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An extract from a book-

Linux organizes attached storage as block devices, you can move to the /sys/block/ directory and list its contents. Among the contents will be a directory called sda/. (Remember that sda stands for Storage Drive A.) That’s the first drive used by your system on boot:

Change to the sda/ directory and run ls. Among its contents, you’ll probably see files with names like sda1, sda2, and sda5. Each of these represents one of the partitions created by Linux to better organize the data on your drive.

On my Ubuntu machine, the below partitions are shown for sda-

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Running df -h | grep sda gives

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As seen, /dev/sda5 is mounted on '/' and /dev/sda1 on /boot/efi.

Why is there no mounting point for partition sda2?

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sda2 is an extended partition, which is a partition used with the MBR partitioning scheme to store other partitions. It contains sda5. It serves no purpose other than to store other partitions and is therefore not a candidate for mounting.

See What mount points exist on a typical Linux system? for details.

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