65

I need to make a backup of a file, and I would like to have a timestamp as part of the name to make it easier to differentiate.

How would you inject the current date into a copy command?

[root@mongo-test3 ~]# cp foo.txt {,.backup.`date`}
cp: target `2013}' is not a directory

[root@mongo-test3 ~]# cp foo.txt {,.backup. $((date)) }
cp: target `}' is not a directory  

[root@mongo-test3 ~]# cp foo.txt foo.backup.`date`
cp: target `2013' is not a directory
102

This isn't working because the command date returns a string with spaces in it.

$ date
Wed Oct 16 19:20:51 EDT 2013

If you truly want filenames like that you'll need to wrap that string in quotes.

$ touch "foo.backup.$(date)"

$ ll foo*
-rw-rw-r-- 1 saml saml 0 Oct 16 19:22 foo.backup.Wed Oct 16 19:22:29 EDT 2013

You're probably thinking of a different string to be appended would be my guess though. I usually use something like this:

$ touch "foo.backup.$(date +%F_%R)"
$ ll foo*
-rw-rw-r-- 1 saml saml 0 Oct 16 19:25 foo.backup.2013-10-16_19:25

See the man page for date for more formatting codes around the output for the date & time.

Additional formats

If you want to take full control if you consult the man page you can do things like this:

$ date +"%Y%m%d"
20131016

$ date +"%Y-%m-%d"
2013-10-16

$ date +"%Y%m%d_%H%M%S"
20131016_193655
  • +1 - I always use a format specifier for the date, either "%Y%m%d-%H%M%S" or "%y%m%d-%H%M%S". – ChuckCottrill Oct 17 '13 at 1:12
  • Just touch foo`date +%F` also works fine. – Vadzim Dec 23 '14 at 14:28
  • caveat: This does not work in csh shell – Govinda Sakhare Jan 24 at 8:47
  • 1
    @GovindaSakhare - csh/tcsh switch the subshell notation to backticks (...) instead of $(..). C shells apparently don't support that notation for subshells. – slm Jan 24 at 13:28
12
cp foo.txt {,.backup.`date`}

This expands to something like cp foo.txt .backup.Thu Oct 17 01:02:03 GMT 2013. The space before the braces starts a new word.

cp foo.txt {,.backup. $((date)) }

The braces are in separate words, so they are interpreted literally. Furthermore, $((…)) is the syntax for arithmetic expansion; the output of date is nothing like an arithmetic expression. Command substitution uses a single set of parentheses: $(date).

cp foo.txt foo.backup.`date`

Closer. You could have expressed this with braces as cp foo.{txt,.backup.`date`}. There is still the problem that the output of date contains spaces, so it needs to be put inside double quotes. This would work:

cp foo.{txt,backup."`date`"}

or

cp foo.{txt,backup."$(date)"}

The default output format of date is not well-suited to a file name, and it might even not work if a locale uses / characters in the default output format. Use a Y-M-D date format so that the lexicographic order on file names is the chronological order (and also to avoid ambiguity between US and international date formats).

cp foo.{txt,backup."$(date +%Y%m%d-%H%M%S)"}
  • last one gave me cp: target `foo..backup.20160913-134158' is not a directory – Kalpesh Soni Sep 13 '16 at 17:42
  • @KalpeshSoni The exact command I posted can't produce this error message. You must have used a different command. – Gilles Sep 13 '16 at 17:45
7

If you really want to use the verbose date, you should protect the backtick. The with this date format is that it has embedded spaces, a no-no in a Unix shell unless you put them inside quotes (or escape them some other way).

cp foo.txt "foo-`date`.txt"

However, I prefer to use the shorter ISO format:

cp foo.txt foo-`date --iso`.txt
5

Use a function, it will make your life easier. This is what I use:

backup () { 
    for file in "$@"; do
        local new=${file}.$(date '+%Y%m%d')
        while [[ -f $new ]]; do
            new+="~";
        done;
        printf "copying '%s' to '%s'\n" "$file" "$new";
        \cp -ip "$file" "$new";
    done
}
4

As date has by default whitespaces in its output, your last command failed. If you had quoted the last argument inside with ", it should work. Your other tries have just wrong syntax

Here a possible solution without whitespaces:

cp foo.txt foo.backup.$(date --iso-8601=seconds)  

or

cp foo.txt foo.backup.`date --iso-8601=seconds`

If you add

bk() {
     cp -a "$1" "${1}_$(date --iso-8601=seconds)"
}

to your .bashrc and re-login/let your bash reread it, you need just to call bk file.txt.

2

You copy file to backup file whose name is created with appended time stamp

cp foo.txt backup_`date +"%d-%m-%Y"`.txt

OR:

You can display content of file using "cat" and redirect output to backup file whose name is created with appended time stamp

cat foo.txt > backup_`date +"%d-%m-%Y"`.txt

You can also use more FORMAT controls options as per your need Eg: %H , %M , %S ,etc.

  • What's the advantage of cat with redirection over cp? – Guido Apr 26 '16 at 13:29
  • It is just alternate way to do so – Atul Rokade Apr 26 '16 at 13:34
1

In bash you could type:

cp /path/to/long/filename !#$_$(date +Is)

Which expands to:

cp /path/to/long/filename /path/to/long/filename_$(date +Is)

Resulting in:

$ ls /path/to/long/filename*
filename  filename_2017-05-10T11:50:10+0300

The beef being date -Is. I like using it because it's easy to remember, type, and allows short versions (like -In if you are precision freak).


! starts an event designator:

 !#     The entire command line typed so far.

And $ is a word designator:

   $      The last word.  This is usually the last argument, but will expand to the zeroth word if there is only one word in the line.
1

When I have to make a backup of a file I usually just do it this way.

cp foo.txt foo.backup.$(date +%F).txt

ls -l

foo.txt foo.backup.2017-9-19.txt

  • 1
    This adds nothing that other answers have not already brought up. Additionally, the %F date format produces 2-digit months, and ls -l usually gives a tiny bit more info than just filenames. – Kusalananda Sep 19 '17 at 17:27

protected by Kusalananda Sep 19 '17 at 17:27

Thank you for your interest in this question. Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site (the association bonus does not count).

Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead?

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.