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Recently, seemingly randomly, my Debian 11 installation's wifi (Intel AX200) quit working. It said that it was connected in Gnome, but no data could get through even to the router.

When I checked journalctl, I found a series of errors like these¹:

kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: Queue 1 is stuck 0 19
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: Microcode SW error detected. Restarting 0x0.
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: Start IWL Error Log Dump:
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: Status: 0x00000040, count: 6
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: Loaded firmware version: 63.c04f3485.0 cc-a0-63.ucode
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000084 | NMI_INTERRUPT_UNKNOWN       
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00802AF0 | trm_hw_status0
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000000 | trm_hw_status1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x004FAA7E | branchlink2
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x000083A6 | interruptlink1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x000083A6 | interruptlink2
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0000773A | data1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x01000000 | data2
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000000 | data3
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x1901268E | beacon time
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x31E8A949 | tsf low
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000175 | tsf hi
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000000 | time gp1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x009F35FC | time gp2
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000001 | uCode revision type
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0000003F | uCode version major
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0xC04F3485 | uCode version minor
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000340 | hw version
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x18C89000 | board version
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0200001C | hcmd
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x80020000 | isr0
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000000 | isr1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x08F00002 | isr2
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00C3068C | isr3
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000000 | isr4
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0400001C | last cmd Id
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0000773A | wait_event
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000080 | l2p_control
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000020 | l2p_duration
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0000003F | l2p_mhvalid
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000080 | l2p_addr_match
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000009 | lmpm_pmg_sel
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000000 | timestamp
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x000040A8 | flow_handler
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: Start IWL Error Log Dump:
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: Status: 0x00000040, count: 7
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x20000066 | NMI_INTERRUPT_HOST
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000000 | umac branchlink1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x8045541A | umac branchlink2
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x8047367E | umac interruptlink1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0xC008095A | umac interruptlink2
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x01000000 | umac data1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0xC008095A | umac data2
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000000 | umac data3
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0000003F | umac major
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0xC04F3485 | umac minor
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x009F35FA | frame pointer
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0xC0887F18 | stack pointer
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0039010C | last host cmd
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000004 | isr status reg
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: IML/ROM dump:
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000003 | IML/ROM error/state
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x000059AB | IML/ROM data1
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000080 | IML/ROM WFPM_AUTH_KEY_0
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: Fseq Registers:
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x60000000 | FSEQ_ERROR_CODE
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x80290021 | FSEQ_TOP_INIT_VERSION
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00050008 | FSEQ_CNVIO_INIT_VERSION
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0000A503 | FSEQ_OTP_VERSION
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x80000003 | FSEQ_TOP_CONTENT_VERSION
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x4552414E | FSEQ_ALIVE_TOKEN
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00100530 | FSEQ_CNVI_ID
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000532 | FSEQ_CNVR_ID
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00100530 | CNVI_AUX_MISC_CHIP
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x00000532 | CNVR_AUX_MISC_CHIP
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x05B0905B | CNVR_SCU_SD_REGS_SD_REG_DIG_DCDC_VTRIM
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: 0x0000025B | CNVR_SCU_SD_REGS_SD_REG_ACTIVE_VDIG_MIRROR
kernel: iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: WRT: Collecting data: ini trigger 4 fired (delay=0ms).
kernel: ieee80211 phy0: Hardware restart was requested
systemd-resolved[953]: Using degraded feature set UDP instead of UDP+EDNS0 for DNS server <dns server IP is censored>.
systemd-resolved[953]: Using degraded feature set UDP instead of UDP+EDNS0 for DNS server <dns server IP is censored>.

When I put various parts of this error into search engines, I find lots of people having similar, but not quite the same errors:

Most of these proposed fixes to similar but not identical errors (e.g. it's intermittent for most of the other people, but for me my wifi chip flat out just does not work at all ever) do absolutely nothing to change how my AX200 behaves, but some produce some improvement. Adding options iwlwifi 11n_disable=1 to /etc/modprobe.d/iwlwifi.conf makes it connect reliably, but I am stuck with speeds of 10-20mbps, which is not acceptable. Adding options iwlmvm power_scheme=1 and options iwlwifi swcrypto=0 bt_coex_active=0 power_save=0 allows some connection to take place for a few minutes at a time via 2.4GHz wifi instead of 5GHz wifi and limits the speed to 100mbps (I can normally get 200-350mbps over wifi, and this works fine on my phone still), until it disconnects again and requires much fiddling (e.g. a random smattering of restarting, modprobing, and other such things) to reconnect.

As part of debugging this issue, I started up my computer with an Ubuntu live USB in which everything worked perfectly. Thus, I thought that for me the issue was limited to Debian 11 but not Ubuntu. But, after installation and associated updates, Ubuntu now has the exact same issue. Thus, I suspect that it's a relatively recent update to some relevant package in both Debian 11 and Ubuntu 21.10, but I couldn't say which one.

I have two questions:

  1. Firstly, how can I fix this?
  2. Secondly, what, exactly, broke and how?

1: The journalctl has the timestamps removed for privacy (time zone) and is from my new Ubuntu installation instead of Debian 11 as the Debian 11 installation is erased at the time of writing.

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