I want to pipe and live play the sound recorded on my raspberry to my MacBook. I've tried the following:

On My raspberry:

I tried to establish a data stream on a port 3333

arecord -D plughw:3,0 -f S16_LE 44100 -t raw | nc -l -p 3333

On my MacBook:

nc 3333 | play -t raw -b 16 -e signed-integer -r 44100 -c 1 -V1 -

With this I can't hear anything on my Mac but getting this output in the terminal:

-: (raw)

 File Size: 0
  Encoding: Signed PCM
  Channels: 1 @ 16-bit
Samplerate: 44100Hz
Replaygain: off
  Duration: unknown

In:0.00% 00:00:00.00 [00:00:00.00] Out:0     [      |      ]        Clip:0
  • well, debugging this: When instead of piping to play, you write the output of your nc invocation to a file, does that contain data? Apr 16 at 12:30
  • hey, I tried this with the following command: nc -l 3333 | sox -t raw -b 16 -e signed-integer -r 44100 -c 1 -V1 - -t wav recording.wav. when I look in the wav file with nano, then I see this: RIFF$^@^@^@WAVEfmt ^P^@^@^@^A^@^A^@D?^@^@?X^A^@^B^@^P^@data^@^@^@^@. When I try to play the file with like quick time player then I get an error. When I use the command for writing in an txt file : nc -l 3333 > file.txt 2>&1 the file is empty.
    – zahntheo
    Apr 16 at 13:41
  • the ending of a file name changes nothing about the content of the file, so "writing to a text file" really never happened. What you show here would seem to be a valid audio file. Apr 16 at 14:22

1 Answer 1


I can't really tell you what goes wrong with your setup in your specific case; you'd want to check whether your nc actually receives data (e.g. by writing to a file, or by piping through pv), and whether your arecord actually captures sound (by writing to a file instead of piping to nc).

Also, not sure that 44100 Hz is an elegant sample rate; most hardware these days natively does 48000 and you're just letting ALSA convert that to 44100 Hz.

What's more important is that you should probably use a sensible transport framer, to allow the receiving end to properly align time, compensate dropped, drop late or reorder packets, learn about the stream format itself. I use MPEG Transport Stream as stream format, as used by things like digital video broadcasting, and other multimedia streaming platforms.

In the wake of that, using TCP for low-latency transport is probably not a great idea, either. You'll also want to limit the transmit buffer size that your network sink uses (in this case, the nc on the RPi). All in all, arecord | nc might simply not be the best streaming approach. Also, in your approach, you get at least as much latency as it takes for the receiving end to start after your sender has been started and ready to connect

What I do when I quickly capture some audio and need to get it into a different machine, mostly for web conferencing reasons, is do the following on the "microphone machine":

ffmpeg \
  -f alsa -channels 1  -sample_rate 24000 -i pipewire \
  -f mpegts -max_packet_size 1024 \
  -c:a libopus -b:a 64k -vbr off -packet_loss 10 -fec on \

let's take that apart:

  • ffmpeg: the program we're running, FFmpeg. Pretty much the standard transcoding/streaming/decoding solution on most platforms.

input options:

  • -f alsa: the input type ("format") is alsa, i.e. we're grabbing sound from the alsa sound system
  • -channels 1: optional I only want mono sound. Omit to use whatever your sound device gives you (probably stereo?), or set to different value if you want to specifically want to capture a different number of channels
  • -sample_rate 24000: optional I'm mostly concerned with speech in which case a 24 kHz sampling rate is much more than enough for excellent audio quality (I'm not a bat, my voice doesn't go much above 1.2 kHz…).
  • -i pipewire: capture from the pipewire ALSA device. In your case, plughw:3,0, it seems. (check available capture devices with arecord -L)

output format options:

  • -f mpegts: after -i we're done with describing the input, so this -f describes the output format. We're streaming MPEG transport stream.
  • -max_packet_size 1024: optional we force the streamer to emit a packet every 1024 bytes. That limits transmit-side latency

audio codec options: optional

  • -c:a libopus: optional c is short for codec, a for audio, and here we use the libopus` encoder. OPUS is a mature, web-standard audio encoder with low-complexity and with high-quality settings.
  • -b:a 64k: optional, but we're setting the encoded bitrate to 64kb/s. That's fairly high-quality, but pretty OK in compute power (think 5% to 20% of one core, at most)
  • -vbr off: optional Force constant (as opposed to variable` bitrate). This makes sense if you plan to stream over a limited-bandwidth link and can't have encoding having short spikes of high rate. Omit on LAN.
  • -packet_loss 10: optional set up the redundancy in packets such that it's OK if 1 in 10 packets gets lost. Makes this robust on connections with occasional packet drops, like some internet connections, some wireless connections etc. Omit on LAN.
  • -fec on: optional after having set the redundancy amount, we also want to actually enable sending of this redunandy for forward error correction purposes. Only makes sense with -packet_loss > 0.

output options:

  • udp:// IP address and port to stream to. Attention! Here the receiver is the listening part, and the transmitter is a UDP socket, so it just pushes out the audio stream with no care for whether someone picks it up. The advantage here is that you can attach and de-attach the receiver as often as you like.

On the receiving end, we'll open a listening socket:

ffplay -f mpegts -nodisp -fflags nobuffer udp://

-nodisp turns of the display (we are not streaming video), -fflags nobuffer makes the input stream parser not try to catch up on old things (i.e., avoids the "late listener" delay you'd get without).

Note that in this scenario, the playing end is the server, which opens the listening socket (as your nc -l did). You can also turn this around, if you want, using zmq:tcp:// where you used udp:// on both sides before, and get the ability to connect multiple listeners to your serving "recorder" pi.

You are of course also absolutely free to use nc -u -l -p 1234 | … instead, if is a program that understands MPEG TS.

  • Oh damn. thanks for the answer. I appreciate it a lot. I start to read now. Give me time to resume it :) I solved I right now by myself. I defined the wrong devices as "senders" and "listeners". Now I go with this: Macbook is listener with the following command: nc -l 3333 | play -t raw -b 16 -e signed-integer -r 44100 -c 1 -. Raspberry is sender : arecord -f S16_LE -r 44100 -t raw | nc 3333.
    – zahntheo
    Apr 16 at 14:22
  • you'll notice that your nc solution requires your receiver to connect very quickly after the transmitter started working, because you get the time between the starting of the recording to the starting of the receiving as latency. (nc's input necessarily buffers all that arecord gives it, and that will then need to be played back first). Try it: run your server part first, then start your client 20 seconds later and see how long it take for sound that the RPi recorded to "appear" on your Mac. Apr 16 at 14:32
  • youre right I noticed it. I tested it and I take some time. The buffet is not what I want. Maybe I can set him lower with a proper command from arecord I read about a parameter to do this. I tested you answer and I must say its a lot better and smoother then arecord. . Its a lot better then just sending without a sensible transport framer. Thanks a lot you gave me a really good way to transmit my audio probably.
    – zahntheo
    Apr 16 at 14:38

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .