Questions tagged [etc]

/etc is the directory that holds the essential system and software configuration. Use this tag for questions on the organization of /etc or the syntax of configuration files within /etc. Don't use this tag for questions on the configuration of particular software.

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30
votes
9answers
7k views

How to keep track of changes in /etc/

I would like to keep track of changes in /etc/ Basically I'd like to know if a file was changed, by yum update or by a user and roll it back if I don't like the chage. I thought of using a VCS like ...
89
votes
3answers
117k views

What do the scripts in /etc/profile.d do?

I am reading about basic shell scripting from Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible. It says that the /etc/profile file sets the environment variables at startup of the Bash shell. The /etc/...
15
votes
2answers
74k views

Error message id: cannot find name for group ID after logging in

BACKGROUND Trevor logs into his account on ssh://foobar.university.edu as one of the developers on the box, and he gets the message: id: cannot find name for group ID 131 Trevor then checks this ...
4
votes
5answers
5k views

Moving /etc to separate partition

How to put /etc on separate partition? Obviously i can't do that by editing /etc/fstab like i did with /home, because... it's in /etc. I want /etc and /home on one partition (sda7), and the rest on ...
0
votes
0answers
128 views

Shall I run a sudo-required script in some shell configuration file?

Is it a good idea to put a sudo command in a shell configuration file? I have a bash script /home/t/bin/changeCpuFreq.sh which can change my cpu frequency. The line 40 in my script is echo $1 > /...
21
votes
3answers
23k views

What is the purpose of /etc/hosts?

As I understand it, the hosts file is one of several system facilities that assists in addressing network nodes in a computer network. But what should be inside it? When I install Ubuntu by default ...
29
votes
1answer
5k views

Who creates /etc/{group,gshadow,passwd,shadow}-?

In any linux system I have access to (a couple of Archlinuxes, an Ubuntu, a Debian Sid and a Gentoo) there are the following 4 files in /etc/, all ending with a dash: /etc/group- /etc/gshadow- /etc/...
16
votes
1answer
45k views

No domain defined in /etc/resolv.conf

I see more and more servers that have no domain defined in the /etc/resolv.conf file. Only a search entry. In what cases is this setup used ? Are there any cases where it must not be used ? ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

/etc/paths in OS X and other Unices

Is /etc/paths read by every shell that I run in OS X? For example, if I use zsh, will it parse /etc/path to populate $PATH? What exactly is the sequence that OS X follows to populate $PATH? Does it ...
14
votes
6answers
7k views

What is the benefit of /etc/apt/sources.list.d over /etc/apt/sources.list

I know this question has been asked before, but I do not accept the answer, "you can clearly see custom additions". When I add ppa's (which I have not done in years), I hit a key on my keyboard ...
13
votes
3answers
9k views

How do I “merge” two text files?

I recently upgraded from Ubuntu 12.04 to 12.10 and at one point, it encountered an Apache config file conflict in apache2.conf. I didn't give me a merge option at that point, so I just rejected the ...
12
votes
3answers
17k views

Is “/etc/issue” common for all Linux distributions?

I'm trying to Create OS detect portable function in bash script, So I just want to know, the file "/etc/issue" is common for all Linux Flavors ?
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Different Debian releases in /etc/issue

The /etc/issue of my Debian testing references two different releases: stretch, which is supposed to be testing, and sid, aka unstable. What does that mean? That I have a mix of packages from the two ...
38
votes
1answer
154k views

Where to find the Crontab logs in CentOS

First of all I'm using CentOS [root@a etc]# cat system-release CentOS release 6.5 (Final) [root@a cron.daily]# ps -ef | grep cron root 982 1 0 Jun14 ? 00:01:15 crond root ...
22
votes
1answer
7k views

/etc/udev/rules.d/ vs /lib/udev/rules.d/ - which to use and why?

The Arch wiki recommended creating a file in /etc/udev/rules.d/ to fix my Steam controller issues. This worked! However, I noticed that there are no other rules in this folder except for the one I ...
10
votes
1answer
4k views

Use `/etc/paths` or `/etc/paths.d` to add items to the PATH in macOS Sierra?

From what I have gleaned in various places with discussions about /usr/libexec/path_helper and all, apparently the modern way to add items to the environment variable PATH in macOS Sierra 10.12 is to ...
16
votes
1answer
3k views

Excluding files in etckeeper with .gitignore doesn't work

I use etckeeper for changes in my configfiles (on Debian squeeze) Since I also have an ircdeamon running, there are some files, that change every minute in the folder /etc/hybserv/ I don't want to ...
6
votes
3answers
262 views

Managing multiple configurations (/etc) - With a VCS?

I have a machine that needs to have two configurations that I need to maintain (the machine is occasionally moved between two environments and has different roles in each environment). Note: This is ...
12
votes
2answers
5k views

Why is /etc/passwd open to public for reading?

Is there any reason that /etc/passwd should be world-wide readable ? It's not like password hashes that shouldn't be exposed, I just want to know why.
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Is making /etc directory read only a bad idea?

I have an embedded system setup built using buildroot and using initramfs. It runs on compact flash device where I have created separate ext3 partitions to mount /etc/ and /var directories as well as ...
4
votes
1answer
922 views

Why should one use update-locale instead of directly setting LANGUAGE?

In Debian, I am used to set the LANGUAGE environment variable in /etc/environment. Now with Debian testing I found /etc/default/locale, which is updated by update-locale. The update-locale man page ...
3
votes
2answers
812 views

Which Debian package does /etc/environment come from?

I know that /etc/profile is installed by base-files, but it doesn't look like this package installs /etc/environment: $ dpkg -S /etc/environment dpkg-query: no path found matching pattern /etc/...
8
votes
5answers
3k views

if statement query user id in etc/passwd?

Using bash I am trying to query /etc/passwd for any users with an id over 1000. If they exist do something, else do something else. I'm stumped. Any help is appreciated. if [ "$(id -u)" -gt "1000" &...
4
votes
1answer
910 views

Which config files in /etc folder must be unique for each computer?

I am doing a restoration test of backup files on a computer. Without putting much thought into it, I did an rsync to replace all files in /etc folder with the ones in the backup. Then, I realize I ...
2
votes
1answer
724 views

/etc/fstab 5th column

Whatever I have understood so far about the 5th column of /etc/fstab that it is for dump command to run on that file system. if entry is 0 dump command will not run and if the entry is 1 then dump ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Mysqld_multi doesn't recognize groups

I am trying to configure a MySQL server to run multiple instances of the daemon (I wish to duplicate it onto different drives). I've been trying to use the mysqld_multi script. However the script is ...
1
vote
2answers
248 views

How would you create a user with the HOME_DIR field in /etc/passwd completely blank?

Closest I can come is: useradd --home / -r --shell /sbin/nologin someuser But this creates an entry into /etc/htpasswd that looks something like this: someuser:x:100:100::/:/sbin/nologin I want ...
1
vote
1answer
339 views

What directory does etckeeper store its permissions / metadata in?

In what directory does etckeeper store its metadata and permissions in? I want to know for purposes of testing the restoration of a configuration.
0
votes
1answer
396 views

/etc/machine-info is missing

I am following a tutorial about Linux networking. Tutorial mentions about /etc/machine-info file but my Ubuntu system is missing this file. I just have /etc/machine-id. Tutorial is on CentOS. Are ...