I have got a bit lost and am not sure which technology to choose for full disk encryption. It is hard to tell if the information out there is still up to date. Is there a current best practice solution for this?
I've been using Debian with encrypted file system and swap on my notebook for three years without problems.
It asks for the password early during the Linux boot and then continues to boot right into my desktop (I disabled the login dialog).
The setup is roughly sda5 -> sda5_crypt -> physical volume dm-0 -> volume group Linux -> logical volumes /dev/Linux/root for / and /dev/Linux/swap for swap.
Swap is encrypted to avoid leaking information.
There is also an unencrypted 200MB boot partition for kernel, grub etc.
I remember that it was a complicated dance in the Debian installer until I got this right.
I've used True Crypt before and find it to work very well.
There are a number of options.
Distributions like OpenSUSE/SLES offer the option to encrypt one or more partitions at installation time.
Most of the time this is not an option as chances are, you do not want to reinstall your operating system.
I use the "encfs" file system, this should work on both Linux, MacOS and FreeBSD as encfs is built on top of FUSE (http://fuse.sourceforge.net/):
The idea is that you can designate certain directories as encrypted directories, and those would require you to enter a password at mount time to access them.