I recently installed Debian 11 (bullseye) onto a second SSD in my computer (so I'm dual-booting with Windows on another). I used the official installation image and had to include the firmware-iwlwifi package on the installation drive which worked fine and was able to use my wifi adapter during installation.

Since then, when I boot into Debian and check the GNOME settings dialog I see "No Wi-Fi Adapter Found". However, this is inconsistent and it's sometimes working fine (I've yet to notice any pattern behind this).

I've discovered that my wifi adapter is an "Intel Wi-Fi 6 AX200 160MHz" and you can see in the snippet of output from lspci -v here it is listed along with the iwlwifi firmware:

04:00.0 Network controller: Intel Corporation Wi-Fi 6 AX200 (rev 1a)
        Subsystem: Intel Corporation Wi-Fi 6 AX200
        Kernel modules: iwlwifi

I can also see that the module is currently loaded, as per this snippet of output from lsmod (note that third column is showing it is used by 0 running programs):

iwlwifi            294912  0

I've done some searching around and all previous questions I could find related to this (such as this one) are for an older Linux kernel or older versions of Debian (suggesting to use the backported package). However, as I understand it, my adapter should be supported by the latest version of package-iwlwifi for bullseye which I have installed.

What might cause this behaviour or what steps might I take to find and resolve the problem?

  • WiFi has nothing whatsoever to do with Bluetooth. iwlwifi is the drivers for Intel WiFi interfaces, most often built into laptops with Intel CPUs. What exactly is "is sometimes not found"? Is the card not detected/configured, doesn't connect to the network, ...?
    – vonbrand
    Sep 6 at 2:22
  • @vonbrand I only mention bluetooth because the adapter also supports bluetooth and that portion seems to be working when the wifi isn't. And to clarify, it seems as though the card is not detected.
    – kymkcay
    Sep 6 at 7:31
  • My Intel combined wireless/bluetooth adapter does bluetooth on USB; maybe yours does to? That would explain bluetooth working. To debug: check vendor and device ids (lspci, lsusb), check which kernel modules are loaded (dmesg after boot, lsmod), check if the vendor/device id is in the kernel module which should pick it up (modinfo).
    – dirkt
    Sep 6 at 11:23

I was able to find the problem thanks to these specific lines of output from dmesg | grep iwl which show iwlwifi failing to probe the adapter:

[   56.478063] iwlwifi 0000:04:00.0: enabling device (0000 -> 0002)
[   56.511447] iwlwifi: probe of 0000:04:00.0 failed with error -110

Searching more specifically for failed probing lead me to find that the problem was due to duel booting with Windows 10 and having the Windows "fast startup" feature enabled (on by default). Disabling this has resolved the issue for me.

Relevant text from https://wireless.wiki.kernel.org/en/users/drivers/iwlwifi#about_dual-boot_with_windows_and_fast-boot_enabled:

If you have a dual-boot machine with a recent version of Windows and start seeing problems during initialization of the WiFi device when booting Linux, the problem could be due to the “fast startup” feature on Windows.

With this feature enabled, Windows don't really shut down the entire system, but leaves things partially running so you can start the machine faster again. Try to disable this option, on Windows 10 it should be in “Control Panel→Hardware and Sound→Power Options→System Settings”. Select “Chooose what the power buttons do” to access the System Settings from the Power Options. Then disable the “Fast Startup” option in “Shutdown Settings”. This will cause Windows to fully shutdown and may solve the issue.

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