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I have a Fedora 36 virtual machine. This machine is running on VMWare and it has Hard Disk (SCSI) 60GB in VMWare available to it.

Inside Fedora, when I open up "Disk Utility", there is the top device on the left menu called /dev/sda which is listed as 64GB MBR that has:

  1. Filesystem, Partition 1, 1.1 GB Ext4 - /dev/sda1 - says "mounted at /boot"
  2. Partition 2, 63 GB, LVM2 PV - /dev/sda2 - doesn't say where it's mounted

Underneath there, I have the optical drive listed, and underneath that are 3 more "yellow" disks:

  1. 38 GB Block Device - /dev/fedora_localhost-live/root, mounted at Filesystem Root, 38GB used, 15GB free

  2. 6.4GB Block Device - /dev/fedora_localhost-live/swap

  3. 19GB Block Device - /dev/fedora_localhost-live/home 19GB/2.7GB Free

First of all, I am confused because I do not know what the above three items actually are here. Clearly, they are actually all part of the first-listed "Hard Disk" which was 64GB because thats all this machine has access too. But what I don't understand is that Hard Disk only had 2 partitions: one is near 1GB and the remaining 63GB in the second partition. So what are these "Block Devices?" They also have Volumes. I know what block devices are in principle, I just don't understand the hierarchy/structure Fedora is displaying in this instance.

My second, and primary question is: I am running out of space on my 19GB Block Device which stores my Home data; I need to fix this somehow or I won't be able to continue to work on this machine. How can I do this with this configuration? I have the resources to add more space at the VMWare level if needed.

Updating with requested info:

mount

proc on /proc type proc (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
devtmpfs on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,nosuid,seclabel,size=4096k,nr_inodes=1048576,mode=755,inode64)
securityfs on /sys/kernel/security type securityfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,inode64)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,seclabel,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,size=3269124k,nr_inodes=819200,mode=755,inode64)
cgroup2 on /sys/fs/cgroup type cgroup2 (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,nsdelegate,memory_recursiveprot)
pstore on /sys/fs/pstore type pstore (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
bpf on /sys/fs/bpf type bpf (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,mode=700)
/dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-root on / type ext4 (rw,relatime,seclabel)
selinuxfs on /sys/fs/selinux type selinuxfs (rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime)
systemd-1 on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type autofs (rw,relatime,fd=35,pgrp=1,timeout=0,minproto=5,maxproto=5,direct,pipe_ino=1853)
mqueue on /dev/mqueue type mqueue (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
hugetlbfs on /dev/hugepages type hugetlbfs (rw,relatime,seclabel,pagesize=2M)
debugfs on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
tracefs on /sys/kernel/tracing type tracefs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel)
fusectl on /sys/fs/fuse/connections type fusectl (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
configfs on /sys/kernel/config type configfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
vmware-vmblock on /run/vmblock-fuse type fuse.vmware-vmblock (rw,relatime,user_id=0,group_id=0,default_permissions,allow_other)
tmpfs on /tmp type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,nr_inodes=1048576,inode64)
/dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-home on /home type ext4 (rw,relatime,seclabel)
/dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw,relatime,seclabel)
sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw,relatime)
tmpfs on /run/user/1000 type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,seclabel,size=1634560k,nr_inodes=408640,mode=700,uid=1000,gid=1000,inode64)
gvfsd-fuse on /run/user/1000/gvfs type fuse.gvfsd-fuse (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=1000,group_id=1000)
portal on /run/user/1000/doc type fuse.portal (rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=1000,group_id=1000)

findmnt

TARGET                       SOURCE                                  FSTYPE              OPTIONS
/                            /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-root ext4                rw,relatime,seclabel
├─/proc                      proc                                    proc                rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime
│ └─/proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc systemd-1                               autofs              rw,relatime,fd=35,pgrp=1,timeout=0,minproto=5,maxproto=5,direct,pipe_ino=1853
├─/sys                       sysfs                                   sysfs               rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel
│ ├─/sys/kernel/security     securityfs                              securityfs          rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime
│ ├─/sys/fs/cgroup           cgroup2                                 cgroup2             rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel,nsdelegate,memory_recursiveprot
│ ├─/sys/fs/pstore           pstore                                  pstore              rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel
│ ├─/sys/fs/bpf              bpf                                     bpf                 rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,mode=700
│ ├─/sys/fs/selinux          selinuxfs                               selinuxfs           rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime
│ ├─/sys/kernel/debug        debugfs                                 debugfs             rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel
│ ├─/sys/kernel/tracing      tracefs                                 tracefs             rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel
│ ├─/sys/fs/fuse/connections fusectl                                 fusectl             rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime
│ └─/sys/kernel/config       configfs                                configfs            rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime
├─/dev                       devtmpfs                                devtmpfs            rw,nosuid,seclabel,size=4096k,nr_inodes=1048576,mode=755,inode64
│ ├─/dev/shm                 tmpfs                                   tmpfs               rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,inode64
│ ├─/dev/pts                 devpts                                  devpts              rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,seclabel,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000
│ ├─/dev/mqueue              mqueue                                  mqueue              rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,seclabel
│ └─/dev/hugepages           hugetlbfs                               hugetlbfs           rw,relatime,seclabel,pagesize=2M
├─/run                       tmpfs                                   tmpfs               rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,size=3269124k,nr_inodes=819200,mode=755,inode64
│ ├─/run/vmblock-fuse        vmware-vmblock                          fuse.vmware-vmblock rw,relatime,user_id=0,group_id=0,default_permissions,allow_other
│ └─/run/user/1000           tmpfs                                   tmpfs               rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,seclabel,size=1634560k,nr_inodes=408640,mode=700,uid=1000,gid=1000,inode64
│   ├─/run/user/1000/gvfs    gvfsd-fuse                              fuse.gvfsd-fuse     rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=1000,group_id=1000
│   └─/run/user/1000/doc     portal                                  fuse.portal         rw,nosuid,nodev,relatime,user_id=1000,group_id=1000
├─/tmp                       tmpfs                                   tmpfs               rw,nosuid,nodev,seclabel,nr_inodes=1048576,inode64
├─/home                      /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-home ext4                rw,relatime,seclabel
├─/boot                      /dev/sda1                               ext4                rw,relatime,seclabel
└─/var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs    sunrpc                                  rpc_pipefs          rw,relatime

fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 60 GiB, 64424509440 bytes, 125829120 sectors
Disk model: VMware Virtual S
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x75e14e6f

Device     Boot   Start       End   Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *       2048   2099199   2097152   1G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2       2099200 125829119 123729920  59G 8e Linux LVM


Disk /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-root: 35.61 GiB, 38235275264 bytes, 74678272 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-swap: 6 GiB, 6442450944 bytes, 12582912 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/zram0: 8 GiB, 8589934592 bytes, 2097152 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 4096 = 4096 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-home: 17.39 GiB, 18668847104 bytes, 36462592 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
5
  • Please show exact output of mount, findmnt and fdsik -l. It would give a more precise understanding of what is going on on your machine.
    – White Owl
    Commented Nov 4, 2022 at 14:34
  • @WhiteOwl ok I updated it, thanks! Isnt it also weird that it actually is 60GiB but it says 64GB in the title of the hard disk in disk util?
    – the_endian
    Commented Nov 4, 2022 at 15:14
  • 1
    GiB is different to GB . One GB is about 0.93 GiB
    – PonJar
    Commented Nov 4, 2022 at 19:25
  • 1
    You have a 64GB “disk”. That has two partitions. The small one contains the information required to boot the system. The large one is a LVM volume. Consider it to be a container. In that container there are 3 partitions that add up to the 64GB or thereabouts. The 38GB contains the system and programs. The 19GB contains your user data mainly stuff you have saved. The 6GB is swap space that is used if you run out of system memory. It’s unfortunate you set up the system and user data in different partitions because one will run out of space before the other rendering that space unusable.
    – PonJar
    Commented Nov 4, 2022 at 20:32
  • 1
    You can fix it by reorganising what you have got or adding space and resizing your 19GB “home” partition. This is a good guide to adding space to a LVM volume tecmint.com/extend-and-reduce-lvms-in-linux
    – PonJar
    Commented Nov 4, 2022 at 20:40

1 Answer 1

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0. First, BACK EVERYTHING UP!!!!, also note I have ext4 filesystem - I don't guarantee this works with others.

  1. Add space to the Virtual Machine's "hard disk" in VMWare
  2. In Fedora, I went to Disk Utility and created a new Partition called home_extended with the newly added space from step #1. This was assigned /dev/sda3 - MAKE SURE YOU REPLACE WITH YOUR PROPER DEVICE NAME!
  3. pvcreate /dev/sda3 to create a physical volume from the new partition with the free space.
  4. vgscan showed me Found volume group "fedora_localhost-live" using metadata type lvm2
  5. vgextend fedora_localhost-live /dev/sda3 - this extended my Volume Group above to include the new Physical Volume that was created from the partition with the free space I added
  6. vgdisplay fedora_localhost-live sanity check and make sure things make sense
  7. I ran both lvscan and df -h to check my /home device
  8. lvextend -l +100%FREE /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-home - Took all the rest of the free space from the volume group and added it to /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-home
  9. df -h - the added space does not show up in /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-home yet because the filesystem is still too small
  10. resize2fs /dev/mapper/fedora_localhost--live-home this resized my ext4 filesytem and now all done. This command will not work with all filesystems!

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