I’m using Debian 11 on a Raspberry Pi 4 (image found here). sshd is properly configured (I only edited /etc/ssh/sshd_config, the rest is completely fresh from system installation) and works correctly when I start it manually. However it doesn’t start automatically by systemd at boot. sudo systemctl status sshd returns this:

● ssh.service - OpenBSD Secure Shell server
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/ssh.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: inactive (dead)
       Docs: man:sshd(8)

There is nothing related to ssh in journalctl’s output.

This is the content of /lib/systemd/system/ssh.service:

Description=OpenBSD Secure Shell server
Documentation=man:sshd(8) man:sshd_config(5)
After=network.target auditd.service

ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/sshd -t
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/sshd -D $SSHD_OPTS
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/sshd -t
ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID


The file sshd_not_to_be_run does not exist. network.target is active. I also installed auditd just for troubleshoot and it successfully starts automatically, but ssh.service is still dead after reboot.

I run out of ideas…


I just discovered that a sshd process spawns on every connection demand. It is managed by systemd itself and it’s clearly printed in the journal when some foreign computers try to connect to mine:

oct. 30 13:09:30 RaspServeur systemd[1]: Started OpenBSD Secure Shell server per-connection daemon (
░░ Subject: L'unité (unit) ssh@4- a terminé son démarrage
░░ Defined-By: systemd
░░ Support: https://www.debian.org/support
░░ L'unité (unit) ssh@4- a terminé son démarrage, avec le résultat done.
oct. 30 13:09:30 RaspServeur audit[1]: SERVICE_START pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj==unconfined msg='unit=ssh@4- comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" ho>
oct. 30 13:09:33 RaspServeur sshd[1861]: error: kex_exchange_identification: Connection closed by remote host
oct. 30 13:09:33 RaspServeur sshd[1861]: Connection closed by port 45784
oct. 30 13:09:33 RaspServeur systemd[1]: ssh@4- Succeeded.
░░ Subject: Unit succeeded
░░ Defined-By: systemd
░░ Support: https://www.debian.org/support
░░ The unit ssh@4- has successfully entered the 'dead' state.
oct. 30 13:09:33 RaspServeur audit[1]: SERVICE_STOP pid=1 uid=0 auid=4294967295 ses=4294967295 subj==unconfined msg='unit=ssh@4- comm="systemd" exe="/usr/lib/systemd/systemd" hos>

It’s like a parallel installation of sshd exists with a default configuration. My own configuration with settings like a specific port number to use can’t work without starting manually the sshd.service. But I can successfully connect to that shadow sshd with default port, and systemctl status sshd still reports a dead service…

The situation becomes creepy, I’m now two fingers away to erase the SD card and install an image of another distribution with less pre-configuration.


2 Answers 2


Could this be the same issue as the one the asker of question #442181 had? I.e. sshd fails to start at boot because the interface/address it wants to bind to isn't ready yet. You mention that you've specified a non-standard port for the server socket, have you also specified a particular network interface and/or IP address?

I don't know why systemd instead starts a per-connection daemon that uses the standard configuration, though. It might be part of the default system configuration, as you suggest. In question #507705 they talk about systemd "socket activation", which apparently is the feature that provides per-connection service spawning. Look for a systemd unit file named ssh.socket. You can use man systemd.socket to get information about how the feature works.

Edit: You should be able to use systemctl status ssh.socket to check whether systemd's SSH server socket is enabled.

  • 1
    Indeed, there is a ssh.socket unit implemented, with a line Conflicts=ssh.service inside the definition file. So I disabled this unit, rebooted, then my sshd.service started automatically as expected. Thanks for pointing me to the culprit. Nov 2, 2021 at 17:58
  • Too bad that the systemctl status ssh* returns only the ssh.service unit, not ssh.socket… Instead I would have discovered it and diagnosed the issue much earlier. Nov 2, 2021 at 18:04

If you start sshd manually, systemd will not register that as started, so it makes sense that systemctl shows nothing. Each sshd really is a listening process and after a connection has been made, a separate process dealing with this connection is forked. If you ps there will be multiple sshd processes reflecting this. Ff you kill the sshd-listener, the other sshd processes that are handling connections will still be alive.

If you start sshd and do a systemctl start sshd. That's the equivalent of starting 2 sshds, which can block if they all try to use the same port.

Hope that helps

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