1

What does ; mean in single line scripts like this:

while true; do sudo -n true; sleep 60; kill -0 '$$' || exit; done 2>/dev/null &

Does it mean new line, or "next command"?

2

It's a separator of commands. Though in the first instance, it might be better to think of it as ending the while statement.

For example, if you wanted to do a loop while some command returns success, you would do something like

while test -f /foo; do some_command; done`

The semicolon is used to indicate the end of the arguments to test. Otherwise it would think that do is another argument to test.

However you can use newlines instead of the semicolon. The following would be exactly equivalent to the example above, just without any semicolons

while test -f /foo
do
some_command
done

In fact with bash, if you run the above command, and then after it finishes (or you CTRL+C it), if you go back in history (up arrow keys or whatnot), you'll notice it replaces the multi-line command with one using semicolons instead.


So yes, the syntax for things like if and while break normal shell behavior.
I've personally always thought the syntax is weird, as the do looks strange. But you get used to it.

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