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I have installed Ubuntu 20.04 along with Windows 10 on my laptop. I use Windows for games and Ubuntu for work.

I wonder if I download some virus on Windows, will it be able to access data from Ubuntu and steal it? By data from Ubuntu I mean for example my browsing history while I was on Ubuntu.

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will it be able to access data from Ubuntu and steal it

Yes, it can, e.g. if you use something like ext2fsd and have your Linux partitions mounted in Windows.

Even if you don't mount anything, advanced malware could read your disks directly and search for certain patterns in disk images and extract necessary files but I doubt such malware even exists.

Advanced malware may also modify UEFI firmware itself and UEFI system (boot) partition and stay resident even after Linux loads.

The bottom line is: malware under Windows can do everything you can do. If you're worried about the safety of your data in Linux make sure your Windows partition is secure as well. If you're paranoid enough, delete Windows altogether.

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There is nothing you can to to protect yourself. The MS-windows OS can do anything it wants. Even encrypting the data is not enough. As the MS-Windows OS could modify the boot loader, to insert code that steals the key.

The only secure solution is to isolate MS-Windows to a separate machine. Or run in a virtual machine (but no good for gaming).

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