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Questions tagged [architecture]

General questions about (UNIX) OS architecture

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How machines agree on whether to use big or small endians?

I know how endians work. I read somewhere a statement "the internet, for instance, agrees on everything being big endians". How does that work? If I have a tcp connection between 2 machines, how do ...
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1answer
58 views

Why does upgrading through Ansible commonly considered “idempotent”?

I know that an idempotent function returns a result which is can be returned more than once without changing the application essentially (like adding zero to a number or multiplying that number by 1). ...
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1answer
29 views

Do rolling release distros like Arch Linux include kernel upgrades as part of their rolling upgrades?

Do fully rolling_release distros like ArchLinux, openSUSE, Alpine and so forth include kernel-upgrades as part of their rolling upgrades? Or kernel upgrades are a separate issue even within the ...
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1answer
38 views

What's the difference between CMs “push” method (Ansible) to “pull” method (Chef/Puppet)?

I know that some of the advantages of Ansible over many other CMs are these: Ansible's scripts being written in YAML, a simple serialization language. The fact that one doesn't have to install it on ...
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0answers
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Why do we need StructureNotifyMask in X Window Programming? [closed]

I was going through a simple program to create a x window and listen to the keyboard. It involved the following steps: Register for the ButtonPressMask event. XCreateWindow and XMapWindow. This made ...
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2answers
194 views

Accessing PHPMyAdmin as installed by its distro package-index from the domain of each website

I have a remote machine with LAMP and PHPMyAdmin (PMA). Let's assume this distro is Debian/Ubuntu. If I install PMA via apt install phpmyadmin (which will make it to be installed under /usr/share/...
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3answers
205 views

How do i convert 32-bit to 64-bit arch on centos 6?

Currently I installed Centos 6.9 32bit OS in VM and I want to convert into 64-bit architecture in same machine. I checked lots of stuff over internet but didn't find any forum for same, specifically ...
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0answers
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Linux Partition on Different Architecture [duplicate]

I have a Cubieboad 2, Raspberry Pi 3 and an Android Smart Phone. On Cubieboard and Raspberry, I write Cubian and Raspbian. On Android, I installed Linux Deploy and installed Debian armhf. All of ...
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0answers
80 views

What architecture is bi-endian at runtime?

If I understand correctly x86_64 is a bi-arch, since it supports running native x86 and x86_64 at the same time (no reboot, no reconfiguration). ia64 is a single arch and does not support x86. I am ...
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2answers
3k views

Why there are `/lib` and `/lib64` but only `/bin`?

In my laptop: $ cat /etc/issue Ubuntu 18.04 LTS \n \l There are two different folders for libraries x86 and x86_64: ~$ ls -1 / bin lib lib64 sbin ... Why for binaries exists only one ...
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2answers
3k views

Are different Linux/Unix kernels interchangeable?

Can I take a Linux kernel and use it with, say, FreeBSD and vice versa (FreeBSD kernel in, say, a Debian)? Is there a universal answer? What are the limitations? What are the obstructions?
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How many kernels can be booted?

I'm wondering if there are architectures, which boot more than one kernel of equal status with no virtualisation supervisor. Just a silly thought, but I see it's not new in the Internet: Multikernel ...
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3answers
91 views

Do variables and aliases fall under the same category?

This is a terminology/architecture question. Some of the most basic implementations for easier control of a system are variables and aliases (and some might add symlinks). Both variables and ...
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6answers
13k views

Will a Linux executable compiled on one “flavor” of Linux run on a different one?

Will the executable of a small, extremely simple program, such as the one shown below, that is compiled on one flavor of Linux run on a different flavor? Or would it need to be recompiled? Does ...
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2answers
95 views

How to know how many rows of code are there for a CLI shell?

How to know how many rows of code are there for a CLI shell, not counting empty lines? The purpose of this question is to learn how I could count the rows of code for both sh and Bash CLI shells. ...
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1answer
461 views

Kernel architecture vs OS architecture

What is the difference between the kernel architecture and the OS architecture? Which of these is relevant when trying to figure out which architecture to compile binaries for? From what I have read, ...
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2answers
190 views

Using a CLI after deleting all shells (rbash, bash, dash, and sh)

As for now, I use my CLI (Command Line Interface) with either rbash, bash, dash, or sh. Given this fact, one can assume that the CLI is not shell dependent, and that even if we will delete all of ...
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1answer
82 views

How come a Desktop Environment be one layer under a shell (kernel-DE-shell instead kernel-shell-DE)? [closed]

I ask the following question as a followup to this question. How come a Desktop Environment be one layer under a shell (kernel-DE-shell instead kernel-shell-DE)? Why I ask this question In Ubuntu, ...
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1answer
71 views

what are the cflags of this microarchitecture?

I'm looking the cflags for the turion X2 M500 processor I'm doing grep -m1 -A3 "vendor_id" /proc/cpuinfo and the output is: vendor_id : AuthenticAMD cpu family : 16 model : 6 model name ...
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2answers
3k views

What does this mkfs.ext4 operand mean?

I am using GParted (0.28.1, Fedora 25) to format a external drive and noticed that the command displayed is: mkfs.ext4 -F -O ^64bit -L "INSTALL" /dev/sdd1 When making disks in the past from command ...
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1answer
1k views

Why doesn't Fedora support i686 architecture?

My desktop has a i686 CPU running macOS and I'm looking to install Fedora 26 i686. It turns out that they only support x86_64 and i386 (plus the various ARM architectures). I've tried to install ...
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1answer
255 views

What is wrong with Lubuntu 17.04 64-bit version?

I have installed Lubuntu 16.10 32 bits on my computer but some softwares I have to use is 64 bits only, so I have to know if my system is 32 or 64 bit. After some searches on the web I have found the ...
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0answers
765 views

I broke apt-get and dpkg when trying to crossgrade my Debian architecture

I was trying to crossgrade my architecture from i386 to amd64 (from https://wiki.debian.org/CrossGrading) and I got some error and broke apt-get and dpkg. apt-get and dpkg output cannot execute ...
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1answer
98 views

How reading command line happens in Ubuntu [duplicate]

As I was doing a project, I came to know about how command line can be read using ncurses and GNU's readline library. However I could not find either in Ubuntu (16.04). I am curious to know how Ubuntu ...
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1answer
445 views

Delayed script to boot exagear and skype using RPI3 on debian

I'm using Exagear desktop to run Skype on RPI3 (Raspbian/Debian). I have some naive users also using the system because of which I want to load both of them on boot (maybe delayed startup service). I ...
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0answers
573 views

Total available physical memory from /proc/meminfo not adding up

I'm trying to account for the available physical memory on a Linux box through /proc/meminfo (output provided below). Accounting for current free memory, user-space physical usage, kernel data ...
4
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1answer
283 views

How can I observer the desktop GUI interacting with the shell?

For example, if I change the sound volume by the ubuntu desktop widget, I think it will issue some commands to the shell or run a script. Is it possible to see what it runs?
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2answers
16k views

dpkg: error: cannot remove architecture 'i386' currently in use by the database

I used this command to add i386 arch: sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386 And then immediately after without installing any packages I tried to remove the i386 arch like so: sudo dpkg --remove-...
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2answers
62 views

If we have 3 layers for any Nix system, where are web servers situated?

I am new to Linux. I guess everyone here knows Dennis Ritchie's basic hierarchy for Unix: Kernel, Shell & Utilities. Given a server bundle (such as LAMP) isn't part the kernel but also isn't part ...
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3answers
537 views

Get Linux architecture from /proc filesystem

I'm writing a program in Java and I need to determine the architecture for which Linux was compiled. I need something like uname -m, but without running any program, but instead from the /proc pseduo-...
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1answer
2k views

apt mirror chooses wrong architecture

I tried to do a repository mirror using apt-mirror and it inexplicably choose the wrong architecture. This is the architecture of the mirroring machine: uname -a Linux MyWorkStation 3.2.0-76-generic ...
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5answers
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Why does superuser exist in Unix/Linux?

I know that some system tasks are permitted only to privileged users/processes, but still a super user (usually the root in Unix/Linux) or administrator can present so much problems in regards to ...
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1answer
510 views

Difference between architecture and platform in linux kernel

I want to know the difference between architecture and platform in Linux kernel. When I had downloaded the latest kernel tarball, observed that a directory named with arch, it contains different names ...
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3answers
606 views

How could Linux use 'sda' device file when it hasn't been installed?

I am installing CentOS Linux distribution. At the partition step, CentOS tells me that it has detected a sda HD in my machine and I should create partitions and assign mount points for this disk. ...
2
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1answer
102 views

How do permissions work with the GUI

There are several things that you must have superuser privileges to do from a terminal that can be done from a normal user account via the gui. e.g. Poweroff/reboot mount/unmount media I understand ...
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8answers
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On Unix systems, why do we have to explicitly `open()` and `close()` files to be able to `read()` or `write()` them?

Why do open() and close() exist in the Unix filesystem design? Couldn't the OS just detect the first time read() or write() was called and do whatever open() would normally do?
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1answer
330 views

Purpose of the binary-all architecture folder folder on debian repositories?

Which is the purpose of the binary-all architecture folder on debian repositories?
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2answers
12k views

Why is rm allowed to delete a file under ownership of a different user?

From the post Why can rm remove read-only files? I understand that rm just needs write permission on directory to remove the file. But I find it hard to digest the behaviour where we can easily delete ...
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2answers
76 views

Usability of /usr/share today

How is separating architecture dependent static data from architecture independent static data useful today? I imagine it could theoretically be useful in multi-architecture networks with a network-...
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2answers
2k views

How does the Linux login work? [duplicate]

I am wondering how the login actually works. It certainly is not part of the kernel, because I can set the login to use ldap for example, or keep using /etc/passwd; but the kernel certainly is able to ...
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2answers
4k views

Why can the waitpid system call only be used with child processes?

The man page wait(2) states that the waitpid system call returns the ECHILD error if the specified process is not a child of the calling process. Why is this? Would waiting on a non-child process ...
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2answers
1k views

Meaning of hardware platform in uname command ouput

man uname -m, --machine print the machine hardware name -i, --hardware-platform print the hardware platform or "unknown" What exactly is meant by hardware platform here and how ...
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1answer
5k views

When to use arch vs. noarch when building RPMs?

Preface By building RPMs I do not mean compiling from source code. I purely mean taking a tar or a 'zip' file with source code or binaries and repackaging it as a RPM. I've been building RPMs from ...
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2answers
3k views

Are “kernel mode” and “user mode” hardware features or software features?

I read that there are two modes called “kernel mode” and “user mode” to handle execution of processes. (Understanding the Linux Kernel, 3rd Edition.) Is that a hardware switch (kernel/user) that is ...
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1answer
1k views

CUPS not working correctly after Debian Wheezy -> Jessie upgrade because of a faulty libpam

I just upgraded a Debian Wheezy to Jessie, by changing the /etc/apt/sources.lst. If important: I pinned systemd to stay with sysvinit, and after the upgrade I removed the pin. If I now do apt-get ...
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1answer
2k views

Relation between system calls and shell commands/utilities

In POSIX, Does a system call function often but not always have a command or utility in shell? Is there some rule of thumb about what kinds of system calls have corresponding commands or utilities ...
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1answer
107 views

Why can X11 access the video card?

This one is maybe a bit theoretical, but... How the heck can X11 touch the video hardware? As I understand it, X11 is an unprivileged user-mode program. But only kernel-mode software can access the ...
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2answers
52 views

Running application compiled on another distribution

I wonder whether I can compile application on one Linux distribution and use it on another Linux distribution (same CPU architecture). If not what problems I can run into? Only problems which came to ...
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1answer
1k views

Why is architecture listed thrice in uname -a?

$ uname -a Linux 3.13.0-29-generic #53-Ubuntu SMP Wed Jun 4 21:00:20 UTC 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux Running ubuntu 12.04.1 LTS. Why does it have the architecture (x86_64) listed thrice?
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2answers
4k views

What are the very fundamental differences in architecture between Unix and Linux? [duplicate]

I watched a short intro to Unix from the 70s (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7FjX7r5icV8 3D animation starts at 1:56), at the end the general tripartite architecture of Unix was displayed as a 3D ...