LUKS works by dedicating a small amount of space, typically on the encrypted partition, to the "LUKS header". That header contains a checksum, so it should detect corruption. Further, there are two copies; each with their own checksum, so it should automatically use the other copy if one is corrupted. Along with the header, there is the keyslot data, which actually stores the encryption keys. That is not duplicated, I believe will at least detect corruption (and you could use a backup key/passphrase if you have one).
Documentation of the format can be found at https://gitlab.com/cryptsetup/LUKS2-docs/blob/master/luks2_doc_wip.pdf
So I think it's very unlikely the on-disk data got corrupted, and even more unlikely that doesn't get a corruption error instead of a wrong passphrase.
More likely, you're just entering the wrong passphrase — possibly you're using a different keyboard layout, had caps lock on, or you've forgotten it. If you have a backup recovery key, you can use that to recover your data.
(Side note, if it did get corrupted and you don't have a backup of the header + keyslots or the master key, the data is entirely unrecoverable).
Frostschutz points out that if you're still on the old LUKS1 format then there isn't a checksum, so corruption could occur (though there are still magic numbers, etc., so if the entire sector were overwritten that'd be noticed). Also, if you've upgraded from a very old cryptsetup/gcrypt (2014-era), then there was a bugfix which broke cryptsetup; see https://gitlab.com/cryptsetup/cryptsetup/-/wikis/FrequentlyAskedQuestions#8-issues-with-specific-versions-of-cryptsetup for details.