Are there any (good known, reliable) file systems on Linux that store the creation time of files and directories in the i-node table?
If there are, is the "changed" time replaced by the creation time of an i-node in a stat call?
The ext4 file system does store the creation time.
stat -c %W myfile can show it to you.
Several file systems store the file creation time, although there is no standard name for this field:
As far as I know ext4, JFS and BTRFS file systems all support an extra field in the files inode to store the creation time, though the naming might differ.
Source: LWN File Creation Times