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Questions tagged [fhs]

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

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Why did Red Hat relocate Apache to /usr/sbin

I run Apache http servers on Red Hat and Oracle Linux machines. The account requires that only packages from the Red Hat or Oracle repositories be used. That’s fine , they work and are reasonably ...
JakeS's user avatar
  • 11
-1 votes
1 answer
50 views

Are any modifications to the FHS being worked on (by the Linux Foundation)?

https://unix.stackexchange.com/a/227625/386242 explains the myriad benefits of a simpler and more consistent filesystem hierarchy, but also that without any cross-OS standardization, such efforts are ...
RokeJulianLockhart's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
157 views

will DNF [YUM] fail if /var/tmp is a tmpfs file system?

I was considering making /var/tmp a tmpfs mount, similar to systemctl enable tmp.mount in order to meet a security rule requesting /var/tmp be on a separate partition. I did not make that physical ...
ron's user avatar
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565 views

the relation of /opt /etc/opt and /var/opt

I am reading the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard, and I am wondering about the relation of /opt, /etc/opt and /var/opt. I can read in 2 places that static configuration and variable data for an ...
The Fool's user avatar
  • 165
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1 answer
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/usr/local subdirectories allowed?

I'm currently having some conflicted doubts about the /usr/local folder according to the standard. In our application, we currently store our read-only application files in /usr/local/<appname>. ...
Indra's user avatar
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0 answers
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Missing filesystems in new Ubuntu 18.04 installation , embedded target

I installed a new Ubuntu 18.04 on my disk and noticed the following filesystems: /dev/nvme0n1p1 mounted on: / none mounted on: /dev tmpfs mounted on: /dev/shm tmpfs ...
hutcruchi's user avatar
  • 339
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Does the location of package-installed udev rules differ across Linux distributions?

Alongside an RPM package, I have been preparing a DEB package for some software which requires the installation of some udev rules. My RPM package installs the rules in /usr/lib/udev/rules.d. My ...
navnav's user avatar
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Where can I view all distros currently compliant with the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard?

The Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard hasn't been updated since 2015. I'm assuming a lot has changed in the ecosystem since then, and because of this, certain distros may/may not be compliant with ...
noG23's user avatar
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0 answers
83 views

Can I check for FHS compliance to a specific version?

I am using Alpine 3.6.12 in a container for development. Is there a way to check for compatibility against FHS 3.0?
StuperUser's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
57 views

Misunderstanding of a rule about /boot folder (FHS)

In Filesystem Hierarchy Standard it is said as to the /boot folder that it must contain static files of the boot loader. And there is another rule which states that Programs necessary to arrange for ...
Ilya Loskutov's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
188 views

When creating a package what is the correct location for "library" files sourced by bash scripts?

I have a "library" file (containing general functions) I source in many different bash scripts. What's the correct filesystem location to system-wide "install" this file in? /usr/...
anick's user avatar
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1 answer
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/sbin/ctrlaltdel not coming up with whereis?

My $PATH has /sbin in it, and the executable ctrlaltdel exists within /sbin/. Yet when I run whereis ctrlaltdel in the teminal, I do not find /sbin/ctrlaltdel The output I get is ctrlaltdel: /usr/sbin/...
justaguy's user avatar
10 votes
3 answers
4k views

When is mandatory use /dev/zero over /dev/null for write/discard purpose?

According with the FHS about /dev at: 6.1.3. /dev : Devices and special files it contains: The following devices must exist under /dev. /dev/null All data written to this device is discarded. ...
Manuel Jordan's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
5k views

When to clean up /var/tmp?

/var/tmp is not defined in POSIX, but is defined in FHS: 5.15. /var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system reboots 5.15.1. Purpose The /var/tmp directory is made available for programs that ...
Jonas Stein's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
3k views

Where should a shell script for a custom systemd service be installed?

I have recently created my first custom systemd service to run a script early in my machine's boot sequence. The custom .service file is being copied to /etc/systemd/system, which I understand to be ...
Hydrargyrum's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
93 views

What directory specifications need to be followed on servers?

On PCs, the XDG Desktop specifications allow the individual desktops to set different folders for various data. When writing an application that will only ever be run on servers, should one simply ...
Krateng's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
627 views

What is the correct place for driver sources?

I have some sources I want to compile using make. The sources will be compiled into a driver I'm going to use. What is the correct place for such files? /usr/share? /opt? /usr/local/...? Edit: the ...
CIsForCookies's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
174 views

Which directories should be on the same filesystem as the root "/" filesystem?

I read an article and it states that "bin" "dev" "etc" "lib" "root" "sbin" directories should be in the same filesystem as the root ...
testter's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
874 views

What's the most appropriate directory where to place development software shared between users?

About share data (files and directories) among users within the same machine, has sense use the /srv directory it according with: What's the most appropriate directory where to place files shared ...
Manuel Jordan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
220 views

Is there a recommended path for storing temporary files in a tmpfs/ramdisk which also does not need to be persisted after boot?

I would previously just use /tmp however this seems to persist after boot, it also seems to be have the disadvantage about literally writing to the disk as opposed to a ramdisk / tmpfs. I thought ...
Chris Stryczynski's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
460 views

Is it safe to remove /usr/lib32 and /usr/libx32, on 64bit only Debian Linux 10

Is it safe to remove /usr/lib32, /usr/libx32 directories and their links on /lib32, libx32, on 64bit only (no multiarch enabled) Debian Linux 10? They are empty. Since this new file system hierarchy ...
Krackout's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
50 views

Where do I put log files of scripts or executables ran as user?

What would be a good place to put log files for executables that run as local user? I notice there are a bunch of system-like directories in my home folder, ~/.config has things that for a system-wide ...
Sirius's user avatar
  • 123
1 vote
2 answers
102 views

What if I wanted /etc to be called something else?

Aside from the kernel itself, the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard is perhaps the only major feature common to all linux systems. Some obscure distributions modify it only slightly: stali, for example, ...
segfault's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
753 views

Can I boot over symlinks?

So I have multiple drives in my pc, but because of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard it is very impractical to store progams and similar on those drives. I personally also just don't like having ...
dexterdy Krataigos's user avatar
12 votes
2 answers
16k views

Can I remove all the recent kernel versions at /lib/modules/

I saw that in /lib/modules/ I have 7 directories that related to the out of date kernel versions, can I fully delete them? It will not make any changes or hurt my system? $ ls /lib/modules 5.4.0-26-...
ArlichBachman's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
230 views

Systemd: Logic behind configuration files in /usr/lib/

I was searching for the configuration for purging the /tmp and /var/tmp directories on a CentOS 7 default installation. After some searching, I came across the file /usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/tmp.conf which ...
jstarek's user avatar
  • 1,710
3 votes
0 answers
1k views

Where should I put web application code in the file-system hierarchy [closed]

What would be the most FHS compliant and standard location for putting the source code of a web-app, let's say a Flask app, be? I've looked around and haven't found any definitive and satisfactory ...
SkullTech's user avatar
  • 181
2 votes
0 answers
40 views

RHEL based distros and FHS (and postgres)

Under CentOS, i see postgres config files are located in '/var/lib/...' (instead of '/etc'). In FHS specifications, under '/var/lib' (chapter 5, section 8.1) it is specified: This hierarchy holds ...
user374819's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why does the /root/ directory have 700 permission by default?

I just noticed that the /root/ has 700 permission by default on Ubuntu, Debian as well as Nixos. Why is this handled differently than other directories for example /bin/? What is so special about /...
Chris Stryczynski's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
9k views

GLIBC_2.29 can not be found for avrdude even after downloading it

I have a bit of a struggle with using avrdude to flash my microcontroller. It dependends of libm.so.6 GLIBC_2.29 which it cannot find. It looks under /usr/lib/libm.so.6 where this file does actually ...
xetra11's user avatar
  • 546
0 votes
0 answers
125 views

Where should an FHS-compliant program ideally place all its files?

After reading the FHS, I have concluded on the following table: +----------------+-------------------+---------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Part | Sofware in /opt | ...
Sabrina Jewson's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
45 views

Installer support for sharing /usr or /usr/share

According to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), /usr is "shareable between various FHS-compliant hosts" (and /usr/share is even shareable between different architectures of the same OS). Are ...
Juergen's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
339 views

What is a FHS compliant installation dir for vendor-provided binaries?

A software vendor has to create a Linux filesystem hierarchy standard (FHS) compliant Debian package. What installation dir has to be used for binaries? Software placed in /bin or /usr/bin may be ...
G. Fiedler's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
137 views

Why doesn't Guile have /usr/local in path?

I've noticed when compiling and installing modules for Guile in /usr/local that they cannot be found, while setting the prefix to /usr they work as intended. Is there a reason why Guile doesn't have /...
Gareth Anthony Hulse's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
3k views

What is the /usr directory in Linux?

FHS-3.0 describes it as: Shareable, readonly data. That means that /usr should be shareable between various FHS-compliant hosts and must not be written to. I am a bit confused by what this means. ...
extremeaxe5's user avatar
  • 1,183
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

Where to write data which should persit until next application startup?

To be compliant with the FHS I'm going to install my application in usr/local and the corresponding subdirectories. Where should the application write data which persits until the next application ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
53 views

Docker and Linux architecture,var directory

I worked on Docker and Jenkins project and Now I am looking at /var directory of the docker container named jenkins docker exec jenkins ls -l var total 40 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Aug 26 ...
MikiBelavista's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
187 views

Is the directory /apps/ a legacy of anything?

Several times, I have seen in (quite) big projects, software installations made under /apps/ First I thought it was a fantasy, refusing FHS normalisation. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
Sandburg's user avatar
  • 357
3 votes
1 answer
326 views

What does <qual> stand for in the FHS?

The Linux FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) refers to directories of the following form: /lib<qual> It describes such directories as follows: There may be one or more variants of the /lib ...
igal's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why there are no READMEs in the Linux filesystem hierarchy?

The Linux filesystem hierarchy (FHS) contains a lot of important directories. For example, I just discovered /sys/class/input while playing with my PS/2 keyboard settings. But all those important ...
anatoly techtonik's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
34 views

nsroot, what directories need to be host-specific?

I'm playing with an nfsroot boot for multiple hosts; Ubuntu has some dated docs that recommend: #/etc/fstab none /tmp tmpfs defaults 0 0 none /var/run ...
ThorSummoner's user avatar
  • 4,452
5 votes
2 answers
3k views

What is meant by "locally installed package" in the world of Unix?

I've been scratching my head over the File System Hierarchy Standard recently and in numerous occasion, when talking about the /usr/local directory, I came across the term "locally installed packages"....
Paghillect's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
4k views

What is the user equivalent of the global /opt directory?

I'm wondering if anybody has agreed on a user equivalent of the global /opt directory, for third-party packages that are distributed as a tarball to be unpacked as a single directory. Examples include ...
Tobia's user avatar
  • 679
3 votes
0 answers
290 views

Are {/bin, /lib, /sbin} symlinks into /usr in Ubuntu?

I am a little confused by this question about moving files from /bin to /usr/bin on an Ubuntu 17.04 system. Reading the Ubuntu wiki says: For Quantal, merged /usr should be supported. On new ...
StrongBad's user avatar
  • 5,291
21 votes
1 answer
34k views

What's the difference between a binary file and a library?

I'm trying to understand the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. I have looked up both binaries and libraries, and as I currently understand it: binaries are files of computer-readable code in binary ...
houallet's user avatar
  • 313
1 vote
1 answer
794 views

Is subdirectory in /usr/bin really forbidden by FHS

Lintian tag description: The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard forbids the installation of new directories in /usr/bin other than /usr/bin/mh. However, all I can find the linked document is This ...
user877329's user avatar
35 votes
1 answer
3k views

How did the ~/.local/bin thing start? How widespread is it?

I find more and more tools that put executables into ~/.local/bin. I am old and for me ~/bin is the place in my $HOME for executables. Where did this crazy new fashion originate? Why are people doing ...
Thomas Koch's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
3k views

Why isn't the var directory user-specific?

I'm quite new in the UNIX world, so feel free to let me know if my question is silly. So-called Filesystem Hierarchy Standard states that the /var directory is supposed to keep data like logs and ...
The Dreams Wind's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
555 views

Where should sshfs mounts be placed in the filesystem?

I have some sshfs mounts which I want to put in a Linux filesystem location following the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. The standard is strangely silent on where network mounts should be placed: ...
Tom Hale's user avatar
  • 30.8k
4 votes
1 answer
7k views

Purpose of /net directory

I notice on my system (Manjaro Linux) that: I have an empty directory named /net This directory is not mentioned in the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard What is the intention behind this directory (...
Tom Hale's user avatar
  • 30.8k