Unfortunately there’s no straightforward answer, or even list of devices to look up; the wiki page you linked to was intended as such but hasn’t been updated in a while.
However, support for most devices is determined by the kernel, so one can check there to at least determine a “not earlier than” version. In your case, the device in question uses PCI id 8086:15FC; support for that was added to the kernel in 5.5. The next version of Debian will have version 5.10 of the kernel, so as long as support for the device is enabled there (and in your case, it is), Debian 11 will be installable directly on your system.
Version 5.10 of the kernel is also available in Debian backports but that’s harder to use from the installer. If you can install Debian 10 on your system using some other network device, or one of the full installation images, and can provide network access, you can install the backported kernel by following the instructions posted in another answer.