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Questions tagged [ext4]

ext4 (fourth extended filesystem) is a journalling file system for Linux, developed as the successor to ext3. Use this tag for question that are ext4 specific, generic file system related questions should use tag [filesystem]

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How are EXT4 metadata checksums within group descriptors calculated?

I'm looking at parsing raw EXT4-formatted block devices, just using Python, primarily as a learning exercise, but am having trouble manually generating the expected Group Descriptor checksums - there ...
genericuser99's user avatar
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Ubuntu VM Ext4-fs remounting in read-only on citrix

I have this issue of a couple of our minio servers based on ubuntu server are going into read only on the data drive only, this disrupts the service and slows it down while it timeouts with each ...
Jaden Batzel's user avatar
-1 votes
3 answers
50 views

ext4 filesystem on RHEL 7

I have a RHEL 7 ext4 type filesystem and because of the lack of funding and no backups available I am trying to see if I can import ext4 filesystem from RHEL 7 into RHEL 8. I have a RHEL 7 with 2 ...
user2037551's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
59 views

Bad magic number in super-block on external HD after multiple power outages—still OK to use?

I have a computer at home that I use as a file server, using Nextcloud. Every computer at home is Ubuntu/etx4. I've had multiple outages recently in the neighborhood, and I think the sudden shutdowns ...
3x5's user avatar
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1 answer
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How to recover an EXT4 partition from a failed journal

I have a virtual disk that is 86T in size with only 41% used. Th I have an 86T second drive connected to my virtual machine(VM) as /dev/vdb1. The volume is fine, but when I attempt to mount the ext4 ...
kentt's user avatar
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1 answer
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calculate df available space [duplicate]

I made a partition of 5 GB -> /dev/sdd2 then made a filesystem sudo mke2fs -N 700 -t ext4 -L test2 /dev/sdd2 and set root reserved space to 0 sudo tune2fs -r 0 /dev/sdd2 sudo dumpe2fs -h /dev/sdd2 ...
Schmaehgrunza's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
115 views

Unable to remount 5TB Hard Drive from JBOD

Unable to remount 5TB Hard Drive Problem Description I am using a Debian 12 Server with a RAID controller. The harddrives are all set up with their own Virtual drive in RAID0 JBOD. (so 8 Drives, each ...
morm's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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ext4 /Home filesystem won't mount - possible to recover?

I am using Pop! OS on a workstation PC in my workplace. However, today the machine crashed into a recovery mode on boot, apparently because the /Home filesystem wouldn't mount. The filesystem is ext4 ...
Time4Tea's user avatar
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1 answer
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Where is file path information stored?

Where is the file path infromation stored on ext4 file systems, within partitions? Obviously, it's stored on the drive itself because the structure is on the device itself (i.e. folders stay folders ...
FourierFlux's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
42 views

Is there any e4crypt kernel side documentation?

I'm trying to understand e4crypt and fscrypt, and also how they differ. But it is hard to find documentation on e4crypt other than the command line tool man page and some old tutorials. Is there any ...
JanKanis's user avatar
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Check of "noauto" EXT4 FS at startup time : Conditions for declaring it clean

I have a couple of (clean) filesystems declared in my fstab with the noauto mount option set and fs_passno set to 2. For whatever reason (power failure, kernel panic, hard reset…), those filesystems ...
MC68020's user avatar
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Kali - ext4_find_entry checksumming directory block 0 freezing everything giving input/output error

I'm having some problems with Kali Linux installed on a Dell notebook. It is installed on half of my SSD in dual boot with Windows, but I installed Kali later, so GRUB is from the latter. Kali was ...
minimanimo's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
42 views

Is it safe to write to file's extents directly while the FS is r/w?

Given any file on an ext4 filesystem, it is possible (using filefrag -v) to get the list of real offsets+lengths where that file is located on the underlying block device. Is it safe to open the ...
melonfsck's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
486 views

Why a filesystem is unmounted but still in use?

I was using ext4 filesystems for a long time, and it's the first time I see a weird behavior of ext4 filesystem. There is ext4 filesystem in /dev/dm-2 An I/O error happened in the underlying device, ...
melonfsck's user avatar
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1 answer
42 views

reconstructing ext4 inode structure after folder deletion

My ext4 partition that had my whatsapp data had its entire folder deleted ( that is file / folder delete - no partition ). As I understand inodes have the metadata tree for files including their ...
user1874594's user avatar
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1 answer
88 views

How to remove a file with Extents attribute, from Linux [closed]

in CentOS, ext4 filesystem, I have a file that has the "extents" attribute, but I can't remove that file -------------e-- index.php rm -f does nothing (nor I get an error message) tried to ...
dsantos80's user avatar
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1 answer
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Inode limit reached with free space available

Let's assume I was very unlucky and ran out of inodes in my ext4 filesystem but left with enough free space. Inode usage is 100%, but it has 50% disk free space. How can I resolve it?
firdavs's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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How do I rescue an encrypted LUKS partition after failed shrink

I had an encrypted ext4 partition on a Samsung T7 1TB USB drive. It was LUKS (I believe this may be called a LUKS container?) The partition was 850GB. It had about 130GB in use. I also had an ...
Code83's user avatar
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2 answers
103 views

Setting up ext4 filesystem to accomodate 100,000,000 files iNode issues

I have a RHEL 9 with an ext4 fs Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type /dev/sdb1 2048 1258291199 1258289152 600G 83 Linux it has been requested it be ext4 with Inodes for ...
R.Merritt's user avatar
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2 answers
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ext4 separate files into subdirectories VS one big directory

Will organizing files into subfolders enhance read access performance on an ext4 filesystem compared to storing them all in a single large directory? We currently have a single large directory ...
Yevgeniy Logachev's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

How does EXT4 handle sudden lack of space in the underlying storage?

Usually, block device drivers report correct size of the device, and it is possible to actually use all the "available" blocks. So, the filesystem knows how much it can write to such device ...
melonfsck's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
44 views

Debian file corruption bug possible without reboot after unattended kernel update?

Today I learned that there had been a faulty Debian kernel version which caused ext4 data corruption (bug 1057843) in December 2023. Searching through the /var/log/aptitude and /var/log/apt logs, I ...
Daniel Marschall's user avatar
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1 answer
328 views

Need full access to ext4 file system from Windows 10

I am looking for a method to read/write an ext4 partition from a Windows 10. Both partitions are on the same physical hard drive on a dual boot system. That means, that NFS wouldn't be sufficient. Are ...
Jensenmann's user avatar
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1 answer
53 views

Why does `du` report that my `rsync` backup is not the same size as the original?

I'm creating a backup of my $HOME directory on an external storage drive using rsync, using the following options: --archive --xattrs --hard-links After a fresh backup, du reports that the sizes of ...
jth's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
53 views

Each file gets one inode block

A question was given to us by a lecturer: How many data blocks are needed to collect all the data in an EXT4 file system using inodes if the file size is 54 KB and there is a block size of 4KB. ...
Matej Vesel's user avatar
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0 answers
36 views

dmesg shows nvme errors but smartctrl shows no errors

I keep seeing messages scroll in dmesg Jan 27 12:56:11 localhost smartd[1191]: Device: /dev/nvme0, number of Error Log entries increased from 316 to 321 But I ran smartctrl tests on all the ...
dman's user avatar
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Linux rootfs on iSCSI: Cannot remount read-write

I have a Linux server with an ext4 rootfs on iSCSI. The iSCSI server rebooted and this interrupted the communication, which is usually not a big deal because the server is quick to restart. However, ...
teapot's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
264 views

What can cause “multiply claimed blocks” on an ext4 drive?

“Multiply claimed blocks” is an error reported by fsck when blocks appear to belong to more than one file. This causes data corruption since both files change when one of the files are written. But ...
PetaspeedBeaver's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
991 views

EXT4 for very large (>1GB) files : increase block size, use block clusters, or both?

I'd like to format a 12 TB HDD (not SSD) with EXT4, in order to store large video files (each file being at least 1 GiB in size). I am working with an x86-64 (a.k.a. x64 or amd64) processor. There's ...
ChennyStar's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
37 views

"No space left on device" depending on alphanumeric filename, adding or removing a character works [duplicate]

I just encountered this most curious of errors: $ touch 3a59199733b83a8dba88b48c3f3c6fac05699ea8f1dd5ef7540ee57d64896d6d touch: cannot touch '...
Nobody's user avatar
  • 539
3 votes
1 answer
156 views

Are there downsides to enabling the "inline data" feature of EXT4?

I just read about the "inline data" feature in EXT4, and more specifically about that answer on how to enable it. What are the reasons why this feature isn't enabled by default in EXT4 ? I ...
ChennyStar's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
367 views

How many files in a directory is too many for ext4?

I wrote a Golang program to measure how long it takes to create 100 new files and read 100 existing files in a directory with 2k files vs a directory with 200k files: // Create 200k files in one ...
1f604's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
115 views

What is "external fragmentation" in a file system?

I'm using EXT4, but I think my question concerns all Unix/Linux file systems. This 2022 answer to "Difference between fragment and extent in ext4" states that: External fragmentation occurs ...
ChennyStar's user avatar
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0 answers
43 views

Enable fs-verity at root directory

Can fs-verity be enabled on the root directory of a filesystem or the root directory of a subvolume in btrfs?
Melab's user avatar
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0 answers
60 views

Any performance benefits of large inode sizes (ext4)

We have a video editing server split into two partitions. One for video footage and one for projects. On the projects partition there is totally 7TB of data and 250,000 files. Of these, 50,000 of them ...
swami's user avatar
  • 205
1 vote
2 answers
50 views

Scan online EXT4 using LVM snapshot?

Can you make a trustworthy EXT4 filesystem-scan of an online filesystem, e.g. root, by taking a LVM snapshot and then do a scan on the snapshot, something like: Make a snapshot: lvcreate --snapshot --...
BMWW's user avatar
  • 155
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Fuzzy Search for filenames with synonyms and tags (auto generated)

Filesystem: Ext4 I create separate files for each topic. I have thousands of files segregated into 2 or 3 levels of hierarchical broad categories. I would like to search for these files efficiently. ...
Porcupine's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
68 views

Additional log partition with buildroot

I made my Linux with Buildroot, and I would like to add an additional partition what can be mounted and store log files on it. I use pc_x86_64_efi_defconfig and my genimage-efi.cfg is the ...
kj192's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
50 views

Is it possible for a filesystem type to be recognized differently or changed without reformatting a drive?

When running sudo fdisk -l my EXT4 formatted SamsungQVO USB SSD now identifies as APFS. Device Start End Sectors Size Type /dev/sda2 409640 3907029127 3906619488 1.8T Apple APFS The ...
XJMZX's user avatar
  • 75
1 vote
2 answers
479 views

SSD initially mounts correctly, but disappears from lsblk after a few days

I am a Linux beginner, and am having a problem with a drive which disappears from lsblk periodically, and am stuck with how to proceed. The drive is an 240GB external USB SSD. Mounting the Drive Works ...
teeeeee's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
196 views

In EXT4, are "extent" and "block group" the same thing?

TLDR; In EXT4 terminology, are "block groups" and "extents" the same thing ? [EDIT] The suggested What do "extents" feature do in ext4 filesystem in linux? discussion ...
ChennyStar's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
102 views

First 32GB of a 4TB ext4 filesystem overwritten. How to recover?

Due to an accident specifying a block device, the first 32GB of a 4TB ext4 filesystem on a SATA disk was overwritten by the dd command with the contents of a USB flash drive. fdisk -l /dev/sda reports ...
AbelianMemes's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
333 views

Is there some universally recommended Reserved block count (for root) for large Ext4 drives?

By the following question: Is there some universally recommended Reserved block count (for root) for large Ext4 drives? I specifically mean the following: Let us consider (almost) everyone has a ...
Vlastimil Burián's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
176 views

Is using the SysRQ Emergency Remount an acceptable way to clone hard disk?

I'm using Linux (Ubuntu) and I was told that I can use the method described below to clone the system's hard drive to another one - to plug into a new machine. (Without booting from a Live CD) It ...
melonfsck's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
76 views

How unformat ext4 SSD formatted to ntfs

In my dual boot PC (win 10 - Ubuntu 20.04) I have an 1TB SSD. It was meant as storage for the Ubuntu OS in ext4 Filesystem. Unfortunately by mistake I formatted it with windows to NTFS. The Format was ...
Kostas's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
109 views

fstab mount doesn't find device

I have a problem with mounting a simple ext4 USB device with sync option and defaults. This is my fstab entry: UUID=233b8055-d596-48a7-a666-1e10b8860d9c /USBSSD sync 0 0 when I use mount -a, it says: ...
Ben's user avatar
  • 299
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

"structure needs cleaning", hardware failure?

The drive that my /home folder lives on is showing signs of failing, and I'm trying to migrate to a new drive.  I purchased a 4TB SSD, formatted it with ext4, mounted it as an external drive with a ...
jyoung's user avatar
  • 111
3 votes
1 answer
732 views

Debian Bookworm, systemd, and how EXT4 quota works?

I have a fresh Debian 12 system and I'm trying to turn on and enforce EXT4 filesystem quota. I read a lot of man and some other sources, for example this one from Red Hat: https://access.redhat.com/...
Kamil's user avatar
  • 1,491
0 votes
1 answer
220 views

"Bad Jump in FAT partition" and "Bad number of sectors per cluster" right before ext4 offset

TL;DR partition table (?) potentially messed up by windows disk management on drive containing both NTFS data partition and EXT4 filesystem. Fairly certain zero or almost zero data was lost. testdisk ...
protoncookie's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
241 views

Recovering an ext4 partition

I have an external drive with an ext4 partition /dev/sda1 I use for my local borg backups. It is simply plugged in via usb port, and, mounted with an fstab generated systemd automount entry. I ran a ...
lyndhurst's user avatar

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