263

I want to know whether a disk is a solid-state drive or hard disk.

lshw is not installed. I do yum install lshw and it says there is no package named lshw. I do not know which version of http://pkgs.repoforge.org/lshw/ is suitable for my CentOS.

I search the net and there is nothing that explain how to know whether a drive is SSD or HDD. Should I just format them first?

Result of fdisk -l:

Disk /dev/sda: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00074f7d

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          14      103424   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              14         536     4194304   82  Linux swap / Solaris
Partition 2 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda3             536       14594   112921600   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdc: 120.0 GB, 120034123776 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 14593 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000


Disk /dev/sdb: 128.0 GB, 128035676160 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 15566 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000


Disk /dev/sdd: 480.1 GB, 480103981056 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 58369 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
4
  • 1
    If this really is a SSD you might want to reformat it to align the erase blocks with the partitions.
    – symcbean
    Feb 21 '13 at 13:58
  • 2
    SATA (Serial ATA) refers to the connection type of the drive, and does not imply that it is a Hard Disk Drive (HDD). SSDs can simultaneously be SATA, so I'm suggesting an edit to the title.
    – SpellingD
    Feb 21 '13 at 17:10
  • Nowadays, the output of fdisk -l also includes a Disk model line for each physical disk, where SSD disks typically have the string SSD in their model name which appears there (at least on my system, and otherwise you could search the Internet for the model). But other answers below are perhaps more robust.
    – Matan
    Jun 6 at 17:55

10 Answers 10

420

Linux automatically detects SSD, and since kernel version 2.6.29, you may verify sda with:

cat /sys/block/sda/queue/rotational

You should get 1 for hard disks and 0 for a SSD.

It will probably not work if your disk is a logical device emulated by hardware (like a RAID controller).

See this answer for more information about SSD partitioning, filesystem...

13
  • 2
    On Stackoverflow somebody found this sys-info didn't work.
    – PythoNic
    Jul 23 '14 at 10:55
  • 1
    @totor Better add this comment on the other post. I don't know his/her kernel version :)
    – PythoNic
    Sep 4 '14 at 13:21
  • 4
    @Totor You are correct in the "hybrid" drives. However, dual-drive hybrids show up as two individual drives, where SSHD (Solid-State Hybrid Drive) shows up as a single drive. So, the SSHD would show rotational of 1.
    – Terrance
    Jun 30 '16 at 16:18
  • 8
    On virtual servers, you may need to fetch /sys/block/vda/queue/rotational Nov 8 '16 at 21:45
  • 2
    @Ferrybig There are only SSDs in NVME format, not HDDs (unless you do have some strange breakout adapter from NVME slot to plain SATA cable). But not sure if even SATA SSD over NVME shows as NVME in linux or as plain sdX.
    – Marki555
    Dec 3 '19 at 9:20
162

With lsblk (part of the util-linux package):

lsblk -d -o name,rota
NAME ROTA
sda     0
sdb     0
sdc     1

where ROTA means rotational device (1 if true, 0 if false)

6
  • 2
    That utility seems to report the same information as in /sys/block/.../rotational.
    – dma_k
    Oct 20 '15 at 10:45
  • @dma_k Little wonder, considering it appears to use that one. Try it yourself: strace lsblk -d -o name,rota /dev/sda 2>&1 | grep --context=3 --color rotational
    – user
    May 13 '16 at 16:30
  • 5
    Actually I was looking into various ways because some USB controllers don't tell that drive is actually non-rotational (for example, USB flash) and there is no way in Linux to tell the truth. At the end of the day I have fixed that by creating the explicit rule in /etc/udev/rules.d/90-non-rotational.rules: ACTION=="add|change", SUBSYSTEMS=="usb", ENV{ID_SERIAL}=="SanDisk_Ultra_Fit_*-0:0", ATTR{queue/rotational}="0", ATTR{queue/scheduler}="deadline"
    – dma_k
    Jun 8 '16 at 18:01
  • 1
    lsblk reports "0" for all my good old SATA spinning HDDs here (ASROCK mobo). « some USB controllers don't tell that drive is actually non-rotational (for example, USB flash) » @dma_k this is so true --and better this way than the other way for USB wired external spinning HDDs IMHA.
    – tuk0z
    Sep 14 '16 at 20:45
  • 4
    This works best for me, but it includes redundant/unwanted loop devices (e.g. due to Ubuntu snaps). A slight improvement is: lsblk -d -e 7 -o NAME,ROTA,DISC-MAX,MODEL which excludes loop devices + adds the model name (manufacturer) and disk capacity. Jan 28 '20 at 16:01
60

Use smartctl (install by installing smartmontools) to retrieve vendor information,

sudo smartctl -a /dev/sdb

If you see a line like this,

Rotation Rate: Solid State Device

That would be a SSD drive.

0
38

I needed to do this on the VPS and none of the provided solutions worked for me,

this answer did the trick

https://serverfault.com/questions/551453/how-do-i-verify-that-my-hosting-provider-gave-me-ssds/551495#551495

so, it is about reading random data from the drive and assessing the time.

time for i in `seq 1 1000`; do
    dd bs=4k if=/dev/sda count=1 skip=$(( $RANDOM * 128 )) >/dev/null 2>&1;
done

here are my results for SSD

real    0m1.375s
user    0m0.285s
sys     0m0.944s

and HDD

real    0m14.249s
user    0m0.752s
sys     0m6.284s
5
  • 1
    I have a non-ssd, RAID10, and my results are: real 0m1.351s - user: 0m0.307s - sys: 0m0.560s
    – the_nuts
    Apr 10 '16 at 10:48
  • 5
    This is a good answer and it does work across the board. The thing is some HDDs are quite fast and the results can be similar to those of SSDs. Still, this answer provides a good metric.
    – itoctopus
    Jun 10 '16 at 4:57
  • 1
    On my VPS without an SSD this provides results like your SSD example. I believe this may be fooled by "hybrid" (SSD cached HDD) setups.
    – trr
    Aug 16 '16 at 1:40
  • doesn't work for me. I find SSD and HDD produce similar result.
    – qqibrow
    Oct 3 '18 at 20:46
  • 1
    On a VPS hardware's virtualized. You can't really tell if your files are stored on a HDD, cached, or stored on a SSD.
    – vidarlo
    Feb 9 '19 at 22:45
17

The other answers already tell you how to get this information in a number of ways , including /proc. But you must expect all these mechanisms to lie if there's any virtualisation in the way, such as a hybrid SAN array with multiple tiers, or if the Linux machine is a virtual machine (where Linux will probably report the disk as a basic SCSI rotating disk, regardless of what the hardware really is)

4
  • this may be one of the more important responses... and also within the BIOS, or EFI/UEFI one may need to set the SATA controller mode to AHCI and then also mark each disk as SSD within the bios. My Asrock board on home pc is like this, can't remember if there was a similiar thing on server boards (supermicro) I have at work but i don't use SSD at work.
    – ron
    Aug 16 '18 at 17:50
  • @ron - What do you mean by setting the SATA controller mode to AHCI? How does it affect the ability to accurately report if the device is a SSD or not?
    – Motivated
    Dec 28 '18 at 5:03
  • look up AHCI vs IDE, wording from first web search: IDE is considered adequate for the average computer user, and is the most compatible with other technology, particularly older devices. However, it lacks support for new technologies...AHCI provides a standard system that designers and developers can use to configure, detect, or program SATA/AHCI adapters.*
    – ron
    Jan 3 '19 at 22:29
  • that is a basic settings in the BIOS, somewhere under Storage, the choices are IDE, AHCI, and also depending on make/model/year of motherboard can also offer RAID. SSD's came out long after IDE basically went obsolete and the standard became AHCI, For example installing Windows95 on a computer today it would not recognize any hardware... being in IDE mode certainly would not help communication with a SSD not so much accuracy but simply being able to communicate with a SATA controller which is based on AHCI protocols.
    – ron
    Jan 3 '19 at 22:33
12

check cat /proc/scsi/scsi. there you should see the exact model of your disk. then you just google the model to find info about it.

1
  • 3
    dmesg will contain the same info. dmesg | grep -i -e scsi -e ata
    – Matt
    Feb 21 '13 at 9:41
4

This is an old post but I wanted to share another way to do this which I found out by accident:

sg_vpd --page=bdc /dev/sda

This commands fetches the Vital Product Data for the block device characteristics. For a rotating head disk, the output will include: Nominal rotation rate: 7200 rpm For an SSD, it will include: Non-rotating medium (e.g. solid state)

2
  • +1. nice, but running that on my (aging and soon to be replaced) WD Greens says Medium rotation rate is not reported. hdparm and smartmonctl say the same. I guess WD don't want to tell.
    – cas
    Aug 4 '16 at 13:41
  • sg_vpd -i might be more useful, at least it gives vendor info on from the drive. Doesn't work on a raid, tho'.
    – Dale
    Jan 11 '19 at 16:30
2

Type this in your Linux terminal:

cat /proc/scsi/scsi

Like mine:

$ cat /proc/scsi/scsi
Attached devices:
Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
  Vendor: ATA      Model: ST1000LM024 HN-M Rev: 0004
  Type:   Direct-Access                    ANSI  SCSI revision: 05
Host: scsi1 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
  Vendor: ATA      Model: SAMSUNG SSD PM83 Rev: 3D1Q
  Type:   Direct-Access                    ANSI  SCSI revision: 05
Host: scsi2 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00
  Vendor: HL-DT-ST Model: DVD+-RW GT80N    Rev: A103
  Type:   CD-ROM                           ANSI  SCSI revision: 05

You can see the model of your hard drive if it is SSD or HHD.

2
  • This seems to show only ATA/SCSI block-devices, others such as NVMe SSDs do not show. Jan 27 '20 at 22:36
  • if your disk is behind a raid controller, you will only see the raid controller such as Vendor: LSI Model: SMC3108 Rev: 4.27
    – ron
    Jan 28 '20 at 22:01
2
find /sys/block/* -maxdepth 1 -exec echo {} \; -exec grep '0' {}/queue/rotational \; | grep -B1 '^0' | grep '^/' | sed 's/^.*\///g'

This searches all block devices and check to see if it is rotary (1); if not (0) it is ssd.

This only displays discs marked as ssd.

3
  • ajouté | grep -v 'loop' dans la commande pour ignorer les "block device" virtuel ex: for SsDrive in $(find /sys/block/* -maxdepth 1 -exec echo {} \; -exec grep '0' {}/queue/rotational \; | grep -v 'loop' | grep -B1 '^0' | grep '^/' | sed 's/^.*\///g') ; do find /dev/ -name $SsDrive[0-9] ; done
    – user515185
    Jan 28 '20 at 21:50
  • I noticed after my translation yesterday that you've previously rolled back attempted translations. Please note that answers on this site should be in English. Thank you!
    – Jeff Schaller
    Jan 30 '20 at 17:56
  • Add | grep -v 'loop' on the command line to forget the loop (virtual block device ) ex: for SsDrive in $(find /sys/block/* -maxdepth 1 -exec echo {} \; -exec grep '0' {}/queue/rotational \; | grep -v 'loop' | grep -B1 '^0' | grep '^/' | sed 's/^.*\///g') ; do find /dev/ -name $SsDrive[0-9] ; done
    – user515185
    Jan 30 '20 at 21:20
-1

If you want to be lazy and realy want to read something like ssd or hdd give

sudo lshw -short -C disk

a try.

My Output shows both:

H/W path         Device      Class          Description
=======================================================
/0/100/17/0      /dev/sda    disk           1TB TOSHIBA MQ01ABD1
/0/100/17/1      /dev/sdb    disk           128GB SSD PHISON 128GB
/0/100/17/0.0.0  /dev/sr0    disk           DVDRAM GUD0N

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