I'm new to the world of linux and programming so my question may be very basic but I can't find an answer anywhere.

I'm running a python file (to do a regression so I'm expecting tables as result) on a virtual cluster using a shell file. The job launches and runs fine but I can't visualize the result (print them on prompt) nor create a file with the output.

What could I do to see the results of my python file? Is there a command to put in the bash or in my Python code?

I've already tried a couple of solutions that did not work like putting the following command in the bash python mycode.py > SomeFile.txt This generated an empty txt file named SomeFile.

I also tried adding the following lines in my Python code to get the results in tex and pickle files but it didn't work either:

print(f"Output file: {results.data.htmlFileName}")
print(f'LaTeX file: {results.data.latexFileName}')
print(f'Pickle file: {results.data.pickleFileName}')

Thank you in advance for any help :)

To have a better idea of the Python code that I want to run on the cluster I insert below the script in mycode.py (small clarification: since it is the first code I run so as a test I only ask for 5 Monte Carlo draws but the objective is to ask for 100000 draws or more)

#Import packages
import pandas as pd
import biogeme.database as db
import biogeme.biogeme as bio
import biogeme.models as models
from biogeme.models import logit
from biogeme.expressions import Beta, DefineVariable, bioDraws, log, MonteCarlo
from datetime import datetime

#Prepare the data
step2_sup3_7ex = pd.read_table("step2_sup3_7ex.txt")
database = db.Database("step2_sup3_7ex",step2_sup3_7ex)

# The following statement allows you to use the names of the variable
# as Python variable.

#model specification
#parameters to be estimated: as a reference mode, we choose the car

#Alternative specific constant:
ASC_CAR = Beta ( "ASC_CAR" ,0 ,None ,None , 1 ) #1 as a last parameter so it will not be estimated since we decided to have the car as a reference alternative
ASC_PT = Beta ( "ASC_PT" ,0 ,None ,None , 0 ) 
ASC_BICYCLE = Beta ( "ASC_BICYCLE" ,0 ,None ,None , 0 )

#alternative specific attributes 
#the used starting values are 0 because from exeperience with S2B3 using the starting values of prevous models gives results with low goodness of fit
B_COST = Beta("B_COST",0,None,None,0)

B_TIME_CAR = Beta("B_TIME_CAR",0,None,None,0)
B_TIME_PT = Beta("B_TIME_PT",0,None,None,0)

B_POLL_mean = Beta("B_POLL_mean",0,None,None,0)
B_POLL_std = Beta("B_POLL_std",0.1,None,None,0)

B_PHYS_mean = Beta("B_PHYS_mean",0,None,None,0)
B_PHYS_std = Beta("B_PHYS_std",0.1,None,None,0)
#Individual effect of the % of people adopting a behavior
B_PRCT50 = Beta("B_PRCT50",0,None,None,1)
B_PRCT75 = Beta("B_PRCT75",0,None,None,0)
B_PRCT90 = Beta("B_PRCT90",0,None,None,0)

#we cross the level of risk of sickness due to air pollution with the % of people adopting the mobility behavior: pour chaque niveau on a un paramètre spécifique
B_POLL_PRCT50_mean = Beta("B_POLL_PRCT50_mean",0,None,None,1)
B_POLL_PRCT50_std = Beta("B_POLL_PRCT50_std",0.1,None,None,1)
B_POLL_PRCT75_mean = Beta("B_POLL_PRCT75_mean",0,None,None,0)
B_POLL_PRCT75_std = Beta("B_POLL_PRCT75_std",0.1,None,None,0)
B_POLL_PRCT90_mean = Beta("B_POLL_PRCT90_mean",0,None,None,0)
B_POLL_PRCT90_std = Beta("B_POLL_PRCT90_std",0.1,None,None,0)
#Risk variation (specific delta for each health attribute)
delta_POLL = Beta('delta_POLL',0,None,None,0) #delta is positive, varies from 0 to +infinity
delta_POLL75 = Beta('delta_POLL75',0,None,None,0)
delta_POLL90 = Beta('delta_POLL90',0,None,None,0)
delta_PHYS = Beta('delta_PHYS',0,None,None,0)

#parameters of the status quo 
B_STAT_CAR = Beta("B_STAT_CAR",0,None,None,1)
B_STAT_PT = Beta("B_STAT_PT",0,None,None,0)

#Socioeconomic parameters:
B_AGE = Beta('B_AGE',0,None,None,0)
B_AGE2 = Beta('B_AGE2',0,None,None,0)
B_GENDER = Beta('B_GENDER',0,None,None,0)

# Random parameters 
B_PHYS_random = B_PHYS_mean + B_PHYS_std * bioDraws('B_PHYS_random','NORMAL')
B_POLL_random = B_POLL_mean + B_POLL_std * bioDraws('B_POLL_random','NORMAL')

B_POLL_PRCT50_random = B_POLL_PRCT50_mean + B_POLL_PRCT50_std * bioDraws('B_POLL_PRCT50_random', 'NORMAL')
B_POLL_PRCT75_random = B_POLL_PRCT75_mean + B_POLL_PRCT75_std * bioDraws('B_POLL_PRCT75_random', 'NORMAL')
B_POLL_PRCT90_random = B_POLL_PRCT90_mean + B_POLL_PRCT90_std * bioDraws('B_POLL_PRCT90_random', 'NORMAL')

U_CAR = ASC_CAR + B_TIME_CAR * temps1_C1Q + B_COST * cout1_C1Q 

U_PT = (ASC_PT + B_TIME_PT * temps2_C1Q + B_COST * cout2_C1Q +
        B_PHYS_random * (phys_act1_C1Q - phys_act2_C1Q)**delta_PHYS +
        (B_POLL_random + B_POLL_PRCT75_random * prct75 + B_POLL_PRCT90_random * prct90 ) * (poll1_C1Q - poll2_C1Q)**(delta_POLL + delta_POLL75 * prct75 + delta_POLL90 * prct90) +
        B_PRCT75 * prct75 + B_PRCT90 * prct90 +
        B_STAT_PT * stat_TC + B_STAT_BICYCLE * stat_velo +
        B_AGE * age_cont + B_AGE2 * age2_cont + B_GENDER * homme)

U_BICYCLE = (ASC_BICYCLE + B_TIME_BICYCLE * temps3_C1Q + B_COST * cout3_C1Q + 
    B_PHYS_random * (phys_act1_C1Q - phys_act3_C1Q)**delta_PHYS +                     
    (B_POLL_random + B_POLL_PRCT75_random * prct75 + B_POLL_PRCT90_random * prct90 ) * (poll1_C1Q - poll3_C1Q)**(delta_POLL + delta_POLL75 * prct75 + delta_POLL90 * prct90) +  
    B_PRCT75 * prct75 + B_PRCT90 * prct90 + 
    B_STAT_PT * stat_TC + B_STAT_BICYCLE * stat_velo +
    B_AGE * age_cont + B_AGE2 * age2_cont + B_GENDER * homme)

#associating the utility fcts with the numbering of the altrnatives 
V = {5: U_CAR,
     4: U_PT,
     1: U_BICYCLE,
     } #V is a python dictionnary
#associate the avaiability conditions with the alternatives  
av = {5: 5,
     4: 4,
     1: 1,
     } #dictionnary

# Choice model (Random coefficients/ mixed logit model)
prob = logit(V,av,choix_C1Q)
logprob = log(MonteCarlo(prob))

biogeme = bio.BIOGEME(database,logprob,numberOfDraws=5)
biogeme.modelName = "S2A3_MLdelta_5MC"
start_time = datetime.now()

# As the estimation may take a while and risk to be interrupted, we save the iterations,
# and restore them before the estimation.
fname = "__MLdelta5MC.iters"
# Estimate the parameters.
results = biogeme.estimate(saveIterations=True, file_iterations=fname)

#read the results 
print(f"Estimation time: {datetime.now() - start_time}")

# Get the results in a pandas table
pandasResults = results.getEstimatedParameters()

print(f"Nbr of observations: {database.getNumberOfObservations()}")
print(f"LL(0) =    {results.data.initLogLike:.3f}")
print(f"LL(beta) = {results.data.logLike:.3f}")
print(f"rho bar square = {results.data.rhoBarSquare:.3g}")
print(f"Output file: {results.data.htmlFileName}")
print(f'LaTeX file: {results.data.latexFileName}')
print(f'Pickle file: {results.data.pickleFileName}')
  • Yes, no problem @Peregrino69. I edited my question adding the script of mycode.py
    – Rim
    Sep 30, 2021 at 13:34
  • Great :-) Unfortunately I can't help as I don't speak python, but others do. I'll delete my now-unnecessary comment to leave space for knowledgeable ones :-) Sep 30, 2021 at 13:40

1 Answer 1


It's probably too late to be useful but I think what you are looking for is the '-u' argument.

$ man python

. . .

-u Force stdin, stdout and stderr to be totally unbuffered. On systems where it matters, also put stdin, stdout and stderr in binary mode. Note that there is internal buffering in xreadlines(), readlines() and file-object iterators ("for line in sys.stdin") which is not influenced by this option. To work around this, you will want to use "sys.stdin.readline()" inside a "while 1:" loop.

. . .

So, in your job file, you should put:

python -u mycode.py > Somefile.text

Alternatively, and I would recommend this, you can use python file handling to better manage your data. But if for some reason you can not, then the above stated is the way to go.

  • Thankyou! This was driving me nuts! Can also put it in the first line of the file, like so: #!/usr/bin/python3 -u Then if you chmod +x mycode.py you can just call it with ./mycode.py, and piping output will work.
    – RGD2
    Aug 29, 2022 at 4:13

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