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Questions tagged [fhs]

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

55
votes
2answers
33k views

Where should a local executable be placed?

I have an executable for the perforce version control client (p4). I can't place it in /opt/local because I don't have root privileges. Is there a standard location where it needs to be placed under $...
124
votes
17answers
37k views

Where should I put software I compile myself?

I need to compile some software on my Fedora machine. Where's the best place to put it so not to interfere with the packaged software?
40
votes
9answers
19k views

What is the /boot partition really for?

I'm reading a relatively old text on Linux partitions and file systems (the LPIC 1 Certification Bible). It says: Some versions of the Linux boot loaders cannot access a kernel that is outside ...
380
votes
6answers
226k views

What is the difference between /opt and /usr/local?

According to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, /opt is for "the installation of add-on application software packages". /usr/local is "for use by the system administrator when installing software ...
113
votes
7answers
45k views

What does the .d stand for in directory names?

I know many directories with .d in their name: init.d yum.repos.d conf.d Does it mean directory? If yes, from what does this disambiguate? UPDATE: I've had many interesting answers about what the ....
33
votes
6answers
31k views

where is `cd` located? [duplicate]

In a bash sub shell I get the following error when running cd sudo: cd: command not found This is expected because I don't have a path. Usually to work around this I just provide the full path like ...
80
votes
5answers
67k views

Difference between /bin and /usr/bin

I read this up on this website and it doesn't make sense. http://rcsg-gsir.imsb-dsgi.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/documents/basic/node32.html When UNIX was first written, /bin and /usr/bin physically resided ...
126
votes
4answers
75k views

What is the difference between /tmp and /var/tmp?

On most FHS systems, there is a /tmp folder as well as a /var/tmp folder. What is the functional difference between the two?
24
votes
3answers
11k views

Standard and/or common directories on Unix/Linux OSes

Coming from the Windows world, I have found the majority of the folder directory names to be quite intuitive: \Program Files contains files used by programs (surprise!) \Program Files (x86) contains ...
29
votes
2answers
35k views

What is the “/usr/local/src” folder meant for?

I wanted to put my work files (code) in /usr/local/src, but I think it's already a folder that has some other semantic meaning. What is that? Should I put source code there, or is there a better ...
23
votes
2answers
5k views

Is there a reason I would not add /usr/local/sbin, /usr/sbin, /sbin to my path on Debian?

Compare Debian (left) and Ubuntu (right): $ ifconfig $ ifconfig bash: ifconfig: command not found eth0 Link encap ... $ which ifconfig ...
4
votes
2answers
537 views

Installing from source - do I need to keep the extracted tarball directory

If I'm installing from source, do I need to keep the extracted tarball directory? So if I download the git tarball. I then do: tar -xvzf git.tar.gz This will create a git.x.x. directory, into which ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Resources to learn linux architecture in detail? [closed]

I want to learn the Linux file hierarchy and how the OS works at a deeper level. Are there any ebooks or webpages to learn that?
4
votes
1answer
197 views

Where to store shared data in FHS 3.0?

I'm working on a FHS2-conforming application that used to store data in $sharedstatedir (i.e. $(prefix)/com, e.g. /usr/local/com). This directory is no more in FHS 3.0, and it seems that we need to ...
3
votes
4answers
745 views

Is the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard a UNIX standard or a GNU/Linux standard?

The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard says where to put stuff in a UNIX distribution. Is the FHS used/designed for use outside of GNU/Linux, or is it mostly limited to GNU/Linux?
28
votes
1answer
1k views

At what point did the /home directory appear?

Originally in Unix, /usr was used for user (home) directories. So if I had a user named alex, my home directory would be /usr/alex. (Interestingly, Plan 9, the successor to Unix, still has user ...
31
votes
5answers
2k views

What are the alternatives to the FHS?

I'm a long time Linux user for over 15 years but one thing I hate with a passion is the mandated directory structure. I don't like that /usr/bin is the dumping ground for binaries or libs in /usr/lib, ...
23
votes
4answers
14k views

What is the difference between /etc and /usr/local/etc

I am developing a daemon that needs to store lots of application data, and I noticed that on my system (Fedora 15), there is a /usr/local/etc directory. I've decided to install my daemon to /usr/...
18
votes
1answer
8k views

what is the distinction between /media, /mnt and /run/mount?

In FHS-2.3, we have /media that holds mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs and we have /mnt that holds temporarily mounted filesystems. On the other hand, we have /run/media and /run/...
9
votes
1answer
6k views

How should executables installed under /opt be added to the path?

Can programs installed under /opt be safely symlinked into /usr/local/bin, which is already in the PATH by default in Ubuntu and other Linux distros? Alternatively, is there some reason to create a ...
2
votes
1answer
188 views

Where can I find the Official File Hierarchy Standard for UNIX? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Resources to learn linux architecture in detail? I migrated to UNIX (Linux, Ubuntu) and I'm trying to understand the organisation of files and directories. I stumbled upon ...
1
vote
2answers
687 views

Where should Steam install game data on linux, to be FHS-compliant?

I want to create a folder on my linux system for Steam to download game data to. I am doing this so the data is shared between users, and games do not have to be downloaded multiple times. Originally,...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

“Clean” Filesystem Hierarchy

The Linux filesystem hierarchy is full of unused folders that only exist for historical reasons. Do any distros install with only the directories that are actually used?
20
votes
1answer
765 views

How did the ~/.local/bin thing start? How widespread is it?

I find more and more tools that put executables into ~/.local/bin. I am old and for me ~/bin is the place in my $HOME for executables. Where did this crazy new fashion originate? Why are people doing ...
3
votes
2answers
923 views

How to add new elements to PATH for daemons (or other best practices)?

I want to add some scripts for custom administrative work to a Linux server (Ubuntu 12.04). Ultimately those scripts are callback scripts from at least one daemon (PostgreSQL in my case but that ...
2
votes
1answer
928 views

Difference between /opt/bin and /opt/X/bin directories

The /opt/ directory in Linux is used for installing add on packages. What is the difference between the /opt/<package>/bin directory and the /opt/<package>/X/bin directory? What is the ...
0
votes
1answer
108 views

Installing JDK in a FHS-compliant way

I'm trying to install JDK on elementaryOS 0.3, but I'd like to do it in a FHS-compliant way. I've read a couple of answers about this topic, and a lot of them state that a program could be installed ...