Questions tagged [executable]

The permission bit in a file mode that allows a file to be run as a program. Also, questions related the format of program files, and to locating and executing program files.

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77
votes
2answers
57k views

Getting “Not found” message when running a 32-bit binary on a 64-bit system

I have currently a strange problem on debian (wheezy/amd64). I have created a chroot to install a server (i can't give any more detail about it, sorry). Let's call its path /chr_path/. To make things ...
111
votes
5answers
331k views

Why do we use “./” (dot slash) to execute a file in Linux/UNIX?

Why do we use ./filename to execute a file in linux? Why not just enter it like other commands gcc, ls etc...
108
votes
5answers
78k views

Does the shebang determine the shell which runs the script?

This may be a silly question, but I ask it still. If I have declared a shebang #!/bin/bash in the beginning of my_shell_script.sh, so do I always have to invoke this script using bash [my@comp]$...
314
votes
4answers
88k views

How do I clear Bash's cache of paths to executables?

When I execute a program without specifying the full path to the executable, and Bash must search the directories in $PATH to find the binary, it seems that Bash remembers the path in some sort of ...
45
votes
8answers
74k views

Different ways to execute a shell script

There are several ways to execute a script. The ones I know are: /path/to/script # using the path (absolute or relative) . script # using the . (dot) source script # using the `source` ...
9
votes
1answer
5k views

“No such file or directory” lies on Optware installed binaries

I've been using Optware to install packages on my ARM-based NAS for a while - the usual stuff like Transmission, Samba and others. However, I'd been having problems with Transmission hanging not long ...
94
votes
8answers
297k views

#!/bin/bash - no such file or directory

I've created a bash script but when I try to execute it, I get #!/bin/bash no such file or directory I need to run the command: bash script.sh for it to work. How can I fix this?
156
votes
4answers
174k views

Where do executables look for shared objects at runtime?

I understand how to define include shared objects at linking/compile time. However, I still wonder how do executables look for the shared object (*.so libraries) at execution time. For instance, my ...
104
votes
4answers
83k views

Where should a local executable be placed?

I have an executable for the perforce version control client (p4). I can't place it in /opt/local because I don't have root privileges. Is there a standard location where it needs to be placed under $...
58
votes
4answers
45k views

What is the difference between running “bash script.sh” and “./script.sh”?

If script.sh is just something typical like #!/bin/bash echo "Hello World!" Is there a preferred way to run the script? I think you first have to chmod it so it becomes executable?
156
votes
1answer
10k views

How is Mono magical?

I'm learning C#, so I made a little C# program that says Hello, World!, then compiled it with mono-csc and ran it with mono: $ mono-csc Hello.cs $ mono Hello.exe Hello, World! I noticed that when I ...
66
votes
3answers
21k views

Shebang line with `#!/usr/bin/env command --argument` fails on Linux

I've got a simple script: #!/usr/bin/env ruby --verbose # script.rb puts "hi" On my OSX box, it runs fine: osx% ./script.rb hi However, on my linux box, it throws an error linux% ./script.rb /usr/...
11
votes
1answer
63k views

No such file or directory but I can see it!

I'm trying to run a python script, on a headless Raspberry PI using winSCP and get the following error message: Command '"./areadetect_movie_21.py"' failed with return code 127 and error message /usr/...
163
votes
10answers
57k views

How to chmod without /usr/bin/chmod?

Today I was told a tale by a Unix trainer where the root password got leaked to the students, and one of the fellas removed the execute permission from /usr/bin/chmod itself. How do you recover chmod ...
72
votes
9answers
73k views

Can a script be executable but not readable?

Is it possible to execute a script if there is no permission to read it? In root mode, I made a script and I want the other user to execute this script but not read it. I did chmod to forbid read and ...
63
votes
8answers
12k views

Why does Bash's source not need the execution bit?

With Bash's source it is possible to execute a script without an execution bit set. This is documented and expected behaviour, but isn't this against the use of an execution bit? I know, that source ...
17
votes
1answer
31k views

“No such file or directory” on an executable, yet file exists and ldd reports all libraries present

So by any other command the executable file exists, yet when I try to execute it, it claims it is not there. It is not a special character in the name because I renamed it though a "cat". And it ...
11
votes
1answer
7k views

How to run my own program without specifying its path

Let's suppose I have compiled something and I run it like so: $ /path/to/my/executable/mycmd Hello World What do I need to do to run it like $ mycmd Hello World from everywhere in my computer?
2
votes
6answers
13k views

File extensions and association with programs in linux

In windows we can associate a file's extension with programs. E.g. a file test.pl can be run by the installed Perl interpreter due to the pl extension. In linux though it needs #!/usr/bin/perl as the ...
44
votes
3answers
89k views

How to convert a shell script into a binary executable?

I want to convert my shell scripts into binary executable so that nobody else could edit or read it. Is there a way to convert it into a binary executable?
1
vote
1answer
507 views

What types of executable files exist on Linux?

For example, if I do [OP@localhost executable]$ cat garbage lalala trololol [OP@localhost executable]$ chmod +x garbage [OP@localhost executable]$ ./garbage ./garbage: line 1: lalala: command not ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

/bin/sh: ./check-dependencies.pl: not found — but check-dependencies.pl exists!

I'm trying to build Moses, but when I run make I get the following output: minakshi@minakshi-Vostro-3500:~/Desktop/working-dir/moses/scripts$ make release # Compile the parts make all make[1]: ...
40
votes
4answers
19k views

How to recover from a chmod -R 000 /bin?

And now I am unable to chmod it back.. or use any of my other system programs. Luckily this is on a VM I've been toying with, but is there any way to resolve this? The system is Ubuntu Server 12.10. ...
14
votes
4answers
42k views

File permission execute only

How can I set file to be executable only to other users but not readable/writable, the reason for this I'm executing something with my username but I don't want to give out the password. I tried : ...
24
votes
1answer
6k views

How to trick a particular command into thinking it is a different date?

How can I execute a command making it believe that is on a different date than system one? For instance, if I have this script: #!/usr/bin/env bash date +"%B %d, %Y" It prints the actual date: ...
21
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4answers
4k views

What is a valid use case for an “execute only” file permission?

I was reading up on chmod and its octal modes. I saw that 1 is execute only. What is a valid use case for an execute only permission? To execute a file, one typically would want read and execute ...
15
votes
4answers
4k views

vim: create file with +x bit

Is there any way to set +x bit on script while creating? For example I run: vim -some_option_to_make_file_executable script.sh and after saving I can run file without any additional movings. ps. I ...
4
votes
4answers
17k views

Find executable files recursively

I have got the directory called Test and a few directories inside it. Both Test and the directories inside it have executable files. I'd like to print them with ls. I'd use this command. ls -l `find ...
120
votes
8answers
270k views

How to find out the dynamic libraries executables loads when run?

I want to find out the list of dynamic libraries a binary loads when run (With their full paths). I am using CentOS 6.0. How to do this?
47
votes
1answer
31k views

Loading of shared libraries and RAM usage

I'm wondering about the way Linux manages shared libraries. (actually I'm talking about Maemo Fremantle, a Debian-based distro released in 2009 running on 256MB RAM). Let's assume we have two ...
61
votes
8answers
82k views

Can we get compiler information from an elf binary?

Is there some chance to know how a binary was built, under Linux? (and or other Unix) Compiler, version, time, flags etc... I looked at readelf and couldn't find much, but there might be other ways ...
115
votes
9answers
23k views

Why is /dev/null a file? Why isn't its function implemented as a simple program?

I am trying to understanding the concept of special files on Linux. However, having a special file in /dev seems plain silly when its function could be implemented by a handful of lines in C to my ...
36
votes
1answer
7k views

What is Linux doing differently that allows me to remove/replace files where Windows would complain the file is currently in use?

The example I have is Minecraft. When running Bukkit on Linux I can remove or update the .jar files in the /plugins folder and simply run the 'reload' command. In Windows, I have to take the whole ...
71
votes
5answers
60k views

How to recursively remove execute permissions from files without touching folders?

I made a backup to an NTFS drive, and well, this backup really proved necessary. However, the NTFS drive messed up permissions. I'd like to restore them to normal w/o manually fixing each and every ...
74
votes
10answers
264k views

chroot: failed to run command ‘/bin/bash’: No such file or directory

When I run the chroot command an error is given: failed to run command ‘/bin/bash’: No such file or directory
27
votes
1answer
6k views

Different methods to run a non-nixos executable on Nixos

What are the different methods to run a non-nixos executable on NixOs? I'd like to see also the manual methods.
11
votes
4answers
6k views

Which user's password does `sudo` asks for?

$ ls -l /usr/bin/sudo -rwsr-xr-x 1 root root 136808 Jul 4 2017 /usr/bin/sudo so sudo is runnable by any user, and any user who runs sudo will have root as the effective user ID of the process ...
33
votes
5answers
23k views

Binary compatibility between Mac OS X and Linux

Brace yourselves, this question will likely appear naive and/or foolish, seeing as I am relatively new to the inner workings of unix like systems, and programming in general. Ready? Ok! I will go ...
12
votes
2answers
95k views

./executable: cannot execute binary file

I have a script that works well when I ssh to the server to execute it myself, but has problems when Hudson, a continuous integration server, runs it. I am automating tests on an embedded linux ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Most unix-like filesystem that can be mounted under windows and Mac OS X

I've recently purchased a usb stick which I will be using to share data between me and my colleagues. I'd like to format it as ext3, but I know this will cause trouble because for instance Mac OS X ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

What kinds of executable formats do the files under /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/ allow?

I following Michael's reply to see what executable formats my Ubuntu can recognize to execute $ ls -l /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/ total 0 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 19 16:11 cli -rw-r--r-- 1 root ...
2
votes
2answers
7k views

can't change file permission

Whenever I create or copy few shell files to usb storage device, then I am not able to make them executable. If I create test.sh, it's default file permission will be 644, but when I execute ...
110
votes
7answers
208k views

What is /usr/local/bin?

Before today, I've used the terminal to a limited extent of moving in and out of directories and changing the dates of files using the touch command. I had realised the full extent of the terminal ...
70
votes
2answers
25k views

Why and how are some shared libraries runnable, as though they are executables?

On 32-bit Linux systems, invoking this $ /lib/libc.so.6 and on 64-bit systems this $ /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 in a shell, provides an output like this: GNU C Library stable release version ...
44
votes
7answers
23k views

List all binaries from $PATH

Is there a one-liner that will list all executables from $PATH in Bash?
22
votes
3answers
18k views

How is it possible to do a live update while a program is running?

I wonder how killer applications such as Thunderbird or Firefox can be updated via the system's package manager while they are still running. What happens with the old code while they are being ...
9
votes
2answers
10k views

Why setuid does not work on executable?

I know that enabling setuid on scripts has security issues and so is inactive by default, but expect that it works for executables. I created and executable which shows uid as an output following ...
35
votes
5answers
2k views

Execution of possibly harmful program on Linux

I'm writing a program that will test programs written by students. I'm afraid that I can't trust them and I need to make sure that it won't end up badly for the computer running it. I was thinking ...
30
votes
6answers
10k views

The way to use `/usr/bin/env sed -f ` in shebang?

Typing /usr/bin/env sed -f in terminal works. But if use it as a shebang, #!/usr/bin/env sed -f s/a/b/ The script will be fail to execute: /usr/bin/env: sed -f: No such file or directory I kind ...
12
votes
3answers
28k views

If I see a process running using ps, how can I find the executable?

If I can see a process running using ps -e, how can I find the file which launched it?