Questions tagged [architecture]

General questions about (UNIX) OS architecture

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1answer
50 views

How to crossgrade debian (switch from i386 to amd64)

How to switch a Debian installation from i386 to amd64 architecture (and vice versa) without reinstalling the system?
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0answers
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Schedule in systemd or in script?

I start a python script with systemd and in the python script I try_webrequest each minute. I don't know why, but somehow I think the scheduled repetition should be the job of systemd (logging etc). ...
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2answers
45 views

multi-core linux workstation recognizes only 1 cpu, 1 core, 1 thread

I'm using ubuntu 20.04 on Dell Precision 7820. $ uname -a Linux myhost 5.4.0-56-generic #62-Ubuntu SMP Mon Nov 23 19:20:19 UTC 2020 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux Only one cpu is used/known by the OS,...
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1answer
49 views

Why are mounts with an active working directory “busy”?

Linux appears not to mind if I move or delete a file or directory that is still in use by a process. So why does it complain if I try to unmount a device that is in use as a working directory by a ...
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0answers
23 views

uname -m -p -i. What does every parameter stand for? [duplicate]

I have CentOS7 installed on my computer. uname -a prints the following: Linux c7 3.10.0-1127.el7.centos.plus.i686 #1 SMP Sun Apr 5 18:08:31 UTC 2020 i686 i686 i386 GNU/Linux As stated in man uname ...
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1answer
37 views

How to install x32 abi support on Fedora?

As I m switching distribution, this question is an extension of this problem for getting maximum performance from a cpu hungry program which can t handle 64 bits pointers. Because the problem isn t ...
0
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1answer
67 views

Could thread be counted as a CPU? [duplicate]

So I typed in lscpu into my terminal and saw this: CPU(s): 4 On-line CPU(s) list: 0-3 Thread(s) per core: 2 Core(s) per socket: 2 Socket(s): 1 The no. of CPU(s) is 4 here ...
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1answer
577 views

How do i change the output of “uname -m”

I am trying to execute this shell script - https://raw.githubusercontent.com/oneindex/script/master/gclone.sh This shell script checks for uname -m output and doesn't like it ( i.e. aarch64 ). ...
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2answers
1k views

Best way to detect architecture for all Linux?

I need in a bash script to detect the architecture of the current Linux. I see sometimes uname is giving the info but is tricky. It depends of the system to show it in one place or another or even not ...
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1answer
114 views

Which Debian architecture should I use for my Intel NUC7I3BNH?

I tried to search for the correct architecture to use for my Intel NUC7I3BNH, but I am none the wiser. Which architecture would be most appropriate - amd64 or i386?
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1answer
57 views

Choosing if using Docker or not, with or without Virtual Machines on a Debian 10… Number of CPU cores, of virtual CPUs? [closed]

Currently I work on my personal computer having an i7-3820 processor with 4 cores, 8 hyperthreads. I run a standalone apache-spark sat with a parameter of local[6] (6 vCPU) to do some calculations. ...
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1answer
256 views

Building packages: command which yields 'amd64' (like uname)

Suppose I have a makefile that builds my package, and I only want the package to build if the package file is not present: package: foo_0.0.0_amd64.deb cd foo-0.0.0 && debuild -uc -us So ...
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1answer
162 views

Temperature sensors in android device

I'm learning Linux architecture, and I became curious about hardware health monitoring which Linux supports. So, most of the time it is temperature and voltage sensors. When I open CPU-Z app, I can ...
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3answers
44 views

how do i figure out the architecture of certain hardware?

I have a tomtom one XL GPS. It is clearly a linux device: plugging it in shows a stripped down filesystem, and strings gltt | less (a program in the bin) shows: /lib/ld-linux.so.2 __gmon_start__ ...
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1answer
44 views

What is meant by register-impaired architecture

I am reading Robert Love's linux kernel development book. In that, book he is mentioning about register-impaired architecture. I don't know what is register-impaired architecture. Kindly explain me, ...
2
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1answer
96 views

Can't install rust-doc on Debian Stretch

I'm running Debian Stretch. According to the Debian website, I should be able to install the package rust-doc, yet I can't: wizzwizz4@myLaptop:~$ sudo apt install rust-doc Reading package lists... ...
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1answer
320 views

X Window System in Linux [closed]

What is X window system in linux ? How it is relatable to GNOME and KDE GUI enviornment ? I mean what is the relation between them ? Is X window system and GNOME are same or what ?
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2answers
76 views

Utility dependence in shell

I know that the "layer" architecture of any *nix OS is kernel-shell-utility ("inner to outer"). if we installed say Debian-Server and got some CLI utilities with it, Should all these utilities work ...
0
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1answer
19 views

How machines agree on whether to use big or small endians?

I know how endians work. I read somewhere a statement "the internet, for instance, agrees on everything being big endians". How does that work? If I have a tcp connection between 2 machines, how do ...
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1answer
164 views

Why does upgrading through Ansible commonly considered “idempotent”?

I know that an idempotent function returns a result which is can be returned more than once without changing the application essentially (like adding zero to a number or multiplying that number by 1). ...
0
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1answer
58 views

Do rolling release distros like Arch Linux include kernel upgrades as part of their rolling upgrades?

Do fully rolling_release distros like ArchLinux, openSUSE, Alpine and so forth include kernel-upgrades as part of their rolling upgrades? Or kernel upgrades are a separate issue even within the ...
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1answer
254 views

What's the difference between CMs “push” method (Ansible) to “pull” method (Chef/Puppet)?

I know that some of the advantages of Ansible over many other CMs are these: Ansible's scripts being written in YAML, a simple serialization language. The fact that one doesn't have to install it on ...
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2answers
204 views

Accessing PHPMyAdmin as installed by its distro package-index from the domain of each website

I have a remote machine with LAMP and PHPMyAdmin (PMA). Let's assume this distro is Debian/Ubuntu. If I install PMA via apt install phpmyadmin (which will make it to be installed under /usr/share/...
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3answers
996 views

How do i convert 32-bit to 64-bit arch on centos 6?

Currently I installed Centos 6.9 32bit OS in VM and I want to convert into 64-bit architecture in same machine. I checked lots of stuff over internet but didn't find any forum for same, specifically ...
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0answers
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Linux Partition on Different Architecture [duplicate]

I have a Cubieboad 2, Raspberry Pi 3 and an Android Smart Phone. On Cubieboard and Raspberry, I write Cubian and Raspbian. On Android, I installed Linux Deploy and installed Debian armhf. All of ...
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0answers
129 views

What architecture is bi-endian at runtime?

If I understand correctly x86_64 is a bi-arch, since it supports running native x86 and x86_64 at the same time (no reboot, no reconfiguration). ia64 is a single arch and does not support x86. I am ...
28
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2answers
5k views

Why there are `/lib` and `/lib64` but only `/bin`?

In my laptop: $ cat /etc/issue Ubuntu 18.04 LTS \n \l There are two different folders for libraries x86 and x86_64: ~$ ls -1 / bin lib lib64 sbin ... Why for binaries exists only one ...
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2answers
4k views

Are different Linux/Unix kernels interchangeable?

Can I take a Linux kernel and use it with, say, FreeBSD and vice versa (FreeBSD kernel in, say, a Debian)? Is there a universal answer? What are the limitations? What are the obstructions?
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3answers
583 views

Do variables and aliases fall under the same category?

This is a terminology/architecture question. Some of the most basic implementations for easier control of a system are variables and aliases (and some might add symlinks). Both variables and ...
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6answers
20k views

Will a Linux executable compiled on one “flavor” of Linux run on a different one?

Will the executable of a small, extremely simple program, such as the one shown below, that is compiled on one flavor of Linux run on a different flavor? Or would it need to be recompiled? Does ...
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2answers
120 views

How to know how many rows of code are there for a CLI shell?

How to know how many rows of code are there for a CLI shell, not counting empty lines? The purpose of this question is to learn how I could count the rows of code for both sh and Bash CLI shells. ...
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1answer
1k views

Kernel architecture vs OS architecture

What is the difference between the kernel architecture and the OS architecture? Which of these is relevant when trying to figure out which architecture to compile binaries for? From what I have read, ...
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2answers
275 views

Using a CLI after deleting all shells (rbash, bash, dash, and sh)

As for now, I use my CLI (Command Line Interface) with either rbash, bash, dash, or sh. Given this fact, one can assume that the CLI is not shell dependent, and that even if we will delete all of ...
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1answer
112 views

How come a Desktop Environment be one layer under a shell (kernel-DE-shell instead kernel-shell-DE)? [closed]

I ask the following question as a followup to this question. How come a Desktop Environment be one layer under a shell (kernel-DE-shell instead kernel-shell-DE)? Why I ask this question In Ubuntu, ...
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1answer
175 views

what are the cflags of this microarchitecture?

I'm looking the cflags for the turion X2 M500 processor I'm doing grep -m1 -A3 "vendor_id" /proc/cpuinfo and the output is: vendor_id : AuthenticAMD cpu family : 16 model : 6 model name ...
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2answers
6k views

What does this mkfs.ext4 operand mean?

I am using GParted (0.28.1, Fedora 25) to format a external drive and noticed that the command displayed is: mkfs.ext4 -F -O ^64bit -L "INSTALL" /dev/sdd1 When making disks in the past from command ...
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1answer
2k views

Why doesn't Fedora support i686 architecture?

My desktop has a i686 CPU running macOS and I'm looking to install Fedora 26 i686. It turns out that they only support x86_64 and i386 (plus the various ARM architectures). I've tried to install ...
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1answer
290 views

What is wrong with Lubuntu 17.04 64-bit version?

I have installed Lubuntu 16.10 32 bits on my computer but some softwares I have to use is 64 bits only, so I have to know if my system is 32 or 64 bit. After some searches on the web I have found the ...
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1answer
1k views

I broke apt-get and dpkg when trying to crossgrade my Debian architecture

I was trying to crossgrade my architecture from i386 to amd64 (from https://wiki.debian.org/CrossGrading) and I got some error and broke apt-get and dpkg. apt-get and dpkg output cannot execute ...
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1answer
164 views

How reading command line happens in Ubuntu [duplicate]

As I was doing a project, I came to know about how command line can be read using ncurses and GNU's readline library. However I could not find either in Ubuntu (16.04). I am curious to know how Ubuntu ...
0
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1answer
503 views

Delayed script to boot exagear and skype using RPI3 on debian

I'm using Exagear desktop to run Skype on RPI3 (Raspbian/Debian). I have some naive users also using the system because of which I want to load both of them on boot (maybe delayed startup service). I ...
3
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0answers
800 views

Total available physical memory from /proc/meminfo not adding up

I'm trying to account for the available physical memory on a Linux box through /proc/meminfo (output provided below). Accounting for current free memory, user-space physical usage, kernel data ...
4
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1answer
418 views

How can I observer the desktop GUI interacting with the shell?

For example, if I change the sound volume by the ubuntu desktop widget, I think it will issue some commands to the shell or run a script. Is it possible to see what it runs?
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2answers
33k views

dpkg: error: cannot remove architecture 'i386' currently in use by the database

I used this command to add i386 arch: sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 And then immediately after without installing any packages I tried to remove the i386 arch like so: sudo dpkg --remove-...
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2answers
105 views

If we have 3 layers for any Nix system, where are web servers situated?

I am new to Linux. I guess everyone here knows Dennis Ritchie's basic hierarchy for Unix: Kernel, Shell & Utilities. Given a server bundle (such as LAMP) isn't part the kernel but also isn't part ...
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3answers
1k views

Get Linux architecture from /proc filesystem

I'm writing a program in Java and I need to determine the architecture for which Linux was compiled. I need something like uname -m, but without running any program, but instead from the /proc pseduo-...
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1answer
3k views

apt mirror chooses wrong architecture

I tried to do a repository mirror using apt-mirror and it inexplicably choose the wrong architecture. This is the architecture of the mirroring machine: uname -a Linux MyWorkStation 3.2.0-76-generic ...
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5answers
808 views

Why does superuser exist in Unix/Linux?

I know that some system tasks are permitted only to privileged users/processes, but still a super user (usually the root in Unix/Linux) or administrator can present so much problems in regards to ...
2
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1answer
787 views

Difference between architecture and platform in linux kernel

I want to know the difference between architecture and platform in Linux kernel. When I had downloaded the latest kernel tarball, observed that a directory named with arch, it contains different names ...
2
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3answers
2k views

How could Linux use 'sda' device file when it hasn't been installed?

I am installing CentOS Linux distribution. At the partition step, CentOS tells me that it has detected a sda HD in my machine and I should create partitions and assign mount points for this disk. ...