Questions tagged [architecture]

General questions about (UNIX) OS architecture

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Cannot remove architecture i386

I'm using 64 bit Kali Linux, previously installed i386 architecture and now I want to remove it, because it downloads about 30Mb data for 32bit package every time apt update. I tried dpkg --remove-...
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installing 32-bit architecture in amd64 linux

I'm trying to install 32-bit libraries so I can do stack smashing in a amd64 kalios.` The instruction for installation on a x86 linux would be: sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 && sudo apt-...
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Why does hostnamectl return arm64, but uname returns aarch64? (Ubuntu 20.04.2 on raspberry pi)

I have a raspberry pi running Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS. Two different architectures are being returned depending on the command: aarch64 and arm64. Why? hostnamectl ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ hostnamectl Static ...
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CPUTSET - Erro the create CPU isolate failed to create shield, hint: do other cpusets exist

i'm try using cpuset version 1.6. But I was try init shield show this error: "failed to create shield, hint: do other cpusets exist?" I'm was Investigate in code, found this section where ...
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Why can't I add i386 architecture to Debian Bullseye?

I try to add 32 bit (i386) architecture to my Debian Bullseye using : sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 But it gives me no error or no success message. When I used sudo dpkg --print-architecture ...
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Job controls and the background/foreground

In Bourne shells, is the shell module which controls if a process is in the foreground or in the background the same shell module that controls if a process is running/suspended/terminated? The ...
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dpkg-deb treats my architeceture as amd64 instead of x86)64

I just created a simple .deb package (using this tutorial). This is my control file: Package: bla Version: 1.0 Architecture: x86_64 Maintainer: bla Description: bla The Architecture I got from uname -...
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How to crossgrade debian (switch from i386 to amd64)

How to switch a Debian installation from i386 to amd64 architecture (and vice versa) without reinstalling the system?
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multi-core linux workstation recognizes only 1 cpu, 1 core, 1 thread

I'm using ubuntu 20.04 on Dell Precision 7820. $ uname -a Linux myhost 5.4.0-56-generic #62-Ubuntu SMP Mon Nov 23 19:20:19 UTC 2020 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux Only one cpu is used/known by the OS,...
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Why are mounts with an active working directory "busy"?

Linux appears not to mind if I move or delete a file or directory that is still in use by a process. So why does it complain if I try to unmount a device that is in use as a working directory by a ...
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uname -m -p -i. What does every parameter stand for? [duplicate]

I have CentOS7 installed on my computer. uname -a prints the following: Linux c7 3.10.0-1127.el7.centos.plus.i686 #1 SMP Sun Apr 5 18:08:31 UTC 2020 i686 i686 i386 GNU/Linux As stated in man uname ...
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How to install x32 abi support on Fedora?

As I m switching distribution, this question is an extension of this problem for getting maximum performance from a cpu hungry program which can t handle 64 bits pointers. Because the problem isn t ...
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Could thread be counted as a CPU? [duplicate]

So I typed in lscpu into my terminal and saw this: CPU(s): 4 On-line CPU(s) list: 0-3 Thread(s) per core: 2 Core(s) per socket: 2 Socket(s): 1 The no. of CPU(s) is 4 here ...
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How do i change the output of "uname -m"

I am trying to execute this shell script - https://raw.githubusercontent.com/oneindex/script/master/gclone.sh This shell script checks for uname -m output and doesn't like it ( i.e. aarch64 ). ...
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Best way to detect architecture for all Linux?

I need in a bash script to detect the architecture of the current Linux. I see sometimes uname is giving the info but is tricky. It depends of the system to show it in one place or another or even not ...
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Which Debian architecture should I use for my Intel NUC7I3BNH?

I tried to search for the correct architecture to use for my Intel NUC7I3BNH, but I am none the wiser. Which architecture would be most appropriate - amd64 or i386?
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Choosing if using Docker or not, with or without Virtual Machines on a Debian 10... Number of CPU cores, of virtual CPUs? [closed]

Currently I work on my personal computer having an i7-3820 processor with 4 cores, 8 hyperthreads. I run a standalone apache-spark sat with a parameter of local[6] (6 vCPU) to do some calculations. ...
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Building packages: command which yields 'amd64' (like uname)

Suppose I have a makefile that builds my package, and I only want the package to build if the package file is not present: package: foo_0.0.0_amd64.deb cd foo-0.0.0 && debuild -uc -us So ...
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Temperature sensors in android device

I'm learning Linux architecture, and I became curious about hardware health monitoring which Linux supports. So, most of the time it is temperature and voltage sensors. When I open CPU-Z app, I can ...
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3 answers
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how do i figure out the architecture of certain hardware?

I have a tomtom one XL GPS. It is clearly a linux device: plugging it in shows a stripped down filesystem, and strings gltt | less (a program in the bin) shows: /lib/ld-linux.so.2 __gmon_start__ ...
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What is meant by register-impaired architecture

I am reading Robert Love's linux kernel development book. In that, book he is mentioning about register-impaired architecture. I don't know what is register-impaired architecture. Kindly explain me, ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Can't install rust-doc on Debian Stretch

I'm running Debian Stretch. According to the Debian website, I should be able to install the package rust-doc, yet I can't: wizzwizz4@myLaptop:~$ sudo apt install rust-doc Reading package lists... ...
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X Window System in Linux [closed]

What is X window system in linux ? How it is relatable to GNOME and KDE GUI enviornment ? I mean what is the relation between them ? Is X window system and GNOME are same or what ?
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Utility dependence in shell

I know that the "layer" architecture of any *nix OS is kernel-shell-utility ("inner to outer"). if we installed say Debian-Server and got some CLI utilities with it, Should all these utilities work ...
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How machines agree on whether to use big or small endians?

I know how endians work. I read somewhere a statement "the internet, for instance, agrees on everything being big endians". How does that work? If I have a tcp connection between 2 machines, how do ...
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Why does upgrading through Ansible commonly considered "idempotent"?

I know that an idempotent function returns a result which is can be returned more than once without changing the application essentially (like adding zero to a number or multiplying that number by 1). ...
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1 answer
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Do rolling release distros like Arch Linux include kernel upgrades as part of their rolling upgrades?

Do fully rolling_release distros like ArchLinux, openSUSE, Alpine and so forth include kernel-upgrades as part of their rolling upgrades? Or kernel upgrades are a separate issue even within the ...
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1 answer
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What's the difference between CMs "push" method (Ansible) to "pull" method (Chef/Puppet)?

I know that some of the advantages of Ansible over many other CMs are these: Ansible's scripts being written in YAML, a simple serialization language. The fact that one doesn't have to install it on ...
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3 votes
2 answers
214 views

Accessing PHPMyAdmin as installed by its distro package-index from the domain of each website

I have a remote machine with LAMP and PHPMyAdmin (PMA). Let's assume this distro is Debian/Ubuntu. If I install PMA via apt install phpmyadmin (which will make it to be installed under /usr/share/...
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3 answers
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How do i convert 32-bit to 64-bit arch on centos 6?

Currently I installed Centos 6.9 32bit OS in VM and I want to convert into 64-bit architecture in same machine. I checked lots of stuff over internet but didn't find any forum for same, specifically ...
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Linux Partition on Different Architecture [duplicate]

I have a Cubieboad 2, Raspberry Pi 3 and an Android Smart Phone. On Cubieboard and Raspberry, I write Cubian and Raspbian. On Android, I installed Linux Deploy and installed Debian armhf. All of ...
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2 votes
0 answers
144 views

What architecture is bi-endian at runtime?

If I understand correctly x86_64 is a bi-arch, since it supports running native x86 and x86_64 at the same time (no reboot, no reconfiguration). ia64 is a single arch and does not support x86. I am ...
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28 votes
2 answers
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Why there are `/lib` and `/lib64` but only `/bin`?

In my laptop: $ cat /etc/issue Ubuntu 18.04 LTS \n \l There are two different folders for libraries x86 and x86_64: ~$ ls -1 / bin lib lib64 sbin ... Why for binaries exists only one ...
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14 votes
2 answers
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Are different Linux/Unix kernels interchangeable?

Can I take a Linux kernel and use it with, say, FreeBSD and vice versa (FreeBSD kernel in, say, a Debian)? Is there a universal answer? What are the limitations? What are the obstructions?
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1 vote
3 answers
904 views

Do variables and aliases fall under the same category?

This is a terminology/architecture question. Some of the most basic implementations for easier control of a system are variables and aliases (and some might add symlinks). Both variables and ...
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67 votes
6 answers
23k views

Will a Linux executable compiled on one "flavor" of Linux run on a different one?

Will the executable of a small, extremely simple program, such as the one shown below, that is compiled on one flavor of Linux run on a different flavor? Or would it need to be recompiled? Does ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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How to know how many rows of code are there for a CLI shell?

How to know how many rows of code are there for a CLI shell, not counting empty lines? The purpose of this question is to learn how I could count the rows of code for both sh and Bash CLI shells. ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Kernel architecture vs OS architecture

What is the difference between the kernel architecture and the OS architecture? Which of these is relevant when trying to figure out which architecture to compile binaries for? From what I have read, ...
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2 answers
347 views

Using a CLI after deleting all shells (rbash, bash, dash, and sh)

As for now, I use my CLI (Command Line Interface) with either rbash, bash, dash, or sh. Given this fact, one can assume that the CLI is not shell dependent, and that even if we will delete all of ...
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How come a Desktop Environment be one layer under a shell (kernel-DE-shell instead kernel-shell-DE)? [closed]

I ask the following question as a followup to this question. How come a Desktop Environment be one layer under a shell (kernel-DE-shell instead kernel-shell-DE)? Why I ask this question In Ubuntu, ...
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0 votes
1 answer
224 views

what are the cflags of this microarchitecture?

I'm looking the cflags for the turion X2 M500 processor I'm doing grep -m1 -A3 "vendor_id" /proc/cpuinfo and the output is: vendor_id : AuthenticAMD cpu family : 16 model : 6 model name ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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What does this mkfs.ext4 operand mean?

I am using GParted (0.28.1, Fedora 25) to format a external drive and noticed that the command displayed is: mkfs.ext4 -F -O ^64bit -L "INSTALL" /dev/sdd1 When making disks in the past from command ...
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Why doesn't Fedora support i686 architecture?

My desktop has a i686 CPU running macOS and I'm looking to install Fedora 26 i686. It turns out that they only support x86_64 and i386 (plus the various ARM architectures). I've tried to install ...
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1 vote
1 answer
297 views

What is wrong with Lubuntu 17.04 64-bit version?

I have installed Lubuntu 16.10 32 bits on my computer but some softwares I have to use is 64 bits only, so I have to know if my system is 32 or 64 bit. After some searches on the web I have found the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
1k views

I broke apt-get and dpkg when trying to crossgrade my Debian architecture

I was trying to crossgrade my architecture from i386 to amd64 (from https://wiki.debian.org/CrossGrading) and I got some error and broke apt-get and dpkg. apt-get and dpkg output cannot execute ...
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1 answer
181 views

How reading command line happens in Ubuntu [duplicate]

As I was doing a project, I came to know about how command line can be read using ncurses and GNU's readline library. However I could not find either in Ubuntu (16.04). I am curious to know how Ubuntu ...
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Delayed script to boot exagear and skype using RPI3 on debian

I'm using Exagear desktop to run Skype on RPI3 (Raspbian/Debian). I have some naive users also using the system because of which I want to load both of them on boot (maybe delayed startup service). I ...
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3 votes
0 answers
880 views

Total available physical memory from /proc/meminfo not adding up

I'm trying to account for the available physical memory on a Linux box through /proc/meminfo (output provided below). Accounting for current free memory, user-space physical usage, kernel data ...
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4 votes
1 answer
484 views

How can I observer the desktop GUI interacting with the shell?

For example, if I change the sound volume by the ubuntu desktop widget, I think it will issue some commands to the shell or run a script. Is it possible to see what it runs?
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24 votes
2 answers
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dpkg: error: cannot remove architecture 'i386' currently in use by the database

I used this command to add i386 arch: sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 And then immediately after without installing any packages I tried to remove the i386 arch like so: sudo dpkg --remove-...
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