an emmc damaged by a power surge?

I'm running a Quartz64 (Model A) booting off an eMMC drive, and it recently suffered a file system corruption after a power outage due to a lightening strike.  After this, it wouldn't boot up.  I had ...
jyoung's user avatar
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Cannot mount WD Elements external drive, unsure if corrupted or fixable

I finished doing regular backup of data via borg into my WD Elements external hard drive, and left it plugged in. The spinning sound persisted for a while, then suddenly stopped. Tried to access drive,...
nonreligious's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why does my USB drive not show its full capacity?

I've got a 32GB flash drive that is being detected properly in Linux, but only has 4.9GiB actually usable. There is only one ext4 partition on it, taking up the entire drive. I'm ~~99%~~ 100% sure the ...
breadone's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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LUKS - How can / be encrypted but /boot and /boot/efi are not?

This is more of a educational and curiosity question, rather than tying to fix a problem. I have an Ubuntu system using LUKS. lsblk shows this: Noteably, / is encrypted but /boot and /boot/efi are ...
SuperDialga's user avatar
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Sticky bit on directory seems to prevent modification of files in it. Peculiarity of the distro or norm? [duplicate]

Recently I've noted I cannot edit file owned by another account in /tmp as ordinary user account. By trial and error seems it is due to sticky bit on /tmp. But man page of chmod and https://en....
Martian2020's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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ext2 How to choose bytes/inode ratio

How approximately calc bytes-per-inode for ext2? I have 7.3GB storage (15320519 sectors 512B each). I have made ext2 filesystem with block size 4096 mke2fs /dev/sda2 -i 524288 -m 0 -L "SSD" -...
Андрей Тернити's user avatar
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cat/sort/uniq temporary storage? [duplicate]

I'm wondering where this data is being stored. I am running these commands from a different file system, but / seems to increase and I'm not sure where the data is. cd /different_fs cat a b c | sort | ...
CrackerJack9's user avatar
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1 answer
84 views

Where is file path information stored?

Where is the file path infromation stored on ext4 file systems, within partitions? Obviously, it's stored on the drive itself because the structure is on the device itself (i.e. folders stay folders ...
FourierFlux's user avatar
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Writing a filesystem on top of block device in Linux

I have a custom file-system driver, which is a glorified tmpfs. I'd like to modify it to run on a zram block device, such that the underlying data is compressed. Unfortunately, I'm having a lot of ...
user11809993's user avatar
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CIFS mount: Permissions and Ownership Changes

I have a CIFS mount for an application data. As part of the setup process, the application needs to be able to change the permissions and ownership of the folders within the mount. I currently have ...
Felix Jen's user avatar
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1 answer
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How to recover files from corrupted Innodisk SATADOM D150SV

After 9 years of use, this 4GB SATADOM finally broke and wiped itself to the extent that the underlying Linux partitions are no longer visible. While the device will show up as /dev/sdb, even testdisk ...
Cheetaiean's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
42 views

Is there any e4crypt kernel side documentation?

I'm trying to understand e4crypt and fscrypt, and also how they differ. But it is hard to find documentation on e4crypt other than the command line tool man page and some old tutorials. Is there any ...
JanKanis's user avatar
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RHEL 7.2 + is it possible to resize partition sda2 when parted not support resizepart

we have old RHEL machines with version 7.2 ( RHEL 7.2 ) this machines has old parted version that not support resizepart so for example we can't use this syntax in order to resize sda partiton parted /...
yael's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
578 views

How to solve this kernel-panic on a Debian 12 system?

Context: My PC don't boot anymore after a power hard cut. I can boot a LIVE DVD and mount all file systems. fsck is clean on my boot partition (ext2) and on my system/root partition (btrfs) smartctl -...
lalebarde's user avatar
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0 answers
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IOzone Filesystem Benchmark WEIRD Results on EXT4

I'm currently using an i7 with 32 GB of RAM to measure ext4 performance. However, I've encountered some unusual results when testing with 8 GB and 16 GB files. Shouldn't the performance increase ...
DemonioValero's user avatar
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syslinux creating unexpected partitions on disk image

I'm encountering some odd behavior while trying to install a bootloader on a disk image. Here's the process I followed: $ dd if=/dev/zero of=test.img status=progress bs=200M count=1 1+0 records in 1+0 ...
Yuki San's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
49 views

What Linux filesystems support preallocating entire files to reduce Torrent/Gnutella file fragmentation?

The way I understand it, with the Linux ext3 filesystem at least, when a large file is created, the blocks are not actually allocated on to the disk until data is actually written to that portion of ...
Alex Cannon's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
56 views

lvextend + use variable in order to lvextend filesystem

we have different Linux machines and each Linux machine need different partition size in order to extend the root filesystem or var filesystem by script , we can use the following lvextend syntax , ...
yael's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
352 views

How much space do I need to create a symlink?

I have a server which contains 1 TB of space. I filled it to capacity; then I wanted to make a symlink. I removed a different symlink, but the server still wasn't happy - it said I didn't have any ...
Yehuda's user avatar
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0 answers
38 views

Block size output from lsblk and blockdev don't match

Why the output of LOG-SEC column and --getbsz in the following don't match? Are these values of different quantities? How to find actual values? And is the output of following stat command always ...
Porcupine's user avatar
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System crashes desperately need grub fixes

Basic information about the system on which the problem occurs: the operating system is RHEL9.2, running on VMware17 virtual machine the total size of the hard disk 40g, my hard disk using MBR ...
Darcy Walter's user avatar
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1 answer
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Files not listed when mounting VM image with guestmount

When I mount the disk image of a (stopped) KVM virtual machine, ls shows the home and tmp directories as empty, even though inside the virtual machine they are not empty and on the next run (after ...
user22495's user avatar
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1 answer
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What will happen when i mount several different devices on the same mountpoint? [duplicate]

I am learning the mount command and I am curious about what happens when I mount multiple devices to the same mount point? #like this,what will happen? mount /dev/sda1 /mnt mount /dev/sda2 /mnt mount /...
lcWhhx's user avatar
  • 33
3 votes
1 answer
67 views

Why is Tar speed not same?

I heard somewhere on the Internet that cpio is faster than tar. So I tried to check it with my shell script. #1/bin/bash rm ct.tar ct.cpio sync && sudo sh -c "/usr/bin/echo 3 > /proc/...
gdhong's user avatar
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`No such file or directory:` ruff. but file exists

I am using nixOS and I have a flake.nix. I use pre-commit to run ruff. my pre-commit config: - repo: https://github.com/astral-sh/ruff-pre-commit rev: v0.3.4 hooks: - id: ruff ...
linuxNewbie's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
59 views

using rsync to measure difference between filesystems?

I'm running some expiriments to test filesystem differences, for example upgrading an older nixOS version and newer one to the same flake/configuration, as well as the same with debian and ansible. I'...
ebrowningizer's user avatar

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