Questions tagged [directory]

A file system structure in which to store computer files.

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34
votes
4answers
142k views

How can I delete all files with a particular extension in a particular folder?

If I set the current/working directory (navigating to it using cd) to some particular directory and then type: rm *.xvg What will this command do? Is it true that the above command will only delete ...
32
votes
8answers
77k views

Get a list of directory names with find

I know I can do this to get a list of directory names: find . -type d -maxdepth 1 The output looks like this: . ./foo ./bar I prefer the listing without ./. Is there a way to get find to output ...
32
votes
10answers
33k views

How do I create a directory in all subdirectories?

Suppose I have a directory structure like this: $ [~/practice] ls a/ b/ c/ d/ Now I want to create a directory tmp1 in all sub directories of practice and I do this: $ [~/practice] mkdir */tmp1 ...
32
votes
2answers
13k views

Where do the files go if you mount a drive to a folder that already contains files?

I just accidentally mounted a new drive to a folder that already contained files. I don't care about them and have them somewhere else, but that folder appears empty now. I'm curious what happened ...
32
votes
2answers
74k views

cat files in current folder and all subfolders [duplicate]

I want to cat a file in current folder and all files in all subfolders (and subsubfolders). Here is my directory structure $ tree . ├── f │   └── foo └── yo I want to cat foo and yo. I've tried ...
32
votes
2answers
8k views

Why was '.' chosen to represent the current directory and '..' for parent directory?

After reading this question Why was '~' chosen to represent the home directory?, next obvious question on my mind was why '.' and '..' was used to represent current directory and parent ...
30
votes
3answers
35k views

How can I move files by type recursively from a directory and its sub-directories to another directory?

What would be a good way to move a file type from a directory and all of its sub-directories? Like "move all *.ogg in /thisdir recursively to /somedir". I tried a couple of things; my best effort was ...
30
votes
7answers
11k views

What's the most “correct” mount point for a permanent NTFS partition?

I have an NTFS partition (containing a Windows installation from which I dual boot) that I would like to permanently mount from my Linux installation. Problem is, I can't figure out what the best/...
29
votes
3answers
64k views

Better way to copy multiple directories to new directory

Is there a better way on the command line to essentially accomplish the following but with a single command cp -r css/ ar/ cp -r images/ ar/ cp -r js/ ar/ cp -r backups/ ar/ I've just been stringing ...
29
votes
4answers
5k views

Should I include a trailing slash / in a symlink to a directory?

Symlinking to a directory gives to different results with ls -l depending on whether I ln -s dir or ln -s dir/. But what's the actual difference, and which one should I prefer why?
28
votes
6answers
12k views

File systems vs partitions vs directories

I am new to Linux so pardon me for the possible confusion you may encounter in this question. From what I understand, filesystem specifies how a partition stores/manages file, with standards such as ...
28
votes
2answers
12k views

games directory?

On a standard filesystem, we have: /usr/games /usr/lib/games /usr/local/games /usr/share/games /var/games /var/lib/games Is this a joke, or is there some history behind this? What is it for? Why do ...
28
votes
1answer
1k views

When did directories stop being readable as files?

I have the 1st edition of The Unix Programming Environment book. In chapter 2, the authors state that directories are readable as files, and mention some facts about the format of these files. They ...
26
votes
4answers
67k views

using root to mkdir in another users home directory

having a bit of a difficult time trying to create a folder under another user's /home/devuser1/pubic_html folder. I'm trying to avoid using sudo and looking for an alternative. The permissions on the ...
25
votes
9answers
3k views

Clipboard for copying and pasting files in command line?

In Bash, suppose I visit a directory, and then another directory. I would like to copy a file from the first directory to the second directory, but without specifying the long pathnames of them. Is it ...
25
votes
5answers
95k views

“cannot remove 'some_directory': Directory not empty”

I tried to delete some directory, but $ rm DE.aspx_files -r rm: cannot remove `DE.aspx_files': Directory not empty But listing its content returns none $ ls DE.aspx_files $ Added: Actually $ ls -...
25
votes
7answers
26k views

How to check if $PWD is a subdirectory of a given path

E.g. check if $PWD is a subdirectory of /home. In other words I'm searching for a bash string operation to check if one string starts with another.
25
votes
4answers
19k views

How to run a command when a directory's contents are updated?

There is a directory A whose contents are changed frequently by other people. I have made a personal directory B where I keep all the files that have ever been in A. Currently, I just occasionally ...
25
votes
2answers
96k views

Where do installed RPMs go?

I download and install packages on my Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 6 machine using YUM package manager in command-line mode. When I install apk files on my Android phone, they go to /data/app ...
25
votes
3answers
9k views

Simple way to see the content of directories in Linux/UNIX file systems

In the past, I learned that in Linux/UNIX file systems, directories are just files, which contain the filenames and inode numbers of the files inside the directory. Is there a simple way to see the ...
24
votes
8answers
6k views

Any way to sync directory structure when the files are already on both sides?

I have two drives with the same files, but the directory structure is totally different. Is there any way to 'move' all the files on the destination side so that they match the structure of the ...
23
votes
6answers
6k views

How is a directory a “special type of file”?

I am reading this Unix tutorial and came across this quote... We should note here that a directory is merely a special type of file. ...but no explanation or details are provided. How is a ...
23
votes
6answers
11k views

Best method to collect a random sample from a collection of files

Suppose there is a directory holding 300 data files. I want to randomly select 200 of those files and move them into another directory. Is there a way to do that under Unix/Linux?
23
votes
6answers
8k views

mkdir -p for files

mkdir -p will create a directory; it will also make parent directories as needed. Does a similar command exist for files, that will create a file and parent directories as needed?
23
votes
3answers
14k views

Stay at same working directory when changing to sudo

When working on the command line, I often change to sudo using sudo -i. However, my working directory changes automatically to /root. I never want to go there; I want to stay where I was! How can I ...
22
votes
4answers
2k views

Is there any way attacker could use mkdir to compromise a system?

I'm setting up a restricted user account for user ricardo, a troublesome user on my system. I want to grant him the right to make directories using sudo, which he sometimes needs to do. I'm ...
22
votes
5answers
1k views

Why doesn't find . -delete delete current directory?

I would expect find . -delete to delete the current directory, but it doesn't. Why not?
22
votes
7answers
1k views

`command .*` acts on the parent directory [duplicate]

Someone of our team wanted to recursively change the user permissions on all hidden directories in a users home directory. To do so he executed the following command: cd /home/username chown -R ...
21
votes
5answers
20k views

How can I copy a file and create the target directories at the same time?

I want to cp aaa/deep/sea/blob.psd to bbb/deep/sea/blob.psd How do I do the copy if the deep and sea directories don't exist under bbb so that the copy both creates the directories that are needed ...
21
votes
2answers
18k views

Why can't I have a folder and a file with the same name?

I've never had this problem before, but for some reason, I can't rename my folder to packages/. This is the structure: root - packages_old/ - packages When I try to rename the folder with ...
21
votes
2answers
27k views

Simplest way to password protect a directory and its contents without having to create new files?

I would like to password protect or encrypt a directory and all the files within it (for the whole directory tree below it). I do not want to bother the whole home directory, I want a specific ...
20
votes
3answers
10k views

Can I make a public directory under a private directory?

I have a personal folder /a/b on the server with permission 700. I don't want others to list the contents in /a/b. The owner of /a is root. Now I need to open the full authorities of directory /a/b/c ...
20
votes
4answers
51k views

Create target directory when extracting tarball

Is it possible to create a target directory, similar to mkdir -p, where I can define a non-existent target directory within my tar command, and tar will create the directory for me? I know I can ...
20
votes
2answers
30k views

How do I get the total size of everything in a directory in one line? [duplicate]

I know I can use du -h to output the total size of a directory. But when it contains other subdirectories, the output would be something like: du -h /root/test . . . . 24K /root/test/1 64K /root/...
20
votes
2answers
62k views

How can I concatenate all files in a directory together in one command line operation? [duplicate]

I have 1000 csv files in a directory. I would like to concatenate them all together in order. They are named img_size_1.csv to approx img_size_1000.csv This answer is close but assumes a list file. ...
19
votes
2answers
28k views

How do I delete all files with a given name in all subdirectories?

I want to delete all files with a given name in all the subdirectories of my home directory. I tried: rm -r file in my home directory, but it didn't work because that file doesn't exist in that ...
19
votes
6answers
28k views

How can I force unzip / zip not to create a subdirectory when I extract it?

Depending on how a zip file is created, sometimes it will extract all of the files directly, and sometimes it will extract the files into a subdirectory. If the latter is true, how can I force the ...
18
votes
7answers
2k views

Why do I have to cd out of a deleted directory?

On my server I have a directory structure looking something like this: /myproject/code I normally have an ssh connection to the server and 'stand' in that directory: root@machine:/myproject/code# ...
18
votes
4answers
15k views

How are directories implemented in Unix filesystems?

My question is how directories are implemented? I can believe a data structure like a variable e.g. table, array or similar. Since UNIX is Open Source I can look in the source what the program does ...
18
votes
3answers
25k views

What are ./ and ../ directories?

Simple question, but I'm not sure where to look and google doesn't respond to periods and slashes. I'm just trying to count the # of files & directories in the current directory (not including ...
18
votes
1answer
18k views

How to create a file and parent directories in one command? [duplicate]

Is there a flag/option for touch, mkdir, >, or some other command that will allow me to create a file and any non-existent parent directories at the same time? For instance, let's say I'm in an ...
17
votes
4answers
8k views

How does one atomically change a symlink to a directory in busybox?

I am trying to (as close as possibly) atomically change a symlink. I've tried: ln -sf other_dir existing_symlink That just put the new symlink in the directory that existing_symlink pointed to. ln -...
17
votes
4answers
10k views

set read and write permissions to folder and all its parent directories

I need to set read and write permissions for root user to directory subfolderN and all its parent folders till root. I can do it by hands: $ sudo chmod +rx /root/subfolder1/subfolder2/subfolderN $ ...
17
votes
1answer
18k views

rsync recursively with a certain depth of subfolders

I want to rsync a folder recursively but want subfolders included only to a certain depth. For example I would want a depth of 1,2,3 or 4 subfolders like this: source/ ├── subfolder 1 │   ├── ...
17
votes
5answers
10k views

How to set an alias on a per-directory basis?

Suppose you have an alias go, but want it to do different things in different directories? In one directory it should run cmd1, but in another directory it should run cmd2 By the way, I have an ...
17
votes
1answer
2k views

Tab completion of “../” in zsh

In bash, I can use tab-completion to move one directory up and descend down again another path. For example, suppose I'm in $HOME/folder1, and I want to cd to $HOME/folder2. $HOME only has the two ...
16
votes
5answers
4k views

Can I prevent a folder of a certain name being created?

I'm working on a LAMP web app and there is a scheduled process somewhere which keeps creating a folder called shop in the root of the site. Every time this appears it causes conflicts with rewrite ...
16
votes
7answers
2k views

Compact bash prompt when using a directory tree / filename

In a system with Ubuntu 14.04 and bash, I have the PS1 variable ending with the following contents: \u@\h:\w\$ so that the prompt appears as user@machinename:/home/mydirectory$ Sometimes, however, ...
15
votes
4answers
13k views

How to switch to the directory listing from file view in vim?

I have opened a dir vim some/dir. I can navigate within the tree, yet once I opened a file I wonder, how do I close the file view in order to go back to the directory listing to navigate to another ...
15
votes
4answers
19k views

symbolic link to a directory and relative path

I've created symlink with absolute path to the directory (Blink) and have for example following tree: $ ls -l /tmp/A total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 6 Apr 3 12:27 Blink -> /tmp/B -rw-r--r-- 1 root ...