Questions tagged [fhs]

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

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8 views

RHEL based distros and FHS (and postgres)

Under CentOS, i see postgres config files are located in '/var/lib/...' (instead of '/etc'). In FHS specifications, under '/var/lib' (chapter 5, section 8.1) it is specified: This hierarchy holds ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Why does the /root/ directory have 700 permission by default?

I just noticed that the /root/ has 700 permission by default on Ubuntu, Debian as well as Nixos. Why is this handled differently than other directories for example /bin/? What is so special about /...
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27 views

Is $HOME/.local/bin now the preferred location of user-made binaries and scripts or does $HOME/bin still meant fulfull this role? [duplicate]

When I create my own binaries and executable scripts, is the $HOME/.local/bin the preferred convention or should I still be placing them in $HOME/bin? Putting them into .local/ would help to de-...
2
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1answer
2k views

GLIBC_2.29 can not be found for avrdude even after downloading it

I have a bit of a struggle with using avrdude to flash my microcontroller. It dependends of libm.so.6 GLIBC_2.29 which it cannot find. It looks under /usr/lib/libm.so.6 where this file does actually ...
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39 views

Where should an FHS-compliant program ideally place all its files?

After reading the FHS, I have concluded on the following table: +----------------+-------------------+---------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Part | Sofware in /opt | ...
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22 views

Installer support for sharing /usr or /usr/share

According to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), /usr is "shareable between various FHS-compliant hosts" (and /usr/share is even shareable between different architectures of the same OS). Are ...
0
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1answer
68 views

What is a FHS compliant installation dir for vendor-provided binaries?

A software vendor has to create a Linux filesystem hierarchy standard (FHS) compliant Debian package. What installation dir has to be used for binaries? Software placed in /bin or /usr/bin may be ...
0
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54 views

Why doesn't Guile have /usr/local in path?

I've noticed when compiling and installing modules for Guile in /usr/local that they cannot be found, while setting the prefix to /usr they work as intended. Is there a reason why Guile doesn't have /...
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1answer
1k views

What is the /usr directory in Linux?

FHS-3.0 describes it as: Shareable, readonly data. That means that /usr should be shareable between various FHS-compliant hosts and must not be written to. I am a bit confused by what this means. ...
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29 views

Where to write data which should persit until next application startup?

To be compliant with the FHS I'm going to install my application in usr/local and the corresponding subdirectories. Where should the application write data which persits until the next application ...
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0answers
38 views

Docker and Linux architecture,var directory

I worked on Docker and Jenkins project and Now I am looking at /var directory of the docker container named jenkins docker exec jenkins ls -l var total 40 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Aug 26 ...
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176 views

Is the directory /apps/ a legacy of anything?

Several times, I have seen in (quite) big projects, software installations made under /apps/ First I thought it was a fantasy, refusing FHS normalisation. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
1
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1answer
142 views

What does <qual> stand for in the FHS?

The Linux FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) refers to directories of the following form: /lib<qual> It describes such directories as follows: There may be one or more variants of the /lib ...
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2answers
2k views

Why there are no READMEs in the Linux filesystem hierarchy?

The Linux filesystem hierarchy (FHS) contains a lot of important directories. For example, I just discovered /sys/class/input while playing with my PS/2 keyboard settings. But all those important ...
0
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1answer
17 views

nsroot, what directories need to be host-specific?

I'm playing with an nfsroot boot for multiple hosts; Ubuntu has some dated docs that recommend: #/etc/fstab none /tmp tmpfs defaults 0 0 none /var/run ...
3
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2answers
746 views

What is meant by “locally installed package” in the world of Unix?

I've been scratching my head over the File System Hierarchy Standard recently and in numerous occasion, when talking about the /usr/local directory, I came across the term "locally installed packages"....
2
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1answer
868 views

What is the user equivalent of the global /opt directory?

I'm wondering if anybody has agreed on a user equivalent of the global /opt directory, for third-party packages that are distributed as a tarball to be unpacked as a single directory. Examples include ...
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0answers
143 views

Are {/bin, /lib, /sbin} symlinks into /usr in Ubuntu?

I am a little confused by this question about moving files from /bin to /usr/bin on an Ubuntu 17.04 system. Reading the Ubuntu wiki says: For Quantal, merged /usr should be supported. On new ...
9
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1answer
13k views

What's the difference between a binary file and a library?

I'm trying to understand the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. I have looked up both binaries and libraries, and as I currently understand it: binaries are files of computer-readable code in binary ...
1
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1answer
169 views

Is subdirectory in /usr/bin really forbidden by FHS

Lintian tag description: The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard forbids the installation of new directories in /usr/bin other than /usr/bin/mh. However, all I can find the linked document is This ...
22
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1answer
1k views

How did the ~/.local/bin thing start? How widespread is it?

I find more and more tools that put executables into ~/.local/bin. I am old and for me ~/bin is the place in my $HOME for executables. Where did this crazy new fashion originate? Why are people doing ...
2
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3answers
1k views

Why isn't the var directory user-specific?

I'm quite new in the UNIX world, so feel free to let me know if my question is silly. So-called Filesystem Hierarchy Standard states that the /var directory is supposed to keep data like logs and ...
0
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2answers
286 views

Where should sshfs mounts be placed in the filesystem?

I have some sshfs mounts which I want to put in a Linux filesystem location following the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. The standard is strangely silent on where network mounts should be placed: ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Purpose of /net directory

I notice on my system (Manjaro Linux) that: I have an empty directory named /net This directory is not mentioned in the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard What is the intention behind this directory (...
2
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1answer
4k views

Why isn't /usr/local/lib on the library path by default? [closed]

Under the FHS, system packages (e.g. RPMs) install libraries to /usr/lib (or /usr/lib64). Similarly, libraries compiled using the old "configure;make;make install" routine, which are not part of the ...
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2answers
2k views

Where should an /opt package write logs?

I am installing a custom package to /opt/package_name, storing configuration files in /etc/opt/package_name and static files in /var/opt/package_name/static/ - all following the conventions suggested ...
2
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1answer
202 views

Should I install a custom webapp in /opt or /srv?

My understanding is that custom/non-distro software should be installed in /opt. However in a Django deployment tutorial [1] I found a suggestion to install a Django webapp to /srv which is described ...
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1answer
86 views

“Why does ”/home“ have ” / “ at the beginning if for example the ” / " is on a different partition? [duplicate]

Lets assume my system has the root ( / ) partition located on "/dev/sda1" and the /home partition is located on "/dev/sda2", Why does "/home" have " / " at the beginning since " / " is on a ...
1
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1answer
371 views

(block) size of /dev, /etc, /proc, /home, explanation? [duplicate]

Can somebody explain, why a standard folder has always 4kB and some special directories have more or less? some examples: /dev 3280B, 0 Blocks, 16 Links /etc 12288B, 24 Blocks, 119 Links /proc ...
14
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4answers
2k views

What are the FHS compliant mount points?

I'm wondering what the FHS compliant mount points for internal harddrives and networkshares are? Many different tutorials are suggesting to mount them in subdirectories to /mnt or /media According ...
-2
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1answer
999 views

Showing read only /var partition on Debian

I have seen an industrial computer running Debian, to protect the flash disk from writes and have the system in a defined state after every boot, the whole disk was mounted read-only, there are no ...
0
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1answer
396 views

Is /sys content obsolete in Linux?

EDIT: By obsolete I don't mean bad/unnecessary (I agree with /proc being a mess). Modularity is a good thing and I love it. I mean is: information of the system, held (in /sys) that is findable ...
44
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4answers
5k views

What's the difference between /tmp and /run?

According to FHS-3.0, /tmp is for temporary files and /run is for run-time variable data. Data in /run must be deleted at next boot, which is not required for /tmp, but still programs must not assume ...
0
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1answer
97 views

Where to place application plugins (.so)?

Where should I deploy application plugins? Nobody will ever use them. Does it make sense to put them in /usr/lib?
30
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4answers
16k views

What is the purpose of /usr/libexec?

Executables are stored in /usr/libexec on Unix-like systems. The FHS says (section 4.7. /usr/libexec : Binaries run by other programs (optional)": /usr/libexec includes internal binaries that are ...
2
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0answers
67 views

Is there a standard way for getting the media mount path (like /media/user, /run/media/user…)?

In an application, I need to find out where removable media is mounted. On Ubuntu, this happens in /media/username/ . On Arch, it is /run/media/username/ . On other systems, its just /media/ etc. ...
46
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4answers
13k views

Is the slash (/) part of the name of the Linux root directory?

Is the slash (/) really part of the name of the Linux root directory? Or is it just a symbol for it? What about /etc and so on? Update Suppose /dev/sda2 is the block device of a Linux root ...
4
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2answers
2k views

Linux file hierarchy - what's the best location to store lockfiles?

I want to synchronize processes based on lock files (/ socket files). These files should only be removable by their creator user. There are plenty of choices: /dev/shm /var/lock /run/lock /run/...
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1answer
3k views

Why is the /opt directory rarely used? [duplicate]

In the Linux FHS, it says all third party packages should use /opt. However, I didn't see anybody is using /opt. Also, /opt is not in $PATH in anyway, so I think the OS is not intended to let us use /...
7
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1answer
3k views

Why is /bin a symbolic link to /usr/bin?

According to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard the /bin directory should contain utilities needed in single user mode. In practice, many Linux distributions make the directory a symbolic link to /usr/...
4
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1answer
156 views

Where should I install seafile-server: /opt or /home?

Reading Filesystem Hierarchy Standard I was considering those directories: /opt: Optional application software packages. /home: Users' home directories, containing saved files, personal settings, etc....
2
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1answer
51 views

Which FHS dirs can I outsource and how?

At the moment I have a computer w/ Ubuntu on a HDD with everything on one partition. I'd like to add a SSD and move / to it, outsourcing /boot to a separate partition (on the SSD, too) and leave /home ...
11
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1answer
8k views

How should executables installed under /opt be added to the path?

Can programs installed under /opt be safely symlinked into /usr/local/bin, which is already in the PATH by default in Ubuntu and other Linux distros? Alternatively, is there some reason to create a ...
1
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1answer
576 views

What is “site specific” data?

I have heard references in the FHS to "site-specific" data. Python also has the notion of "site packages". In FHS, is "site" just a general term for an instance of someone using an FHS filesystem? IE,...
3
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2answers
675 views

How to split FHS read-only and read/write directories across two disks with Linux/systemd, without partitioning the raed/write disk?

My objective is to have the physical storage for the Linux FHS read/write directories (/home, /srv, /tmp, /var) on a separate (logical or physical) disk from the potentially read-only rest of the root ...
2
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3answers
191 views

Are there any sed scripts built in to mainstream Linux distros?

When I was studying bash, I found it very helpful to go and study the bash scripts already present on a clean install of Linux—/etc/profile, for instance, and anything in /etc/rc.d/init.d/. These are ...
27
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2answers
6k views

Is there a reason I would not add /usr/local/sbin, /usr/sbin, /sbin to my path on Debian?

Compare Debian (left) and Ubuntu (right): $ ifconfig $ ifconfig bash: ifconfig: command not found eth0 Link encap ... $ which ifconfig ...
10
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1answer
3k views

What is the meaning/purpose of *.pid files in /var/run

I'm quite new in Linux world, and now I'm trying to understand FHS principles. In /var/run I found about ten *.pid files like crond.pid which contain just PIDs. There are more than ten processes ...
0
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0answers
325 views

Config folder for a service

Context When running the Deluge daemon (deluged) as a service, you can specify an option to where the config folder will be created. The deluge-user I've created, is a system account, and therefore ...
32
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5answers
3k views

What are the alternatives to the FHS?

I'm a long time Linux user for over 15 years but one thing I hate with a passion is the mandated directory structure. I don't like that /usr/bin is the dumping ground for binaries or libs in /usr/lib, ...